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Paris 1878
Compiled by suenteus po 147
--*--

In the aftermath of the Franco-Prussian war, a World's Fair was held in the city of Paris to demonstrate France's revival. Among the novelties experienced during the exhibition were cold drinks, a giant steam hammer that stood out front of the exhibition hall, and the introduction of electricity to make Paris a city of lights for the first time. Also by way of exhibition was the first intercontinental European chess tournament, organized with twelve chess masters in attendance. Following a tradition of holding master chess tournaments during world's fairs, the participants at this event gathered in the exhibition hall to battle in "match rounds" where opponents met one another with both colors in a single round. Each round was broken up over consecutive two-day periods. Players included winners of past world's fair tournaments, such as Adolf Anderssen and James Mason, as well as past participants and prize winners such as Simon Winawer, Joseph Henry Blackburne, Samuel Rosenthal, and Henry Edward Bird. Games were played from June 17th until July 31st. Each round began at noon and continued until 4pm, at which point a player could request a one hour intermission. The same opportunity was provided at 9pm, and games that continued past 10pm could be postponed until the following day. After the eleven rounds of matches were completed, playoffs were organized to determine prize disbursement among first and second, and fourth and fifth places. Zukertort and Winawer drew their first playoff match, so a second was arranged, which Zukertort won convincingly, 2-0. Mackenzie also trounced Bird in their playoff match 2-0. Though he was present for the tournament, Wilhelm Steinitz did not participate. Instead he reported on the games for The Field. Zukertort's prize for victory was 1000 Francs and two Sèvres vases, a traditional gift awarded back in Paris 1867. Winawer also received a vase and 500 Francs for second. At sixth place, the once dominant Anderssen still managed to win a prize, 200 Francs, but his poor health and advanced age prevented him from competing as he once had. He died the following year. In addition to the prize money Zukertort's vases were estimated at 5800 Francs, however his dire need for cash at the time forced him to search Paris for three days to find a buyer, eventually selling them for much less than their estimated worth. An important note is that several games no longer exist as complete scores and therefore cannot be included in this collection. However, a majority of the games as well as the final standings remain to trace the players' struggles and victories in this penultimate world's fair tournament.

The final standings and crosstable:

=1st Winawer 16½/22 ** 10 ½½ 0½ 11 ½1 01 11 ½1 11 11 11

=1st Zukertort 16½/22 01 ** 10 ½0 11 1½ ½½ 11 11 ½1 11 11

3rd Blackburne 14½/22 ½½ 01 ** 01 10 00 1½ 1½ 11 1½ 11 11

=4th Mackenzie 13/22 1½ ½1 10 ** 01 00 01 ½0 01 11 11 1½

=4th Bird 13/22 00 00 01 10 ** 11 10 10 01 11 11 11

6th Anderssen 12½/22 ½0 0½ 11 11 00 ** 10 0½ 11 10 10 11

=7th Englisch 11½/22 10 ½½ 0½ 10 01 01 ** ½½ 01 ½½ 11 10

=7th Rosenthal 11½/22 00 00 0½ ½1 01 1½ ½½ ** 01 10 11 11

=9th Clerc 8½/22 ½0 00 00 10 10 00 10 10 ** 01 10 11

=9th Mason 8½/22 00 ½0 0½ 00 00 01 ½½ 01 10 ** 11 1½

11th Gifford 3½/22 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 01 00 ** 1½

12th Pitschel 2½/22 00 00 00 0½ 00 00 01 00 00 0½ 0½ **

First place playoff match:

1st Zukertort 3/4 ½ ½ 1 1

2nd Winawer 1/4 ½ ½ 0 0

Fourth place playoff match:

4th Mackenzie 2/2 1 1

5th Bird 0/2 0 0

*Special thanks goes to <sneaky pete> who helped complete and improve the overall accuracy of this collection.

Round One, First Set, June 18th
S Rosenthal vs Mackenzie, 1878
(C48) Four Knights, 60 moves, 1-0

Winawer vs Bird, 1878 
(C61) Ruy Lopez, Bird's Defense, 54 moves, 1-0

Blackburne vs J Mason, 1878 
(C11) French, 85 moves, 1-0

A Clerc vs H Gifford, 1878
(C25) Vienna, 38 moves, 1-0

Anderssen vs K Pitschel, 1878 
(C41) Philidor Defense, 33 moves, 1-0

Zukertort vs Englisch, 1878 
(C51) Evans Gambit, 49 moves, 1/2-1/2

Round One, Second Set, June 19th
Mackenzie vs S Rosenthal, 1878 
(C77) Ruy Lopez, 40 moves, 1/2-1/2

Bird vs Winawer, 1878 
(A02) Bird's Opening, 70 moves, 0-1

J Mason vs Blackburne, 1878 
(E14) Queen's Indian, 78 moves, 1/2-1/2

H Gifford vs A Clerc, 1878 
(C15) French, Winawer, 25 moves, 1-0

K Pitschel vs Anderssen, 1878 
(A13) English, 55 moves, 0-1

Englisch vs Zukertort, 1878
(C65) Ruy Lopez, Berlin Defense, 40 moves, 1/2-1/2

Round Two, First Set, June 21st
Bird vs S Rosenthal, 1878 
(C53) Giuoco Piano, 34 moves, 1-0

Blackburne vs H Gifford, 1878  
(C45) Scotch Game, 36 moves, 1-0

A Clerc vs K Pitschel, 1878 
(C25) Vienna, 42 moves, 1-0

Zukertort vs Mackenzie, 1878 
(C49) Four Knights, 53 moves, 0-1

Round Two, Second Set, June 22nd
S Rosenthal vs Bird, 1878 
(C11) French, 29 moves, 1-0

J Mason vs Winawer, 1878 
(D20) Queen's Gambit Accepted, 28 moves, 0-1

H Gifford vs Blackburne, 1878 
(C48) Four Knights, 30 moves, 0-1

K Pitschel vs A Clerc, 1878 
(C01) French, Exchange, 18 moves, 0-1

Englisch vs Anderssen, 1878 
(C46) Three Knights, 31 moves, 1-0

Mackenzie vs Zukertort, 1878
(C77) Ruy Lopez, 27 moves, 1/2-1/2

Round Three, First Set, June 24th
S Rosenthal vs J Mason, 1878 
(C01) French, Exchange, 32 moves, 0-1

Winawer vs H Gifford, 1878 
(C51) Evans Gambit, 41 moves, 1-0

Blackburne vs K Pitschel, 1878
(C41) Philidor Defense, 46 moves, 1-0

A Clerc vs Englisch, 1878 
(C29) Vienna Gambit, 37 moves, 1-0

Anderssen vs Mackenzie, 1878 
(A00) Uncommon Opening, 53 moves, 1-0

Zukertort vs Bird, 1878 
(C00) French Defense, 30 moves, 1-0

Round Three, Second Set, June 25th
J Mason vs S Rosenthal, 1878 
(C33) King's Gambit Accepted, 28 moves, 0-1

K Pitschel vs Blackburne, 1878 
(A13) English, 50 moves, 0-1

Mackenzie vs Anderssen, 1878 
(B23) Sicilian, Closed, 49 moves, 0-1

Bird vs Zukertort, 1878 
(C53) Giuoco Piano, 29 moves, 0-1

Round Four, First Set, June 27th
S Rosenthal vs H Gifford, 1878 
(D26) Queen's Gambit Accepted, 21 moves, 1-0

Winawer vs K Pitschel, 1878 
(C41) Philidor Defense, 26 moves, 1-0

Blackburne vs Englisch, 1878 
(C77) Ruy Lopez, 50 moves, 1-0

A Clerc vs Mackenzie, 1878 
(C49) Four Knights, 81 moves, 1-0

Anderssen vs Bird, 1878 
(C54) Giuoco Piano, 27 moves, 0-1

Zukertort vs J Mason, 1878 
(C11) French, 35 moves, 1-0

Round Four, Second Set, June 28th
Englisch vs Blackburne, 1878
(C14) French, Classical, 31 moves, 1/2-1/2

Bird vs Anderssen, 1878 
(B40) Sicilian, 28 moves, 1-0

J Mason vs Zukertort, 1878 
(D05) Queen's Pawn Game, 57 moves, 1/2-1/2

Round Five, First Set, July 1st
S Rosenthal vs K Pitschel, 1878
(C41) Philidor Defense, 31 moves, 1-0

Winawer vs Englisch, 1878 
(C33) King's Gambit Accepted, 27 moves, 1-0

Blackburne vs Mackenzie, 1878 
(C45) Scotch Game, 37 moves, 0-1

A Clerc vs Bird, 1878 
(B21) Sicilian, 2.f4 and 2.d4, 35 moves, 0-1

Anderssen vs J Mason, 1878 
(A00) Uncommon Opening, 61 moves, 1-0

Round Five, Second Set, July 2nd
K Pitschel vs S Rosenthal, 1878
(A20) English, 39 moves, 0-1

Englisch vs Winawer, 1878 
(C46) Three Knights, 62 moves, 1-0

Mackenzie vs Blackburne, 1878 
(C14) French, Classical, 48 moves, 0-1

Bird vs A Clerc, 1878 
(A00) Uncommon Opening, 76 moves, 0-1

J Mason vs Anderssen, 1878 
(A40) Queen's Pawn Game, 42 moves, 1-0

Round Six, First Set, July 4th
Winawer vs Mackenzie, 1878
(C77) Ruy Lopez, 48 moves, 1/2-1/2

Blackburne vs Bird, 1878 
(B23) Sicilian, Closed, 30 moves, 0-1

A Clerc vs J Mason, 1878 
(C50) Giuoco Piano, 73 moves, 0-1

Anderssen vs H Gifford, 1878
(C77) Ruy Lopez, 40 moves, 1-0

Zukertort vs K Pitschel, 1878
(B45) Sicilian, Taimanov, 55 moves, 1-0

Round Six, Second Set, July 5th
Mackenzie vs Winawer, 1878 
(C77) Ruy Lopez, 38 moves, 1-0

Bird vs Blackburne, 1878 
(A02) Bird's Opening, 49 moves, 0-1

J Mason vs A Clerc, 1878
(C11) French, 63 moves, 0-1

H Gifford vs Anderssen, 1878 
(C49) Four Knights, 47 moves, 1-0

Round Six, Delayed game, July 6th
Englisch vs S Rosenthal, 1878
(C77) Ruy Lopez, 76 moves, 1/2-1/2

Round Seven, First Set, July 8th
Winawer vs Anderssen, 1878 
(B23) Sicilian, Closed, 40 moves, 1-0

S Rosenthal vs A Clerc, 1878 
(C11) French, 42 moves, 1-0

Blackburne vs Zukertort, 1878
(C77) Ruy Lopez, 31 moves, 0-1

Mackenzie vs H Gifford, 1878
(C80) Ruy Lopez, Open, 49 moves, 1-0

Bird vs K Pitschel, 1878 
(A84) Dutch, 36 moves, 1-0

J Mason vs Englisch, 1878
(C80) Ruy Lopez, Open, 59 moves, 1/2-1/2

Round Seven, Second Set, July 9th
Anderssen vs Winawer, 1878 
(C77) Ruy Lopez, 66 moves, 1/2-1/2

A Clerc vs S Rosenthal, 1878
(C25) Vienna, 64 moves, 1-0

Zukertort vs Blackburne, 1878 
(C11) French, 61 moves, 0-1

H Gifford vs Mackenzie, 1878
(C49) Four Knights, 48 moves, 0-1

K Pitschel vs Bird, 1878 
(B46) Sicilian, Taimanov Variation, 49 moves, 0-1

Englisch vs J Mason, 1878 
(C11) French, 40 moves, 1/2-1/2

Round Eight, First Set, July 11th
S Rosenthal vs Zukertort, 1878 
(C77) Ruy Lopez, 31 moves, 0-1

Blackburne vs Anderssen, 1878 
(B23) Sicilian, Closed, 41 moves, 0-1

Winawer vs A Clerc, 1878
(C11) French, 41 moves, 1-0

Mackenzie vs Englisch, 1878 
(C77) Ruy Lopez, 36 moves, 1-0

Bird vs H Gifford, 1878 
(A02) Bird's Opening, 45 moves, 1-0

Round Eight, Second Set, July 12th
Zukertort vs S Rosenthal, 1878 
(C77) Ruy Lopez, 60 moves, 1-0

Anderssen vs Blackburne, 1878 
(C14) French, Classical, 55 moves, 1-0

A Clerc vs Winawer, 1878 
(C25) Vienna, 62 moves, 1/2-1/2

H Gifford vs Bird, 1878 
(C00) French Defense, 27 moves, 0-1

Round Nine, First Set, July 15th
S Rosenthal vs Blackburne, 1878 
(C01) French, Exchange, 45 moves, 1/2-1/2

Winawer vs Zukertort, 1878 
(C49) Four Knights, 45 moves, 1-0

A Clerc vs Anderssen, 1878 
(B23) Sicilian, Closed, 33 moves, 0-1

Mackenzie vs J Mason, 1878 
(C11) French, 22 moves, 1-0

Bird vs Englisch, 1878 
(A03) Bird's Opening, 37 moves, 1-0

H Gifford vs K Pitschel, 1878 
(C41) Philidor Defense, 52 moves, 1-0

Round Nine, Second Set, July 16th
Blackburne vs S Rosenthal, 1878  
(C45) Scotch Game, 49 moves, 1-0

Zukertort vs Winawer, 1878
(C33) King's Gambit Accepted, 42 moves, 1-0

Anderssen vs A Clerc, 1878 
(C11) French, 38 moves, 1-0

J Mason vs Mackenzie, 1878 
(C49) Four Knights, 51 moves, 0-1

Englisch vs Bird, 1878 
(C00) French Defense, 35 moves, 1-0

K Pitschel vs H Gifford, 1878
(C54) Giuoco Piano, 55 moves, 1/2-1/2

Round Ten, First Set, July 18th
S Rosenthal vs Winawer, 1878
(C77) Ruy Lopez, 36 moves, 0-1

Blackburne vs A Clerc, 1878 
(D25) Queen's Gambit Accepted, 56 moves, 1-0

Anderssen vs Zukertort, 1878 
(C65) Ruy Lopez, Berlin Defense, 49 moves, 0-1

J Mason vs H Gifford, 1878
(C77) Ruy Lopez, 49 moves, 1-0

K Pitschel vs Englisch, 1878
(C54) Giuoco Piano, 65 moves, 1-0

Round Ten, Second Set, July 19th
Winawer vs S Rosenthal, 1878
(C68) Ruy Lopez, Exchange, 64 moves, 1-0

Zukertort vs Anderssen, 1878
(B46) Sicilian, Taimanov Variation, 25 moves, 1/2-1/2

Bird vs Mackenzie, 1878 
(A03) Bird's Opening, 75 moves, 1-0

H Gifford vs J Mason, 1878 
(C48) Four Knights, 28 moves, 0-1

Englisch vs K Pitschel, 1878
(C41) Philidor Defense, 48 moves, 1-0

Round Eleven, First Set, July 22nd
S Rosenthal vs Anderssen, 1878
(B23) Sicilian, Closed, 46 moves, 1/2-1/2

Winawer vs Blackburne, 1878 
(C14) French, Classical, 77 moves, 1/2-1/2

A Clerc vs Zukertort, 1878 
(B24) Sicilian, Closed, 71 moves, 0-1

Round Eleven, Second Set, July 23rd
K Pitschel vs Mackenzie, 1878
(B46) Sicilian, Taimanov Variation, 72 moves, 1/2-1/2

J Mason vs Bird, 1878 
(C61) Ruy Lopez, Bird's Defense, 37 moves, 0-1

Englisch vs H Gifford, 1878 
(C77) Ruy Lopez, 17 moves, 1-0

Anderssen vs S Rosenthal, 1878 
(C65) Ruy Lopez, Berlin Defense, 33 moves, 0-1

Zukertort vs A Clerc, 1878 
(C14) French, Classical, 26 moves, 1-0

Round Eleven, Delayed game, July 24th
Blackburne vs Winawer, 1878
(C11) French, 30 moves, 1/2-1/2

Fourth Place Playoff, Game 1, July 27th
Bird vs Mackenzie, 1878 
(C77) Ruy Lopez, 33 moves, 0-1

First Place Playoff, Game 1, July 27th
Zukertort vs Winawer, 1878 
(C77) Ruy Lopez, 49 moves, 1/2-1/2

Fourth Place Playoff, Game 2, July 27th
Mackenzie vs Bird, 1878 
(C00) French Defense, 27 moves, 1-0

First Place Playoff, Game 2, July 28th
Winawer vs Zukertort, 1878
(C67) Ruy Lopez, 73 moves, 1/2-1/2

First Place Playoff, Game 3, July 30th
Zukertort vs Winawer, 1878 
(C77) Ruy Lopez, 40 moves, 1-0

First Place Playoff, Game 4, July 31st
Winawer vs Zukertort, 1878 
(C67) Ruy Lopez, 34 moves, 0-1

119 games

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