Games 1-5 were played in New York (until Tuesday, April 27th); game 6 in Morristown, NJ; game 7 in Scranton, PA; game 8 in Wilkes-Barre, PA; and games 9-23 in New York resumed on Saturday, May 8. The match started on Monday, April 19th and finished by late June.
Capablanca = 1 = = 1 1 0 1 = = 1 1 1 = = = = = = = = = 1 15
Marshall = 0 = = 0 0 1 0 = = 0 0 0 = = = = = = = = = 0 8
"No difficulty was experienced in arranging the match. Marshall was disposed to play in this case where he naturally discounted his victory. How far he was wrong the result proved. I beat him eight to one with fourteen draws thrown in between. I can safely say that no player ever performed such a feat, as it was my first encounter against a master, and such a master, one of the first ten in the whole world. The most surprising feature of all was the fact that I played without ever having opened a book to study the openings; in fact, had Marshall played such things as Danish Gambits, Vienna Openings, or the like, the result might have been different. I certainly should have experienced more difficulty in obtaining such a result. I had only looked an analysis of the Ruy Lopez by Lasker, on the 3...f5 defense, but the analysis was wrong, as it did not give the strongest continuation for Black. This, and whatever I knew from experience or hearsay, was all of my stock of knowledge for the match. My victory put me at once in the foremost rank among the great masters of the game. The play during the match showed that I was weak in the openings and just strong enough in the simple play for position. My great strength lay in the endgame, and I also excelled in combinations of the middlegame. I had a fine judgment as to whether a given position was won or lost, and was able to defend a difficult position as few players could, as I repeatedly demonstrated during the course of the match, in repulsing Marshall's onslaughts. I may add that my style was not as yet either definite or complete, though it had a wide range, that is, I could attack almost as well as I could defend, and could make combinations in the middlegame nearly as well as play the endings where I felt more at home and was decidedly strongest" - Capablanca in My Chess Career.
At the time this match was sanctioned by the New York State Chess Association as being for the U.S. Championship. Since the death of U.S. Champion Harry Nelson Pillsbury in 1906, many had assumed that Marshall, due to his great tournament successes, should be the player to inherit his crown. This match was intended as a title defense for Marshall, but after losing this match, Marshall declared that Capablanca, a citizen of Cuba, could not be U.S. Champion, as he was not a U.S. citizen. Cuba was at this time an American possession.
Due to Marshall's protests, the chess community turned to lawyer Walter Penn Shipley to settle the dispute. Shipley ruled that neither Marshall nor Capablanca was the U.S. Champion, and that upon Pillsbury's death, the title had reverted to the last living person to hold it, the retired Jackson Whipps Showalter.
"If there is any chess champion of the United States, Jackson W. Showalter, of Kentucky, is the holder of the title. Since he won it, he has never declined a challenge, and until he does so, neither Marshall, nor Capablanca, nor any other player has a valid claim to the title. It is self-evident that no one who is neither a native or naturalized citizen of the United States can be considered." - Chess Weekly, 1909. Shipley further concluded that Capablanca could not become U.S. Champion without becoming a U.S. Citizen. At this time, the New York State Chess Association withdrew their support from Capablanca's claim, effectively stripping him of the title.
Prior to leaving for Havana for a six week trip, Capablanca was reported as intending to apply for U.S. citizenship once he became eligible. After his return to the US, Capablanca made a public statement with a somewhat modified position, (quoted here from the American Chess Bulletin:
"Since my return to this country, a few days ago, I have been asked several times concerning my attitude with respect to the United States championship and my citizenship. In reply I wish to make known my attitude in this respect. I am the undisputed champion of Cuba, and last spring I beat Marshall by the score of 8 to 1. Mr. Marshall has the greatest reputation and the best score in tournaments of any living chess player in the U.S.A., and is therefore considered everywhere as the strongest representative of the United States.
By my victory over Marshall, I have taken his position as the strongest representative on this side of the Atlantic. Therefore, I consider myself the 'champion of America,' and stand ready to defend my title within a year against any American of the U.S.A. or anywhere else, for a side bet of at least $1000, United States currency. Under these circumstances the question whether I am a citizen of the U.S.A. or not has nothing to do with the matter under consideration."
American Chess Bulletin's interpretation of this statement was that Capablanca was claiming to be the strongest player in the Western Hemisphere, not the U.S. champion.
Marshall challenged and beat Showalter for the U.S. title, in a match held later in 1909: Marshall - Showalter US Championship (1909).
Marshall showed no animosity against Capablanca over this affair, and even endorsed his entry into the San Sebastian (1911) tournament, even though Capablanca did not meet the qualifications for entry.
Based on an original collection by User: TheFocus.