diagonal: History of Staunton Memorial chess tournaments
i) Famous stand-alone Staunton Memorial:
<Groningen 1946>, won by Mikhail Botvinnik, half a point ahead of Max Euwe, followed by Vasily Smyslov.
Although the field was impressive (20 strong players; from the Dutch hosting nation just their best player, former World Champion Euwe), three top players were not present: From the United States Samuel Reshevsky and Reuben Fine were missing, from the Soviet Union Paul Keres was absent as the Soviet authorities did not let him play outside the country during this period, in other words: Both the winners of AVRO 1938 (Keres & Fine), did not play at Groningen!
<Cheltenham, Leamington Spa, and Birmingham 1951>, the Staunton Centenary Chess Congress, which was held at three venues! This tournament commemorated the one hundred years that had passed since the first international chess tournament, played in a knock-out format at London in 1851, a landmark in Staunton's life (he was the architect and principal organizer of the event which made England the leading chess centre and caused its winner Adolf Anderssen to be recognised as the world's strongest player, Staunton lost to him in the semi-finals).
Svetozar Gligoric won in 1951 ahead of joint Petar Trifunovic, Gideon Stahlberg, and Vasja Pirc, followed by joint 5.-8. Conel Hugh O'Donel Alexander, Aleksandar Matanovic, Nicolas Rossolimo, and Wolfgang Unzicker, 9.-10. Jan Hein Donner, and Ernst Ludwig Klein, the British champion of 1951, 11. Efim Bogoljubow, 12. Harry Golombek, =13th Savielly Tartakower, 16 players.
PS: In the year 1996, there was a Mini Staunton Memorial event, in Groningen again, but consisting of only three rounds exclusively with the veteran players who already played in 1946, still alive fifty years later (Vasily Smyslov won).
ii) <Howard Staunton Memorial Tournament series in London>, an invitational tournament held from 2003 to 2009:
The first three editions of the Staunton Memorial series had been played as a double round-robin of four, then six players in the third event. The fourth to sixth edition saw an expansion to twelve participants, contesting a single round robin.
The 2008 Staunton Memorial (Michael Adams won) was then the strongest invitation tournament to be held in London since 1986!
In 2009, the event went bigger and was split into two main attractions:
> a double round "Scheveningen" format team match England versus The Netherlands (England won 26.5 - 23.5, with Nigel Short as individual best), and
> a single round "all-play-all" (ten players) won outright by Jan Timman, veteran Viktor Korchnoi who beat Timman in their game, finished as clear third.
Record thrice (co-)winner of the Staunton Memorial series is Jon Speelman.