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Alekhine vs Bogoljubov 1929
Germany and the Netherlands

Alekhine-Bogoljubow A few days after Alexander Alekhine won the Capablanca - Alekhine World Championship Match (1927), both masters made a general agreement to play a rematch sometime within the next year, under the same rules as they had played the first match. Jose Raul Capablanca did not, however, issue a formal challenge at this time.[1] On February 10, 1928 Capablanca wrote FIDE president Alexander Rueb, explaining his ideas about future changes to the world chess championship. Capablanca recommended altering the playing times and reducing the number of games to 16. He also forwarded this letter to Alekhine.[2] Alekhine interpreted this as a wish to change the conditions for their planned rematch, and wrote Capablanca that he refused to play under any new conditions.[3] Capablanca answered publicly, explaining that he had been talking about future matches, not the match with Alekhine, which "he hoped to arrange... under precisely the same conditions as those which obtained at Buenos Aires."[4] In the meantime, on August 24, 1928 Efim Bogoljubov now challenged Alekhine to a world title match.[5] Alekhine accepted in principle, provided that Bogoljubov could "give the guarantees provided for under the rules of London of 1922," which included a guaranteed $10,000 purse.[6] On October 8, 1928 Capablanca now formally challenged Alekhine to a rematch.[6] Alekhine wrote Capablanca that he would give Bogoljubov until January 15, 1929 to "arrange for and give me the guarantees provided for under the rules of London of 1922... In case my match with Mr. Bogoljubov should take place.... I would then be ready to accept your challenge, after the end of that encounter."[6] In November 1928, American organizers offered Bradley Beach, New Jersey as a venue for an Alekhine-Capablanca rematch, but there exists no evidence that they ever raised the required $10,000 purse.[7] In January 1929, Alekhine announced that "The match with Bogoljubow interests me far more than the battle with Capablanca... Bogoljubow is a much more serious opponent."[8] In August 1929, when it became clear that Bogoljubov could not guarantee a $10,000 purse, Alekhine agreed to play him for a smaller amount.[9]

Efim Dmitriyevich Bogoljubov was born April 14, 1889 in Stanislavitsk, near Kiev, Russian Empire (today Ukraine).[10] During the 1920s he posted a series of strong results. He drew the Alekhine - Bogoljubov (1921) match, and finished first over Alekhine at Bad Pistyan (1922). After sharing first with Alekhine and Geza Maroczy at Karlsbad (1923), he won both the USSR Championship (1924) and the USSR Championship (1925). At Moscow (1925) he finished first over Emanuel Lasker and reigning world champion Capablanca. Bogoljubov was also the FIDE champion, a title he had won twice in succession: Bogoljubov - Euwe: First FIDE Championship (1928) and Bogoljubov - Euwe: Second FIDE Championship (1928).[11] At Bad Kissingen (1928) he triumphed over a group of very strong masters, including Capablanca. Despite these substantial successes, Bogoljubov's play and results also suffered from inconsistency. The Wiener Schachzeitung noted that prior to the match, no one in the chess world had even the slightest doubt about Alekhine winning, except for Bogoljubov himself.[12]

The match began September 6, 1929 under the following conditions: Alekhine would get $6,000 dollars win or lose, with any surplus going to Bogoljubov. A winner would be declared if he scored 15½ points with 6 wins from a maximum of 30 games.[9] Unlike the Capablanca-Alekhine 1927 match, which had been played in private, the Alekhine-Bogoljubov match would be played in public.[13] The organizers insisted on this, in order to raise money from ticket sales.[14] Only those cities that contributed to the purse would be allowed to host the match: Wiesbaden (games 1-8; 24-25), Heidelberg (games 9-11), Berlin (games 12-17), The Hague (games 18-19; 23), Rotterdam (game 20), and Amsterdam (games 21-22).[15] Emanuel Lasker served as arbiter in the Berlin games.[16]

Alekhine won the 1st game, but Bogoljubov kept pace, evening the score 1-1 after a win in Game 4. The world champion won the next game, and Bogoljubov came right back again to win Game 6, tying the score at 2-2. Alekhine attributed this loss to an "enforced exchange of queens" on move 15 which produced a position that "could not be defended against by accurate play."[17] Capablanca was not impressed, writing to Norbert Lederer "...can you imagine B. winning two games from me or Dr. L. so early?"[18] The world champion now began to draw away with two consecutive victories. Alekhine regarded his win with the black pieces in Game 8 to be among his best, featuring an incisive mating combination beginning with 26...♘g3+![19] The match was now interrupted by a scheduled two week break so that Alekhine could attend the 6th FIDE congress in Venice.[20] On resumption, Alekhine extended his lead to four games, but Bogoljubov clawed back to win games 13 and 14. This would be the challenger's last real resistance. Alekhine now won five of the next eight games, putting the match well out of reach. The final game proved a fitting example of the whole match, which featured exciting, but risky tactical chess throughout. The Wiener Schachzeitung commented that the games were played in "Wild West style," and that Alekhine had won by adapting himself to Bogoljubov's specialty, "the field of tactics."[12]

After the match, the Allgemeine Zeitung asked Alekhine what he thought were the most significant aspects of the contest. The world champion addressed Emanuel Lasker's prediction that chess would eventually succumb to "draw death,"[21] explaining that the notion of "draw death in chess is senseless... that is the fault not of chess but the players concerned."[22] Asked to compare Capablanca and Bogoljubov, Alekhine reckoned that his most recent foe was "more dangerous, although it is much more difficult to win against Capablanca."[22] In an interview with a Düsseldorf newspaper, Bogoljubov maintained that "Now nobody has a chance to win a match with Alekhine." He went on to say that he "would not advise (Capablanca) to play a rematch, because after this new bout, his aura has completely darkened."[23]

click on a game number to replay game 1234567891011121314151617181920
Alekhine1½½01011½1½100½1101½
Bogoljubov0½½10100½0½011½0010½

click on a game number to replay game 2122232425
Alekhine11½½½
Bogoljubov00½½½

FINAL SCORE:  Alekhine 11;  Bogoljubov 5 (9 draws)
Reference: game collection WCC Index [Alekhine-Bogoljubov 1929]

NOTABLE GAMES   [what is this?]
    · Game #8     Bogoljubov vs Alekhine, 1929     0-1
    · Game #18     Bogoljubov vs Alekhine, 1929     1-0
    · Game #1     Alekhine vs Bogoljubov, 1929     1-0

FOOTNOTES

  1. American Chess Bulletin (March 1928), pp.45-47. In Edward Winter, Capablanca: a compendium of games, notes, articles, correspondence, illustrations and other rare materials on the Cuban chess genius José Raúl Capablanca, 1888-1942 (McFarland 1989), p.209; American Chess Bulletin (July-Aug 1928), p.108. In Edward Winter, Capablanca pp.211-212
  2. American Chess Bulletin (May 1928), pp.86-87. In Edward Winter, Capablanca, pp.207-209
  3. American Chess Bulletin (March 1928), pp.45-47. In Edward Winter, Capablanca p.209
  4. American Chess Bulletin (July-Aug 1928), p.108. In Edward Winter, Capablanca pp.211-212
  5. American Chess Bulletin (Sept-Oct 1928), p.133. In Edward Winter, Capablanca p.213
  6. American Chess Bulletin (Dec 1928), pp. 174-175. In Edward Winter, Capablanca p.213
  7. W. H. W., Daily Mail (16 Nov 1928), p.17. In Edward Winter, Chess Note 8193
  8. Deutsche Schachblätter (1 Feb 1929), pp.35-37. In Edward Winter, Capablanca p. 215
  9. Wiener Schachzeitung (Aug 1929), p.253. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek
  10. Jeremy Gaige, Chess Personalia- A Biobibliography (MacFarland 1987), p.44
  11. The FIDE champion was not considered to be world champion. See Edward Winter, "FIDE Championship (1928)"
  12. Weltmeister Aljechin. Wiener Schachzeitung (Nov 1929), pp.337-338. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek
  13. Edward Winter, Chess Note 7567
  14. Leonard Skinner and Robert Verhoeven, Alexander Alekhine's Chess Games, 1902-1946 (MacFarland 1998), p.364
  15. Skinner and Verhoeven, pp.364-371
  16. Wiener Schachzeitung (Oct 1929), pp.311-313. In ANNO / Österreichische Nationalbibliothek
  17. Edward Winter, "Seven Alekhine Articles"
  18. The Russell Collection Item 1494. In Edward Winter, Capablanca p.217
  19. Alexander Alekhine, My Best Games of Chess 1924-1937 (Harcourt, Brace and Company 1948), pp.59-60
  20. "Tidskrift för Schack"(Nov-Dec 1929), p.263
  21. Emanuel Lasker, Mein Wettkampf mit Capablanca (1926 ed.), pp.32-33. In Edward Winter, Chess Note 5437
  22. Gespräch mit dem Schachweltmeister, Allgemeine Zeitung. Reprinted in the Aachener Anzeiger - Politisches Tageblatt (30 Nov 1929). In Edward Winter, Chess Note 7567
  23. Yuri Shaburov, (The Voice 1992), p.43 (pagination from the online edition) "Alexander Alekhine- The Undefeated Champion"

 page 1 of 1; games 1-25 of 25  PGN Download
Game  ResultMoves Year Event/LocaleOpening
1. Alekhine vs Bogoljubov 1-026 1929 Alekhine - Bogoljubov World Championship MatchD16 Queen's Gambit Declined Slav
2. Bogoljubov vs Alekhine ½-½51 1929 Alekhine - Bogoljubov World Championship MatchE23 Nimzo-Indian, Spielmann
3. Alekhine vs Bogoljubov ½-½70 1929 Alekhine - Bogoljubov World Championship MatchD17 Queen's Gambit Declined Slav
4. Bogoljubov vs Alekhine 1-038 1929 Alekhine - Bogoljubov World Championship MatchE22 Nimzo-Indian, Spielmann Variation
5. Alekhine vs Bogoljubov 1-048 1929 Alekhine - Bogoljubov World Championship MatchD17 Queen's Gambit Declined Slav
6. Bogoljubov vs Alekhine 1-048 1929 Alekhine - Bogoljubov World Championship MatchE22 Nimzo-Indian, Spielmann Variation
7. Alekhine vs Bogoljubov 1-035 1929 Alekhine - Bogoljubov World Championship MatchD78 Neo-Grunfeld, 6.O-O c6
8. Bogoljubov vs Alekhine 0-130 1929 Alekhine - Bogoljubov World Championship MatchA50 Queen's Pawn Game
9. Alekhine vs Bogoljubov ½-½30 1929 Alekhine - Bogoljubov World Championship MatchD52 Queen's Gambit Declined
10. Bogoljubov vs Alekhine 0-149 1929 Alekhine - Bogoljubov World Championship MatchD52 Queen's Gambit Declined
11. Alekhine vs Bogoljubov ½-½63 1929 Alekhine - Bogoljubov World Championship MatchD51 Queen's Gambit Declined
12. Bogoljubov vs Alekhine 0-156 1929 Alekhine - Bogoljubov World Championship MatchD52 Queen's Gambit Declined
13. Alekhine vs Bogoljubov 0-134 1929 Alekhine - Bogoljubov World Championship MatchD52 Queen's Gambit Declined
14. Bogoljubov vs Alekhine 1-071 1929 Alekhine - Bogoljubov World Championship MatchD11 Queen's Gambit Declined Slav
15. Alekhine vs Bogoljubov ½-½45 1929 Alekhine - Bogoljubov World Championship MatchD70 Neo-Grunfeld Defense
16. Bogoljubov vs Alekhine 0-160 1929 Alekhine - Bogoljubov World Championship MatchD11 Queen's Gambit Declined Slav
17. Alekhine vs Bogoljubov 1-034 1929 Alekhine - Bogoljubov World Championship MatchD70 Neo-Grunfeld Defense
18. Bogoljubov vs Alekhine 1-051 1929 Alekhine - Bogoljubov World Championship MatchC11 French
19. Alekhine vs Bogoljubov 1-077 1929 Alekhine - Bogoljubov World Championship MatchD51 Queen's Gambit Declined
20. Bogoljubov vs Alekhine ½-½48 1929 Alekhine - Bogoljubov World Championship MatchC74 Ruy Lopez, Modern Steinitz Defense
21. Alekhine vs Bogoljubov 1-049 1929 Alekhine - Bogoljubov World Championship MatchE22 Nimzo-Indian, Spielmann Variation
22. Bogoljubov vs Alekhine 0-139 1929 Alekhine - Bogoljubov World Championship MatchC76 Ruy Lopez, Modern Steinitz Defense, Fianchetto Variation
23. Alekhine vs Bogoljubov ½-½83 1929 Alekhine - Bogoljubov World Championship MatchD11 Queen's Gambit Declined Slav
24. Bogoljubov vs Alekhine ½-½38 1929 Alekhine - Bogoljubov World Championship MatchC11 French
25. Alekhine vs Bogoljubov ½-½55 1929 Alekhine - Bogoljubov World Championship MatchD11 Queen's Gambit Declined Slav
 page 1 of 1; games 1-25 of 25  PGN Download
  REFINE SEARCH:   White wins (1-0) | Black wins (0-1) | Draws (1/2-1/2)  
 

Kibitzer's Corner
< Earlier Kibitzing  · PAGE 4 OF 4 ·  Later Kibitzing>
May-30-14  Petrosianic: Oh, I see. I had Rookfile killfiled, so I didn't see his post.
May-30-14  RookFile: Red makes the case for me. Alekhine hid behind the London rules to avoid playing Capa. Thanks!
May-30-14  TheFocus: Alekhine just used Capa's rules against him. Very crafty if you ask me.

It was simply, "Put up or shut up."

May-30-14  Petrosianic: It was certainly a crafty way of avoiding a re-match, but it didn't do Alekhine's long-term reputation any favors.

Especially since Capa and Bogo both signed the London Rules, as did Alekhine. Bogo was exempted from "his own rules" because Alekhine wasn't afraid of him. It's a pity. If Alekhine had played Capa around 1931, when he might very well have won, he'd probably have gone down in history as better than Capa.

May-30-14  RedShield: So what if Alekhine and Bogo signed the London Rules? Condition 21 stated: <Any of the foregoing rules may be modified by mutual consent between the players...>, thereby meaning that Alekhine and Bogo were free to play under any conditions they liked.

My issue is with treating the London Rules as if it were a morally (or even legally) binding agreement, rather than the temporary expedient (for Capa's benefit) that it really was. Note that the <Rules> make no provision for future changes in terms of opponents who are not signatories to the document. Did Capablanca make any attempt to enjoin Nimzowitsch or Torre or Euwe to join the fold?

May-30-14  TheFocus: These world champions always trying to change the rules to suit them. I guess Fischer was just carrying on the tradition.
May-30-14  Petrosianic: Even Fischer didn't do this: Have one set of rules for one challenger, and another set for all the others. Fischer avoided all challenges equally.
May-30-14  RookFile: I remember that the guy who paid for Fischer vs. Spassky in 1972 basically told Fischer publicly: "Come out and play, chicken". If Alekhine thought he was going to win a rematch against Capa, he would have done the same. There were a couple of years where Capa didn't want to play Alekhine, but he was available for other years. Alekhine apparently was never available for a rematch with Capa. He was too busy playing people that Capa routinely beat.
May-31-14  Lambda: *Wonders if there might have been a bit of "I can beat Bogo easily, but with Capa I'd need to work really hard and prepare specially, so I'd like to be payed more for that.*

Probably not, since Alekhine didn't have any laziness issues. But it's something to think about.

May-31-14  Olavi: The London rules stipulated that the champ is not obliged to play for a purse less that 10 000 dollars. It did not say that he is not allowed to play for less.
May-31-14  RookFile: In Alekhine's case, it means he'll play any challenger except Capa for less than 10. The only qualification necessary was that the challenger routinely lost to Capa.
May-31-14
Premium Chessgames Member
  offramp: Here is my old $0.02, from Jose Raul Capablanca.

<Dec-28-05 offramp: In the 1927 match, after 29 games the score was 4-3 to Alekhine. For Capablanca this was a serious situation but in previous and subsequent WC matches players have recovered from worse. So there was all to play for in a potentially unlimited match. In fact the match only lasted 5 more games, Capablanca vs Alekhine, 1927 is one of them. It is 18 moves.

I have said this before... In 1927 Alekhine pulled off one of the biggest upsets in all of SPORTING history, not just chess history. He beat Capablanca 6 times in 2 months; the Cuban was used to losing that many games in whole decades! He beat Capablanca twice as black in those turgid QGDs (one French - actually).

A rematch would have been under identical rules - ie the first to 6 wins. In 1930, in a post-Wall St-Crash world, which mental midget entrepreneur was going to write a blank check for a match between a stronger Alekhine and a better-prepared Capablanca?? A match of - what? - 40 games? 50 games??

And how many of those games would have been opened with the 'World Championship Opening' - the QGD? Probably all of them!

Capablanca did want a rematch. Alekhine did not. And who can blame him? He was not alone. Try and look through the eyes of the 1930s chess world and you'll get an inkling.>

Sep-10-14
Premium Chessgames Member
  offramp: Bogoljubov had a very good string of results before this match.

He won the USSR Championship (1925), which was obviously a strong tournament.

He had a huge success at Moscow (1925).

He won the strong tournament Bad Kissingen (1928).

Alekhine was just a bit too strong for him!

Mar-07-15
Premium Chessgames Member
  WCC Editing Project: <Petrosianic>

You wrote:

<<aliejin>: <"In 1928 Capablanca did manage to produce a $10,000 offer from Bradley Beach"> <The team of CG told me they have no evidence for this ... They just read it in some site .... once ..
a could not remember where..>

It's mentioned in Harold Schonburg's book, "Grandmasters of Chess".>

As I explained on another page you deposited this misinformation on, In Schonburg's book there is no mention of Bradley Beach making an offer with a guaranteed purse of $10,000. There is no mention of Bradley Beach at all in this book.

In your other mention of this untrue statement, you said you would "dig your copy of Schonburg out of the garage."

If you had, you'd have seen that Schonberg does not mention this "anecdote" at all in his "Grandmasters of Chess."

I refer you to the new introduction to this page:

"In November 1928, American organizers offered Bradley Beach, New Jersey as a venue for an Alekhine-Capablanca rematch, but there exists no evidence that they ever raised the required $10,000 purse.[7]"

[7] W. H. W., Daily Mail (16 Nov 1928), p.17. In Edward Winter, Chess Note 8193 http://www.chesshistory.com/winter/...

Mar-08-15  beatgiant: Capablanca avoided a match with Rubinstein who had scored +1 against him, and instead played Alekhine, who had scored -4, citing the $10,000. But nobody ever says that <Capablanca dodged Rubinstein to play the easier opponent.> Whenever you play a match, upsets can and do happen, like Capablanca-Alekhine or Alekhine-Euwe.

Did Alekhine vary the rules for Bogolyubov but not for Capablanca? I know of no evidence that Capablanca ever came up with anything close to the amount of money Bogolyubov did.

Did the Great Depression make it harder for Capablanca to raise $10,000 compared to, say, Rubinstein in postwar Poland? In which condition would you rather be trying to raise $10,000 for a chess title match: in the rubble of Warsaw in 1922, or in New York in 1932, that too as the former world champion and one of the most famous players in history?

Mar-08-15
Premium Chessgames Member
  WCC Editing Project:

<beatgiant>

You asked

<Did Alekhine vary the rules for Bogolyubov but not for Capablanca?>

Yes, he did.

I refer you to this paragraph from the intro on this page:

##################

The match began September 6, 1929 under the following conditions: Alekhine would get $6,000 dollars win or lose, with any surplus going to Bogoljubov. A winner would be declared if he scored 15 points with 6 wins from a maximum of 30 games.[9] Unlike the Capablanca-Alekhine 1927 match, which had been played in private, the Alekhine-Bogoljubov match would be played in public.[13] The organizers insisted on this, in order to raise money from ticket sales.[14] Only those cities that contributed to the purse would be allowed to host the match: Wiesbaden (games 1-8; 24-25), Heidelberg (games 9-11), Berlin (games 12-17), The Hague (games 18-19; 23), Rotterdam (game 20), and Amsterdam (games 21-22).[15] Emanuel Lasker served as arbiter in the Berlin games.[16]

#########################

These are different conditions to those stipulated by the <London Rules>.

One might notice, however, that the champion's share- $6,000- is not too far from the share he would receive from a purse in the <London Rules> stipulations.

Mar-08-15
Premium Chessgames Member
  WCC Editing Project:

<beatgiant>

You asked <Did the Great Depression make it harder for Capablanca to raise $10,000>.

Yes, it did.

Here is Capablanca, quoted from Edward Winter's biography of Capablanca:

######################

15 May 1931

Capablanca letter to Alekhine

...I once more remind you that <it will be no easy task to make the necessary financial arrangements, especially under present economic conditions,> and therefore stipulations increasing the difficulties could hardly fail to create... the unfortunate impression that you are not anxious to play."

-<Winter "Capablanca" pp.229-230>

##########################

Mar-08-15  beatgiant: <WCC Editing Project> I agree Alekhine varied the rules for Bogolyubov. But the question is, would he not have done the same for Capablanca, if Capablanca made a comparable offer?

How can we say? Again, <I know of no evidence that Capablanca ever came up with anything close to the amount Bogolyubov did>.

Mar-08-15
Premium Chessgames Member
  WCC Editing Project:

<beatgiant>

Alekhine made it explicit, from beginning to end, that he would not vary one single item of the <London Rules> for a rematch with Capablanca.

Not one.

Here's an excerpt from Alekhine's reply to the letter from Capablanca I just quoted:

###################

9 July 1931

Alekhine response to Capablanca published in the "Times Weekly" 9 July 1931

Alekhine: "You say that you are not able to fulfil the conditions laid down in paragraph 10 of the London Rules. In addition, you have not paid to the stakeholder the sum of $500 (this would be a new $500 paid to a new stakeholder, in addition the forfeiture of the $500 already paid to Lederer) required by the aforesaid rules. Consequently- as I warned you in my letter of 6 March- I consider your challenge as formally annulled."

-<Winter "Capablanca" p.230>

########################

This is just one example of dozens. Later, Alekhine even began insisting that the $10,000 purse had to be guaranteed in <gold dollars>, which was certainly not in the <London Rules> stipulations.

In my opinion, this was really rubbing Capablanca's face in it.

Mar-08-15  beatgiant: <WCC Editing Project> Your example indicates that Capablanca didn't even put up a required $500 earnest, for a challenge that Alekhine had actually accepted. In my opinion, that's a lot different than a case where Capablanca showed up with $6000 in hand and tried to negotiate.

I've never understood the point about the so-called <gold dollars>. First, what's the source for the claim? Second, what does it actually mean? The US devalued the dollar against gold in 1934. Is it being claimed that Alekhine asked for greater than $10,000 to make up for that?

Mar-08-15
Premium Chessgames Member
  Sneaky: <Second, what does it actually mean?> I would imagine it just means that the winner should be paid in gold coinage and not slips of paper.
Mar-08-15
Premium Chessgames Member
  WCC Editing Project:

<beatgiant> In the letters I'm quoting, they are arguing over a previous $500 deposit that Capablanca had made on a match that never happened, because he couldn't raise the purse.

Alekhine wanted to keep that $500, and demanded an additional new $500 deposit for a future match. Capablanca wanted his first deposit refunded before offering a second.

This became quite a point of contention, because earlier, Alekhine had agreed that Capablanca's original $500 be refunded. Then he changed his mind. The two letters I quote above is Alkhine changing his mind on this one point.

Here's a source for the GOLD DOLLARS request:

######################

May-June 1934

"Dr. Alekhine and Dr Max Euwe... have agreed to play the next match for the title the latter part of next year...

The champion has also announced that he will be prepared, within four months of the conclusion of this engagement, to play a return match with Jose R. Capablanca under the agreement of 1922, stipulating, however, that the amount of the purse must be guaranteed in gold dollars."

-<"American Chess Bulletin" (May-June 1934), p.75. In Edward Winter, "Capablanca" p.234>

##########################

So I think you are likely correct when you say <The US devalued the dollar against gold in 1934. Is it being claimed that Alekhine asked for greater than $10,000 to make up for that?>

Mar-08-15
Premium Chessgames Member
  WCC Editing Project:

<beatgiant>

In case you want to read further on this topic, I have prepared a sourced timeline that summarizes the <Alekhine-Capablanca> rematch negotiations from 26 Feb 1929 - March 1935:

Game Collection: WCC: Alekhine-Bogoljubov 1934 ARCHIVE

Mar-08-15  beatgiant: <Sneaky>
<gold coinage and not slips of paper> When the US had both gold and paper dollars in circulation, there was a 1-to-1 exchange value between the two forms of dollars, so I don't see any financial effect of such a demand.

Since 1933, the US stopped the use of gold coins as legal tender.

Mar-08-15  beatgiant: <WCC Editing Project> Looking through your timeline, I don't see where <Alekhine had agreed that Capablanca's original $500 be refunded.> Instead, it looks like Capablanca merely claimed that Alekhine failed to timely object to refunding it.

Thanks for the source about the <gold dollars>. The question of what it means is still open.

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