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Penguincw
Chess Game Collections
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  1. 0: Table of Contents
    This "game collection" lists all of my game collections.

    Penguincw's Game Collections

    ★★★ WCC ★★★

    These collections provide a brief summary of all the world championships to date. They provide information such as players, locations and match conditions.

    For every WCC game collection, I have completed at least a brief summary of the WCC itself. However, so far, for the first 8 WCC game collections, I've also completed a brief analysis of the 3 most popular games in that WCC (as defined by how many game collections they are in). I may or may not continue with so in the future.

    Note that these collections in general, are not too well done, and I probably made them because I didn't have anything else to do. User: WCC Editing Project has provided much better and more detailed collections. Feel free to check out those game collections.

    ♔ WITH GAME SUMMARY ♔

    Game Collection: 1886 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1889 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1890-1891 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1892 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1894 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1896-1897 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1907 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1908 World Chess Championship

    ♔ WITHOUT GAME SUMMARY ♔

    Game Collection: 1910 World Chess Championship (first one)

    Game Collection: 1910 World Chess Championship (second one)

    Game Collection: 1921 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1927 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1929 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1934 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1935 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1937 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1948 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1951 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1954 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1957 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1958 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1960 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1961 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1963 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1966 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1969 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1972 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1975 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1978 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1981 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1984 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1985 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1986 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1987 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1990 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1993 Classical World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1993 FIDE World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1995 Classical World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1996 FIDE World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1998 FIDE World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 1999 FIDE World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 2000 Classical World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 2000 FIDE World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 2002 FIDE World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 2004 Classical World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 2004 FIDE World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 2005 FIDE World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 2006 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 2007 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 2008 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 2010 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 2012 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 2013 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 2014 World Chess Championship

    Game Collection: 2016 World Chess Championship

    ♔ FUTURE ♔

    Game Collection: 2018 World Championship

    ★★★ BIOGRAPHIES ★★★

    These collections detail the biographies of famous chess players. Since I got lazy, I only have 2 available. At the very bottom of these collections are the 10 most popular games for each player, according to the chessgames database.

    Game Collection: Bio: Adolf Anderssen

    Game Collection: Bio: Akiba Rubinstein

    ★★★ CASTLING ★★★

    I've decided to get rid of them as it is just pointless having them. The other types of collections I got (checkmates, endgame and promotion), don't always occur, but both sides queenside castling, both sides opposite castling and one side winning without castling frequently occur.

    ★★★ CHECKMATES ★★★

    These collections illustrate games with checkmates.

    Game Collection: Checkmate: Checkmate Patterns

    Game Collection: Checkmate: Smothered

    ★★★ ENDGAMES ★★★

    These collections focus on incidents in chess which most commonly occur in the endgame (but isn't exclusive to the endgame).

    Game Collection: Endgame: Bare Kings

    Game Collection: Endgame: Stalemate

    ★★★ HOLIDAY PRESENT HUNT SOLUTIONS ★★★

    For convenience, these game collections contain the solutions to the Holiday Present Hunt that this site has had over the years. I finished the 2014 and 2015 version, and am currently working on the 2016 version as the solutions are revealed, and will come back to the old ones when I have the time.

    Game Collection: Holiday Present Hunt Solutions: 2007

    Game Collection: Holiday Present Hunt Solutions: 2008

    Game Collection: Holiday Present Hunt Solutions: 2009

    Game Collection: Holiday Present Hunt Solutions: 2010

    Game Collection: Holiday Present Hunt Solutions: 2011

    Game Collection: Holiday Present Hunt Solutions: 2012

    Game Collection: Holiday Present Hunt Solutions: 2013

    Game Collection: Holiday Present Hunt Solutions: 2014

    Game Collection: Holiday Present Hunt Solutions: 2015

    Game Collection: Holiday Present Hunt Solutions: 2016

    ★★★ PENGUINCW ★★★

    These collections are games that I find meaningful to me. This could include my favourite games, game of the day submissions, etc.

    Game Collection: Game of the Day Puns

    Game Collection: Games I uploaded

    Game Collection: Penguincw Games

    Game Collection: Penguincw's Favourite Games

    ★★★ PROMOTION ★★★

    These collections detail the promotion of the pawn to another piece.

    Game Collection: Promotion: Bishop

    Game Collection: Promotion: Knight

    Game Collection: Promotion: Knight (after 2000)

    Game Collection: Promotion: Knight (pre-1900)

    Game Collection: Promotion: Middle Game

    Game Collection: Promotion: Middle Game (after 2000)

    Game Collection: Promotion: Middle Game (pre-1900)

    Game Collection: Promotion: Rook

    Game Collection: Promotion: Three

    ★★★ OTHER STUFF ★★★

    Not every collection I make can go under a specific category, so these are just any other collections I still have.

    Game Collection: Best of the Best

    Game Collection: Carlsen-Anand WCC 2014

    Game Collection: Chess Network Videos

    Game Collection: Chess Network Videos: Part 2

    Game Collection: Chess Network Videos: Part 3

    Game Collection: Chess Puzzles (not actually a game collection, but instead used to display all the puzzles I've composed to date)

    Game Collection: Chessgames Games

    Game Collection: Fischer doesn't play 1.e4

    Game Collection: NOW CLOSED (an old collection that I no longer will be adding to)

    Game Collection: The Big Book of Chess

    ★★★ UNAVAILABLE ★★★

    These collections should be ignored. They are empty collections which I will save until I need to use them.

    0 games,

  2. 1886 World Chess Championship
    ★★★ INTRO ★★★

    The 1886 World Chess Championship was between 49 year old Wilhelm Steinitz of Austria and 46 year old Johannes Zukertort of Poland.

    ★★★ BACKGROUND ★★★

    Previous, there were unofficial world championships (e.g. Anderssen-Steinitz, 1866). However, in 1886, the first official one started. Zuketort likely earned his qualification by winning the London 1883 tournament (see Game Collection: London 1883 for games and more information), which included placing 3 points ahead of second place finisher, Steinitz.

    ★★★ CONDITIONS ★★★

    The time controls were 30 moves in 2 hours, and 15 moves for every hour. The winner would be the first to get 10 wins (draws not counting). Game 1 began on January 11th, 1886. The first 5 rounds took place in New York City, New York. The next five were played in St. Louis, Missouri. The remaining 10 rounds were played in New Orleans, Louisiana. Note: This match is measured in wins. Total points in brackets.

    ★★★ NOTABLE GAMES ★★★

    Game 1: Zukertort vs Steinitz, 1886

    1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 3.e3 ♗f5 4.♘c3 e6 5.♘f3 ♘d7 6.a3 ♗d6 7.c5 ♗c7 8.b4 e5 9.♗e2 ♘gf6 10.♗b2 e4 11.♘d2 h5 12.h3 ♘f8 13.a4 ♘g6 14.b5 ♘h4 15.g3 ♘g2+ 16.♔f1 ♘xe3+ 17.fxe3 ♗xg3 18.♔g2 ♗c7 19.♕g1 ♖h6 20.♔f1 ♖g6 21.♕f2 ♕d7 22.bxc6 bxc6 23.♖g1 ♗xh3+ 24.♔e1 ♘g4 25.♗xg4 ♗xg4 26.♘e2 ♕e7 27.♘f4 ♖h6 28.♗c3 g5 29.♘e2 ♖f6 30.♕g2 ♖f3 31.♘f1 ♖b8 32.♔d2 f5 33.a5 f4 34.♖h1 ♕f7 35.♖e1 fxe3+ 36.♘xe3 ♖f2

    After 36...♖f2


    click for larger view

    White is up a piece, but black's attack forces white to be down a piece.

    37.♕xf2 ♕xf2 38.♘xg4 ♗f4+ 39.♔c2 hxg4 40.♗d2 e3 41.♗c1 ♕g2 42.♔c3 ♔d7 43.♖h7+ ♔e6 44.♖h6+ ♔f5 45.♗xe3 ♗xe3 46.♖f1+ ♗f4 0–1

    46...♗f4 0-1


    click for larger view

    Zukertort resigns as white is already down a rook for a queen and 2 pawns, and things don't get better from here. According to Little ChessPartner, black can mate after 47. ♖xf4+ gxf4 48. ♖h5+ ♔f6 (48...♔e6?? 49.♘xf4+, forking the king and queen) 49. ♖h6+ ♔g7 50. ♖e6 ♕f3+ 51. ♔c2 ♕b3+ 52.♔d2 ♕a2+ 53. ♔e1 (53. ♔d1 ♖b1#) ♖b1+ 54. ♔f2 f3 55.a6 ♔f7 56. ♖xc6 ♕xe2+ 57. ♔g3 ♖g1+ 58. ♔f4 (white can delay mate a move longer by playing 58.♔h4 ♖h1+ 59.♔h5 ♕e8 60. ♔g5 ♕xc6 61. ♔f4 f1=♕+ 62.♔g5 ♕c1+ 63.♔h4 ♕1h6# 0-1 or 63...♕6h6# 0-1) 58...f2 59.♖c7+ ♔g6 60.♖c6+ ♔h5 61.♖h6+ ♔xh6 62.c6 f1=♕# 0-1 (or 62...f1=♖# 0-1)


    click for larger view

    Game 9: Zukertort vs Steinitz, 1886

    1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.♘c3 ♘f6 4.♘f3 dxc4 5.e3 c5 6.♗xc4 cxd4 7.exd4 ♗e7 8.0–0 0–0 9.♕e2 ♘bd7 10.♗b3 ♘b6 11.♗f4 ♘bd5 12.♗g3 ♕a5 13.♖ac1 ♗d7 14.♘e5 ♖fd8 15.♕f3 ♗e8 16.♖fe1 ♖ac8 17.♗h4 ♘xc3 18.bxc3 ♕c7 19.♕d3 ♘d5 20.♗xe7 ♕xe7 21.♗xd5 ♖xd5 22.c4 ♖dd8 23.♖e3 ♕d6 24.♖d1 f6 25.♖h3 h6 26.♘g4 ♕f4 27.♘e3 ♗a4 28.♖f3 ♕d6 29.♖d2 ♗c6 30.♖g3 f5 31.♖g6 ♗e4 32.♕b3 ♔h7 33.c5 ♖xc5 34.♖xe6 ♖c1+ 35.♘d1 ♕f4 36.♕b2 ♖b1 37.♕c3 ♖c8

    After 37...♖c8


    click for larger view

    An excellent move for black, as it tries to deflect the queen away from the defense of the rook. Once the rook falls, the knight will, and then the king.

    38.♖xe4 ♕xe4 0–1

    38...♕xe4 0-1


    click for larger view

    White resigns, and Steinitz ties up the match at 4-4 with the black pieces. Once again LCP will try to analyze why (in fact, from now on, all analysis will be from LCP unless stated not). So after 38...♕xe4, black can force a win with 39.♕e3 ♖c2 40.♖d3 ♖e2 41.♕xe4 fxe4 42.h4 exd3 0-1 and the win becomes clear. Black is already up 2 rooks to none (the knight will be won), and white has no threats whatsoever.


    click for larger view

    Game 19: Zukertort vs Steinitz, 1886

    1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.♘c3 ♘f6 4.♗g5 ♗e7 5.♘f3 0–0 6.c5 b6 7.b4 bxc5 8.dxc5 a5 9.a3 d4 10.♗xf6 gxf6 11.♘a4 e5 12.b5 ♗e6 13.g3 c6 14.bxc6 ♘xc6 15.♗g2 ♖b8 16.♕c1 d3 17.e3 e4 18.♘d2 f5 19.0–0 ♖e8 20.f3 ♘d4

    After 20...♘d4


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    Black sacrifices a knight, but in the end, will get pawn promotions.

    21.exd4 ♕xd4+ 22.♔h1 e3 23.♘c3 ♗f6 24.♘db1 d2 25.♕c2 ♗b3 26.♕xf5 d1=♕ 27.♘xd1 ♗xd1 28.♘c3 e2 29.♖axd1 ♕xc3 0–1

    29...♕xc3 0-1


    click for larger view

    Without a machine, I can find white's end: (white will try to delay mate by playing computer like moves) 30.♕xh7+ ♔xh7 31.♖de1 exf1=♕+ 32.♖xf1 ♖e1 33.h4 ♖bb1 (or something along those lines) 0-1. White will not only forcefully lose their rook, but their last defender for the king: the bishop.


    click for larger view

    ★★★ FINAL ★★★

    Steinitz would have the white pieces, and with a lead of 9-5, he needed just 1 more win to secure the match.

    Game 20: Steinitz vs Zukertort, 1886

    1.e4 e5 2.♘c3 ♘c6 3.f4 3...exf4 4.d4 d5? 5.exd5 ♕h4+ 6.♔e2 ♕e7+ 7.♔f2 ♕h4+ 8.g3 fxg3+ 9.♔g2 ♘xd4 10.hxg3 ♕g4 11.♕e1+ ♗e7 12.♗d3 ♘f5 13.♘f3 ♗d7 14.♗f4 f6 15.♘e4 ♘gh6

    After 15...♘gh6


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    Black tries to get another piece out, but it actually is a blunder.

    16.♗xh6 ♘xh6 17.♖xh6 gxh6 18.♘xf6+ ♔f7 19.♘xg4 1–0

    19.♘xg4 1-0


    click for larger view

    Black, down a rook for queen, in addition to terrible development, has no hope. White can also try to create passed pawns on the queenside starting with 19...♗xg4 20.♕e5 ♗xf3+ 21.♔xf3 ♔f7 22.♕xc7, etc.


    click for larger view

    With the win, Steinitz won the match 10-5 (12 1/2-7 1/2 including draws) on March 29th, 1886 to become the first official world chess champion.

    ★★★ MINI TABLE ★★★

    Steinitz 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1/2 1 1/2 1 1 0 1/2 1/2 1 1/2 1 1 1 (10 wins, 5 losses, 5 draws) <62.5% score>

    Zukertort 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1/2 0 1/2 0 0 1 1/2 1/2 0 1/2 0 0 0 (5 wins, 10 losses, 5 draws) <37.5% score>

    ★★★ OTHER LINKS ★★★

    See also: Steinitz - Zukertort World Championship Match (1886)

    Head to head match up prior to 1886: http://www.chessgames.com/perl/ches... (9 wins, 4 losses and 7 draws in favour of Steinitz)

    Next World Championship: Game Collection: 1889 World Chess Championship

    20 games, 1886

  3. 1889 World Chess Championship
    ★★★ INTRO ★★★

    The 1889 World Chess Championship was between 52 year old defending champion Wilhelm Steinitz of the United States and 38 year old challenger Mikhail Chigorin of the Russian Empire .

    ★★★ BACKGROUND ★★★

    After winning the 1886 World Chess Championship (see Game Collection: 1886 World Chess Championship for games and more info), it was time for Steinitz to have his title challenged for the first time.

    The challenger selected was Chigorin because it was thought that it would be an interesting match up, as Steinitz had a poor record against Chigorin (loss 3 of 4 meetings prior to this match).

    ★★★ CONDITIONS ★★★

    The match took place in Havana. The winner would be the first to reach 10 1/2 points. In the event of a 10-10 tie, the defending champion (Steinitz) would defend his title. The first round was played on January 20th, 1889.

    ★★★ NOTABLE GAMES ★★★

    Game 5: Chigorin vs Steinitz, 1889

    1.e4 e5 2.♘f3 ♘c6 3.♗c4 ♗c5 4.b4 ♗xb4 5.c3 ♗a5 6.0–0 ♕f6 7.d4 ♘ge7 8.♗g5 ♕d6 9.♕b3 0-0 10.♖d1 ♗b6 11.dxe5 ♕g6 12.♕a3 ♖e8 13.♘bd2 d6 14.exd6 cxd6 15.♗f4 ♗c5 16.♕c1 ♗g4 17.♗g3 ♖ad8 18.h3

    After 18.h3


    click for larger view

    White falls into black's pin. 18.♘f1 would've probably been better.

    18...♗xf3 19.♘xf3 ♕xg3 20.♔h1 ♕g6 21.♖d3 ♕f6 22.♕d2 ♘g6 23.♘g5 ♘ge5 24.♖f3 ♘xf3 25.♗xf7+ ♕xf7 26.gxf3 ♕c4 0–1

    26...♕c4 0-1


    click for larger view

    Black is up a rook and knight for a pawn, and that one extra pawn for white probably doesn't mean anything if it's isolated or doubled.

    A win will be clearer after 27.♕d5+ ♕xd5 28.exd5 ♘f4 29.c4 ♗xf2 30.♖b1 ♗h4 31.♘e4 b6 32.♔h2 h5 33.a4 g6 34.♖g1 ♗e7 35.♖h1 h4 36.♖g1 ♖c8 37.♖g4 ♖f8 38.♘d2 g5 39.♖g1 a5 40.♖b1 ♗d8 41.♖a1 ♘d3 42.♖b1 ♘e5 43.♖a1 ♖f4 44.♔g2 ♘xc4 45.♘xc4 ♖cxc4 0-1


    click for larger view

    In this position, while white was making one move threats, black slowly maneuvered their pieces, and has crashed through. Black is up a rook, bishop and pawn now.

    Game 6: Steinitz vs Chigorin, 1889

    1.♘f3 d5 2.d4 ♗g4 3.c4 ♗xf3 4.gxf3 dxc4 5.e4 e5 6.dxe5 ♕xd1+ 7.♔xd1 ♘c6 8.f4 ♖d8+ 9.♗d2 ♗c5 10.♖g1 ♘ge7 11.♗xc4 ♘g6 12.♔c1 ♗xf2 13.♖g2 ♗b6 14.♘c3 ♘d4 15.♘d5 ♘f3 16.♘xb6 ♘xd2 17.♖xd2 axb6 18.♖xd8+ ♔xd8 19.♗xf7 ♘xf4 20.♔d2 ♖f8 21.♗b3 ♘g6 22.e6 ♔e7 23.♖g1 ♖f2+ 24.♔e3 ♖xh2 25.♖g5 ♖h3+ 26.♔d4 ♖f3 27.♖b5 ♘f4 28.a4

    28.a4


    click for larger view

    White is not in an easy spot, and 28.a4 isn't helping things.

    28...h5 29.a5 h4 30.axb6 c6 31.♖f5 ♘e2+ 32.♔c5 ♖xf5+ 33.exf5 h3 34.♗a4 h2 35.♗xc6 bxc6 36.b7 h1♕ 37.b8=♕ ♕c1+ 0–1

    37...♕c1+ 0-1


    click for larger view

    Black will forcefully exchange queens, and have a much clearer victory after 39.♔b6 (39.♔b4 and 39...♕xb2+ drops the queen) ♕xb2+ 40.♔c7 ♕xb8+ 41.♔xb8 ♘d4 42.♔b7 ♔d6 (self-analysis). At this point, both white pawns will fall, and even if white gets c6, the g-pawn can not be stopped.


    click for larger view

    Game 7: Chigorin vs Steinitz, 1889

    1.e4 e5 2.♘f3 ♘c6 3.♗c4 ♗c5 4.b4 ♗xb4 5.c3 ♗a5 6.0–0 ♕f6 7.d4 ♘ge7 8.♗g5 ♕d6 9.d5 ♘d8 10.♕a4 ♗b6 11.♘a3 ♕g6 12.♗xe7 ♔xe7

    After 12...♔xe7


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    Black's king is vulnerable in the center, and his pieces are also un-developed.

    13.♘xe5 ♕f6 14.♘f3 ♕xc3 15.e5 c6 16.d6+ ♔f8 17.♗b3 h6 18.♕h4 g5 19.♕h5 ♕xd3 20.♖ad1 ♕h7 21.♘c2 ♔g7 22.♘cd4 ♕g6 23.♕g4 h5 24.♘f5+ ♔f8 25.♕xg5 ♕xg5 26.♘xg5 h4 27.♔h1 ♖h5 28.f4 ♘e6 29.g4 hxg3 30.♘xg3 ♖h6 31.♘xf7 ♔xf7 32.f5 ♔e8 33.fxe6 dxe6 34.♘e4 1–0

    34.♘e4 1-0


    click for larger view

    Although material is even, and the queens are off, black has no moves, and white is just going to attack.

    As suggested by a post, one variation could be 34... ♗d7 35.♘f6+ ♔d8 36.♘g8 ♖h8 37.♖f8+ ♗e8 38.d7


    click for larger view

    Here, the bishop is pinned, and will be lost. The d7 pawn is also very close to promotion.

    ★★★ FINAL ★★★

    The last round (17) was played on February 24th, 1889. Entering the round, Steinitz had the black pieces, but a 10-6 lead, and needed just a draw in the remaining four games to retain his title.

    Game 17: Chigorin vs Steinitz, 1889

    1.e4 e5 2.♘f3 ♘c6 3.♗c4 ♗c5 4.b4 ♗xb4 5.c3 ♗a5 6.0–0 ♕f6 7.d4 ♘ge7 8.d5 ♘d8 9.♕a4 ♗b6 10.♗g5 ♕d6 11.♘a3 c6 12.♖ad1 ♕b8 13.♗xe7 ♔xe7 14.d6+ ♔f8 15.♕b4 f6 16.♗b3 g6 17.♘c4 ♔g7 18.a4 ♘f7 19.♘xb6 axb6 20.♗xf7 ♔xf7 21.♘xe5+ ♔g7 22.♘c4 b5 23.axb5 ♕a7 24.b6 ♕a4 25.♕c5 ♖e8 26.f3 ♕a2 27.♘e3 ♕b3 28.♖b1 ♕f7 29.♘c4 ♖a4 30.♖b4 ♖a2 31.♕d4 ♔g8 32.♘e3 ♖a3 33.♖a4 ♖b3 34.♖fa1 ♔g7 35.♖a8 ♖b5 36.♖b8 c5 37.♕d5 ♖xb6 38.♖aa8 ♕f8 39.♘c4 ♖c6 40.f4 b5 41.♖xb5 ♗a6 42.♖xe8 ♕xe8 43.♖xc5 ♖xc5 44.♕xc5 ♕xe4 45.♘e3 ♕xf4 46.h3 ♗b7 47.c4 ♗c6 48.♕a3 ♕d4 49.♔h2 f5 50.c5 f4 51.♘c2 ♕e5

    51...♕e5


    click for larger view

    Earlier in the game, Chigorin had chances to win and continue the match, but in this endgame, the tables almost turned. According to a post, Steinitz missed 51...♕d2, and after 52.♕a1+ ♔h6 53.♘e1 (guarding g2) f2, and black adds pressure to the pinned g2. In the end, black will either win a piece, promote the pawn or mate, forcefully.

    52.♕a1 ♕xa1 53.♘xa1 ♔f6 54.♘c2 ♔e5 55.♘b4 ♗b7 56.♔g1 ♔d4 57.c6 ♗c8 58.cxd7 ♗xd7 59.♔f2 ♔e5 60.♘d3+ ♔xd6 61.♘xf4 ♔e5 62.♔e3 ♔f6 63.♘d3 h6 64.♔f4 g5+ 65.♔e3 h5 66.♘c5 ♗c6 67.g3 h4 68.g4 ♗g2 69.♘e4+ ♗xe4 70.♔xe4 ♔e6 1/2-1/2

    70...♔e6 1/2-1/2


    click for larger view

    This game will forcefully produce no winners, as (self-analysis) opposition will lead this game to a draw. For example, 71.♔f3 ♔e5 72.♔e3 ♔f6 73.♔e4 ♔e6 isn't leading to anything.


    click for larger view

    ★★★ MINI TABLE ★★★

    Steinitz 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1/2 (10 wins, 6 losses, 1 draw) <61.8% score>

    Chigorin 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1/2 (6 wins, 10 losses, 1 draw) <38.2% score>

    ★★★ OTHER LINKS ★★★

    See also: Steinitz - Chigorin World Championship Match (1889)

    Head to Head Match up Prior to 1889: http://www.chessgames.com/perl/ches... (3 wins, 1 loss and 0 draws in favour of Chigorin)

    Previous World Championship Title: Game Collection: 1886 World Chess Championship

    Next World Championship Title: Game Collection: 1890-1891 World Chess Championship

    17 games, 1889

  4. 1890-1891 World Chess Championship
    ★★★ INTRO ★★★

    The 1891 World Chess Championship was between 54 year old defending champion Wilhelm Steinitz of the United States and 36 year old challenger Isidor Gunsberg of the United Kingdom.

    ★★★ QUALIFICATION ★★★

    Gunsberg earned his qualification for placing 3rd in a 1889 New York tournament (see Game Collection: New York 1889 for games). The first place winners (Mikhail Chigorin and Max Weiss) weren't interesting in playing.

    ★★★ CONDITIONS ★★★

    The winner would be the first to reach 10 1/2 points and 10 wins. If a 10-10 tie in wins occurs after 20 games, the match continues until one reaches 10 wins. However, if both players reach 9 wins, Steinitz would retain his title. The first round was played in 1890.

    ★★★ NOTABLE GAMES ★★★

    Game 7: Steinitz vs Gunsberg, 1890

    1.d4 d5 2.c4 dxc4 3.♘f3 ♘f6 4.e3 e6 5.♗xc4 ♗b4+ 6.♘c3 O-O 7.O-O b6 8.♘e5 ♗b7 9.♕b3 ♗xc3 10.bxc3 ♗d5 11.♗xd5 exd5 12.♗a3 ♖e8 13.c4 c5 14.♖ac1 ♘e4 15.♖fd1 cxd4 16.exd4 f6 17.cxd5

    After 17.cxd5


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    A knight sacrifice allows white to eventually have 2 connected passed pawns in the endgame.

    17...fxe5 18.d6+ ♔h8 19.♕d5 ♘xf2 20.♖d2 ♘d7 21.♖xf2 ♘f6 22.♖xf6 gxf6 23.d7 ♖g8 24.dxe5 ♖g5 25.♕xa8 ♕xa8 26.♖c8+ ♖g8 27.♖xa8 ♖xa8 28.e6

    28.e6 1-0


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    The finish is very simple. One way I see to finish black off is 28...♖d8 29.e7 ♖xd7 (29...♖g8 30.e8=♕ ♖xe8 31.dxe8=♕+) 30.e8=♕+ forking both the rook and king. In other words, white will have a winning endgame.


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    Game 9: Steinitz vs Gunsberg, 1890

    1.♘f3 ♘f6 2.d4 e6 3.e3 c5 4.c4 d5 5.dxc5 ♗xc5 6.♘c3 ♗b4 7.♗d2 dxc4 8.♗xc4 O-O 9.O-O ♘c6 10.♕e2 ♕e7 11.e4 ♗xc3 12.♗xc3 e5 13.♕e3 ♗e6 14.♗e2 ♘g4 15.♕c1 ♖ac8 16.h3 ♘h6 17.♕e3 f6 18.a3 ♘f7 19.b4 a6 20.a4 ♘xb4 21.♗xb4 ♕xb4 22.♖fb1 ♕e7 23.♖b6 ♖c7 24.♖ab1 ♖fc8 25.♘e1 ♘d8 26.♘d3 ♕a3 27.♔h2 ♖d7 28.♖xe6 ♘xe6 29.♗g4 ♖e8 30.♗xe6+ ♖xe6 31.♘c5 ♕xe3 32.fxe3 ♖ee7 33.♘xd7 ♖xd7 34.♔g3 ♔f7 35.a5 ♔g6 36.♔f3 ♖c7 37.♖b2 ♖c5 38.♖a2 ♖b5 39.♔e2 ♔f7 40.♔f3 ♔e6 41.h4 h5 42.♖a1 g6 43.g4 hxg4+ 44.♔xg4 ♖b4 45.♔f3 f5 46.exf5+ ♔xf5 47.♖h1 ♖b5 48.e4+ ♔f6 49.♖d1 ♖xa5 50.♖d6+ ♔g7 51.♖d7+ ♔h6 52.♖xb7

    After 52.♖xb7


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    At this point, for the next 25 moves (approx.) the battle is to get the a-pawn to a1.

    52...♖a3+ 53.♔f2 ♖a5 54.♖b6 ♔h5 55.♖c6 ♖a4 56.♔f3 ♖a3+ 57.♔f2 ♔h6 58.♖e6 ♖a5 59.♔g3 ♔g7 60.♔g4 ♔f7 61.♖b6 ♖a1 62.♖b7+ ♔f6 63.♖b6+ ♔g7 64.♖e6 a5 65.♖xe5 a4 66.♖a5 a3 67.♔g5 a2 68.♖a7+ ♔f8 69.♖a8+ ♔f7 70.♖a7+ ♔e6 71.♖a6+ ♔e5 72.♖a5+ ♔xe4 73.♖a4+ ♔f3 74.♖a3+ ♔f2 75.♔xg6 ♖g1+ 76.♔f7 a1=♕ 77.♖xa1 ♖xa1 78.h5 ♖h1 79.♔g6 ♖g1+ 80.♔f6 1/2-1/2

    80.♔f6 1/2-1/2


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    Black can try as hard as they want to try to get the h pawn without giving up the rook, but it won't work. I would play something like 80...♖h1 81.♔g6 ♖g1+ 82.♔f6 ♔f3 83.h6 ♖h1 84.♔g7 and the pawn is mere steps away from queening. The black king is too far away from stopping. If I were black, I would take the white pawn as soon as possible.


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    Game 12: Gunsberg vs Steinitz, 1891

    1.e4 e5 2.♘f3 ♘c6 3.♗c4 ♗c5 4.b4 ♗xb4 5.c3 ♗a5 6.O-O ♕f6 7.d4 ♘h6 8.♗g5 ♕d6 9.d5 ♘d8 10.♕a4 ♗b6 11.♘a3 c6 12.♗e2 ♗c7 13.♘c4 ♕f8 14.d6 ♗xd6

    After 14...♗xd6


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    Early on, black has been fishing for material, and while they are up 2 pawns, white will win at least one back.

    15.♘b6 ♖b8 16.♕xa7 ♘g4 17.♘h4 ♘e6 18.♗xg4 ♘xg5 19.♘f5 ♘e6 20.♖fd1 ♗c7 21.♘a8 ♖xa8 22.♕xa8 ♔d8 23.♖xd7+ ♔xd7 24.♖d1+

    24.♖d1+ 1-0


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    In this position, white is down a bishop for pawn, but white is getting compensation. Something like 24...♘d4 25.cxd4 exd4 26.♘xg7 + ♔e7 27.♗xc8 c5 28.♘f5+ ♔f6 29.♕xb7 ♕xc8 30.♕c6+ ♕e6 31.♕xc7 ♕xe4 32.♘g3 leaves white up a full piece.


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    ★★★ FINAL ★★★

    The last round (19) was played sometime in early 1891. Entering the round, Steinitz had a 10-8 advantage in wins, and just needed one draw in the remaining two games to retain his title. He would get his first chance with the white pieces.

    Game 19: Steinitz vs Gunsberg, 1891

    1.d4 d5 2.e3 ♘f6 3.c4 e6 4.♘c3 ♗e7 5.♘f3 O-O 6.♗e2 dxc4 7.♗xc4 c5 8.O-O ♘c6 9.dxc5 ♗xc5 10.♕xd8 ♖xd8 11.♗d2 a6 12.♖ac1 ♗a7 13.♖fd1 ♗d7 14.♗e1 ♘g4 15.e4 ♘ce5 16.♘xe5 ♘xe5 17.♗e2 ♗c6 18.♔f1 ♗d4 19.f3 ♖d7 20.♗f2 ♖ad8

    After 20...♖ad8


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    This game is about half way over. Both sides have a king, 2 rooks, 2 bishops, a knight and 6 pawns. Unless someone blunders, it's going to be an easy draw.

    21.♗xd4 ♖xd4 22.♖xd4 ♖xd4 23.♖d1 ♖xd1+ 24.♘xd1 ♔f8 25.♔e1 ♘g6 26.♘e3 ♔e7 27.♔d2 ♔d6 28.♔c3 ♔c5 29.g3 ♗b5 30.b4+ ♔b6 31.♗d1 ♔c7 32.a4 ♗d7 33.f4 ♗c6 34.♔d4 ♘e7 35.♗b3 ♗e8 36.♘c4 ♘c6+ 37.♔c5 ♘d8 38.♘b6 f6 39.b5 axb5 40.axb5 ♗g6 41.♗c2 h5 1/2-1/2

    41...h5 1/2-1/2


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    Gunsberg didn't put in much of an effort to try to win, and that's what he got: a draw. Here, I'm going to try to exchange off all the kingside pawns, and see what'll happened. 42.f5 exf5 43.exf5 ♗f7 44.♗d1 g6 45.fxg6 ♗xg6 46.h3 f5 47.g4 fxg4 48.hxg4 hxg4 49.♗xg4 ♗e8 50.♗e2 ♗xb5 51.♗xb5 ♘e6+ 52.♔b4 ♔xb6 Even though white can not win, the bishop is there to prevent the knight pawn from promoting.


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    ★★★ MINI TABLE ★★★

    Steinitz 1/2 1 1/2 0 0 1 1 1/2 1/2 1 1/2 0 1 1/2 1/2 0 1/2 1 1/2 (6 wins, 4 losses, 9 draws) <55.3% score>

    Gunsberg 1/2 0 1/2 1 1 0 0 1/2 1/2 0 1/2 1 0 1/2 1/2 1 1/2 0 1/2 (4 wins, 6 losses, 9 draws) <44.7% score>

    ★★★ OTHER LINKS ★★★

    See also: Steinitz - Gunsberg World Championship Match (1890)

    Head to Head Match up Prior to 1890:
    http://www.chessgames.com/perl/ches... (haven't faced yet)

    Previous World Championship Title: Game Collection: 1889 World Chess Championship

    Next World Championship Title: Game Collection: 1892 World Chess Championship

    19 games, 1890-1891

  5. 1892 World Chess Championship
    ★★★ INTRO ★★★

    The 1892 World Chess Championship was between 55 year old defending champio Wilhelm Steinitz of the United States and 41 year old challenger Mikhail Chigorin of the Russian Empire.

    ★★★ BACKGROUND ★★★

    This match was a re-match (see Game Collection: 1889 World Chess Championship).

    ★★★ CONDITIONS ★★★

    The winner would be first to reach 10 1/2 points or score 10 victories. If the match was tied after 20 games, play continues until one players scores 10 wins. Game 1 began on January 1st, 1892. Note: Games 1-20 are measured in total points. Games 21-23 are measured in wins.

    ★★★ NOTABLE GAMES ★★★

    Game 1: Chigorin vs Steinitz, 1892

    1.e4 e5 2.♘f3 ♘c6 3.♗c4 ♗c5 4.b4 ♗xb4 5.c3 ♗a5 6.0-0 d6 7.d4 ♗g4 8.♗b5 exd4 9.cxd4 ♗d7 10.♗b2 ♘ce7 11.♗xd7+ ♕xd7 12.♘a3 ♘h6 13.♘c4 ♗b6 14.a4 c6 15.e5 d5 16.♘d6+ ♔f8 17.♗a3 ♔g8 18.♖b1 ♘hf5 19.♘xf7

    After 19.♘xf7


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    A brilliant knight sacrifice, as it rather win the exchange or lures the king out to the center of the board.

    19...♔xf7 20.e6+ ♔xe6 21.♘e5 ♕c8 22.♖e1 ♔f6 23.♕h5 g6 24.♗xe7+ ♔xe7 25.♘xg6+ ♔f6 26.♘xh8 ♗xd4 27.♖b3 ♕d7 28.♖f3 ♖xh8 29.g4 ♖g8 30.♕h6+ ♖g6 31.♖xf5+ 1-0

    31.♖xf5+ 1-0


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    According to a post, 31...♕xf5 32.♕f8+ ♔g5 33.♕xf5+ ♔h6 (33...♔h4 34.♕h5# 1-0) 34.♕h5+ ♔g7 35.♖e7+ ♔h8 36.♕xh7# 1-0 is mate.


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    Game 4: Steinitz vs Chigorin, 1892

    1.e4 e5 2.♘f3 ♘c6 3.♗b5 ♘f6 4.d3 d6 5.c3 g6 6.♘bd2 ♗g7 7.♘f1 0-0 8.♗a4 ♘d7 9.♘e3 ♘c5 10.♗c2 ♘e6 11.h4 ♘e7 12.h5 d5 13.hxg6 fxg6 14.exd5 ♘xd5 15.♘xd5 ♕xd5 16.♗b3 ♕c6 17.♕e2 ♗d7 18.♗e3 ♔h8 19.0-0-0 ♖ae8 20.♕f1 a5 21.d4 exd4 22.♘xd4 ♗xd4 23.♖xd4 ♘xd4

    23...♘xd4


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    White has already sacrificed a rook, and is not done yet.

    24.♖xh7+ ♔xh7 25.♕h1+ ♔g7 26.♗h6+ ♔f6 27.♕h4+ ♔e5 28.♕xd4+ 1-0

    28.♕xd4+ 1-0


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    The knight that has been hanging for about 4 moves in finally captured, as I see mate is to follow in the form of 28...♔f5 29.g4# 1-0.


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    Game 10: Steinitz vs Chigorin, 1892

    1.e4 e5 2.♘f3 ♘c6 3.♗c4 ♘f6 4.♘g5 d5 5.exd5 ♘a5 6.♗b5+ c6 7.dxc6 bxc6 8.♗f1 h6 9.♘h3 ♗c5 10.♕e2 0-0 11.c3 ♗b6 12.d3 ♘d5 13.♘a3 ♖e8 14.♗d2 ♗f5 15.0-0-0 ♖b8 16.g4 ♗g6 17.♗g2 ♗c5 18.♘c2 ♕b6 19.b4 ♕b5 20.♗e4 ♕a4 21.♔b2 ♖e7 22.♗xg6 fxg6 23.♖b1 ♗d6 24.♖hc1 ♖b6 25.♔a1 ♖eb7 26.♖b2 c5 27.♕e4 ♘f6 28.♕xg6

    After 28.♕xg6


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    White gets a little too greedy, and that the moment, is up 2 pawns. However, white's queen has only one escape: f5.

    28...cxb4 29.cxb4 ♘c6 30.g5 ♘e7 0-1

    30...♘e7 0-1


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    In my opinion, the best escape for white would be 31.♕xf6 gxf6 32.gxf6, which for the moment, leaves black with a queen in exchange for a knight and 2 pawns, but f6 will likely fall, and b4 is currently under fire too.


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    ★★★ FINAL ★★★

    Game 23 was played on February 28th, 1892. Entering the round, Steinitz had the black pieces but needed just 1 win to retain his title.

    Game 23: Chigorin vs Steinitz, 1892

    1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.♘f3 ♘f6 4.e5 ♘h5 5.♗e2 g6 6.d4 ♗g7 7.0-0 d6 8.♘c3 0-0 9.♘e1 dxe5 10.♗xh5 gxh5 11.dxe5 ♕xd1 12.♘xd1 ♘c6 13.♗xf4 ♗f5 14.♘e3 ♗e4 15.♘f3 ♖fe8 16.♘g5 ♗g6 17.♘d5 ♗xe5 18.♘xc7 ♗xc7 19.♗xc7 ♖ac8 20.♗g3 ♘d4 21.c3 ♘e2+ 22.♔f2 h4 23.♗d6 ♘d4 24.cxd4 ♖c2+ 25.♔g1 ♖ee2 26.♖ae1 ♖xg2+ 27.♔h1 ♔g7 28.♖e8 f5 29.♘e6+ ♔f6 30.♖e7 ♖ge2 31.d5 ♖cd2

    After 31...♖cd2


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    Earlier, Steinitz sacrificed a knight, but up to this point, it's not paying off.

    32.♗b4 ♖xh2+

    32...♖xh2+ 0-1


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    The bishop had been defending h2, but not anymore. A mate of 33.♔g1 ♖dg2# 0-1 is easily spotted even for a beginner like me.


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    Steinitz retained his title for the 3rd straight time by the score of 10-8 (12 1/2-10 1/2).

    ★★★ MINI TABLE ★★★

    Steinitz 0 1/2 1/2 1 1/2 1 0 0 1/2 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1/2 1 1 (10 wins, 5 draws, 8 losses) <54.3% score>

    Chigorin 1 1/2 1/2 0 1/2 0 1 1 1/2 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1/2 0 0 (8 wins, 5 draws, 10 losses) <45.7% score>

    ★★★ OTHER LINKS ★★★

    See also: Steinitz - Chigorin World Championship Rematch (1892)

    Head to Head Match up Prior to 1892: http://www.chessgames.com/perl/ches... (12 wins, 11 losses, and 1 draw in favour of Chigorin)

    Previous World Championship Title: Game Collection: 1890-1891 World Chess Championship

    Next World Championship Title: Game Collection: 1894 World Chess Championship

    23 games, 1892

  6. 1894 World Chess Championship
    ★★★ INTRO ★★★

    The 1894 World Chess Championship was between 25 year old Emanuel Lasker of Germany who was the challenger and 57 year old Wilhelm Steinitz of the United States who was the defending champion.

    ★★★ BACKGROUND ★★★

    Steinitz was going to retire from professional chess, but decided to defend his title when Lasker challenged him and offered prize money.

    ★★★ CONDITIONS ★★★

    The winner would be the first to score 10 wins (draws not counting). The time controls were 15 moves per hour. Game 1 began on March 15th, 1894. Games 1-8 were played in New York. Games 9-11 were played in Philadelphia and the remaining games were played in Montréal. Total points are in brackets.

    ★★★ NOTABLE GAMES ★★★

    Game 2: Steinitz vs Lasker, 1894

    1.e4 e5 2.♘f3 ♘c6 3.♗b5 ♘f6 4.d3 d6 5.c3 ♗d7 6.♗a4 g6 7.♘bd2 ♗g7 8.♘c4 O-O 9.♘e3 ♘e7 10.♗b3 c6 11.h4 ♕c7 12.♘g5 d5 13.f3 ♖ad8 14.g4 dxe4 15.fxe4 h6 16.♕f3 ♗e8 17.♗c2 ♘d7 18.♘h3 ♘c5 19.♘f2 b5 20.g5 h5 21.♘f5 gxf5 22.exf5 f6 23.g6 ♘xg6 24.fxg6 ♗xg6 25.♖g1 e4 26.dxe4 ♔h7 27.♖xg6

    After 27.♖xg6


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    In this position, Steinitz had sacrificed a knight to bust open the g-file (but won it back) and now here is sacrificing the exchange to lure the king out.

    27...♔xg6 28.♕f5+ ♔f7 29.♕xh5+ ♔g8 30.♕xc5 ♕e5 31.♗e3 a6 32.a4 ♖fe8 33.axb5 axb5 34.♕xe5 ♖xe5 35.♖a6 ♖c8 36.♘g4 ♖e7 37.♗c5 ♖ee8 38.♘e3 ♗f8 39.♗d4 ♔f7 40.h5 ♗e7 41.♗b3+ ♔f8 42.♘f5 1-0

    42.♘f5 1-0


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    White has a knight, bishop and pawn for a rook, and the win becomes a little clearer after 42...♖a8 43.♖xc6 ♖a1+ 44.♔e2 ♖b1 45.c4 bxc4 46.♗xc4 ♖b8 47.♘xe7 ♔xe7. In this position, white now has 2 bishops and 2 pawns for a rook, and there's not much black can do.


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    Game 7: Lasker vs Steinitz, 1894

    1.e4 e5 2.♘f3 ♘c6 3.♗b5 d6 4.d4 ♗d7 5.♘c3 ♘ge7 6.♗e3 ♘g6 7.♕d2 ♗e7 8.0-0-0 a6 9.♗e2 exd4 10.♘xd4 ♘xd4 11.♕xd4 ♗f6 12.♕d2 ♗c6 13.♘d5 0-0 14.g4 ♖e8 15.g5 ♗xd5 16.♕xd5 ♖e5 17.♕d2 ♗xg5 18.f4 ♖xe4 19.fxg5 ♕e7 20.♖df1 ♖xe3 21.♗c4 ♘h8 22.h4 c6 23.g6 d5 24.gxh7+ ♔xh7 25.♗d3+ ♔g8 26.h5 ♖e8 27.h6 g6 28.h7+ ♔g7 29.♔b1 ♕e5 30.a3 c5 31.♕f2 c4 32.♕h4 f6 33.♗f5 ♔f7 34.♖hg1

    34.♖hg1


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    In order to start an attack against Steinitz's king, Lasker decides to sacrifice a bishop to start it.

    34...gxf5 35.♕h5+ ♔e7 36.♖g8 ♔d6 37.♖xf5 ♕e6 38.♖xe8 ♕xe8 39.♖xf6+ ♔c5 40.♕h6 ♖e7 41.♕h2 ♕d7 42.♕g1+ d4 43.♕g5+ ♕d5 44.♖f5 ♕xf5 45.♕xf5+ ♔d6 46.♕f6+ 1-0

    46.♕f6+ 1-0


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    The knight that hasn't been sitting there since move 21 (25 moves), finally falls. Being up a queen for rook is already sweet enough, but the h-pawn will make things better. So after moves (self) such as 46...♖e6 47.♕xh8 ♖e1+ 48.♔a2 ♖e7 49.♕f6+ ♖e6 50.h8=♕ it's game over.


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    Game 13: Lasker vs Steinitz, 1894

    1.e4 e5 2.♘f3 ♘c6 3.♗b5 a6 4.♗xc6 dxc6 5.d4 exd4 6.♕xd4 ♕xd4 7.♘xd4 c5 8.♘e2 ♗d7 9. ♘bc3 0-0-0 10. ♗f4 ♗c6 11. 0-0 ♘f6 12.f3 ♗e7 13.♘g3 g6 14.♖fe1 ♘d7 15.♘d1 ♘b6 16.♘f1 ♖d7 17.♗e3 ♖hd8 18.b3 c4 19.♗xb6 cxb6 20.bxc4

    20.bxc4


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    Black has sacrificed a pawn in return for the bishop pair vs. knight pair, a damaged queenside structure, and active pieces.

    20...♗b4 21.c3 ♗c5+ 22.♔h1 ♖d3 23.♖c1 a5 24.♘de3 f5 25.exf5 gxf5 26.h3 ♖g8 27.♘d5 ♗xd5 28.cxd5 ♖xd5 29.♖cd1 ♖xd1 30.♖xd1 f4 31.♔h2 ♖e8 32.a4 ♔c7 33.h4 ♔c6 34.c4 ♗b4 35.♔h3 ♖e1 36.♖xe1 ♗xe1 37.♔g4 ♔c5 38.♔xf4 ♔xc4 39.♔e4 ♗xh4 40.g3 ♗d8 41.♘e3+ ♔b4 42.♔d3 ♔xa4 43.♔c2 ♔b4 44.f4 ♔c5 45.f5 ♔d6 46.g4 b5 47.♘d1 ♔e5 48.♘c3 b4 49.♘a4 ♔d4 50.♘b2 b5 51.♔b3 ♗e7 52.g5 a4+ 53.♘xa4 bxa4+ 54.♔xa4 ♔e5 55.♔b3 ♔xf5 0-1

    55...♔xf5 0-1


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    White resigns. A lot has happened since move 20: With Lasker in an uncomfortable position for pretty much the whole game, black ends up re-gaining the material and even forcing white to give up their knight. In this position, white will basically have a bare king, as I can see play continuing like this: 56.g6 hxg6 57.♔c2 g5 58.♔d3 b3 59.♔c3 g4 60.♔d3 g3. Here, whichever pawn white goes after, the other one will run down and queen.


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    ★★★ FINAL ★★★

    Game 19: Lasker vs Steinitz, 1894

    Steinitz was down 9-5 and needed to either win this game or draw to continue the match.

    1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.♘c3 ♘f6 4.♘f3 ♗e7 5.e3 0-0 6.♗d3 c5 7.dxc5 dxc4 8.♗xc4 ♕xd1+ 9 ♔xd1 ♘c6 10.a3 ♗xc5 11.b4 ♖d8+ 12.♔e2 ♗f8 13.♗b2 ♗d7 14.♖hd1 ♖ac8 15.♗b3 ♘e7 16.♘d4 ♘g6 17.♖d2 e5 18.♘f3 ♗g4 19.♖xd8 ♖xd8 20.h3 ♗xf3+ 21.gxf3 ♗e7 22.♖c1 ♔f8 23.♘a4 b6 24.♘c3 ♗d6 25.♖d1 ♘e8 26.♘b5 ♖d7

    26...♖d7


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    Up to this point, Steinitz had been doing fine, but this blunder would cost him the exchange, the game and the match.

    27.♗c2 ♔e7 28.♗f5 a6 29.♗xd7 ♔xd7 30.♘c3 f5 31.b5 axb5 32.♘xb5 ♔e6 33.♗c3 ♘e7 34.♘xd6 ♘xd6 35.♗b4 ♘d5 36.♖c1 ♘f7 37.♗d2 ♘d6 38.♔d3 ♔d7 39.e4 ♘f6 40.♗e3 fxe4+ 41.fxe4 b5 42.f3 ♘c4 43.♖c3 ♘e8 44.♗c1 ♘cd6 45.♖c5 ♘c7 46.♖xe5 ♘e6 47.♖h5 h6 48.♖e5 g5 49.h4 gxh4 50.♖h5 ♔c6 51.♖xh6 ♘c5+ 52.♔c2 1-0

    52.♔c2 1-0


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    Steinitz resigns, as he has too many problems to solve. He's already down the exchange and pawn. White has main 3 threats: The connected passed pawns, the capture of h4 and getting ready to win the pinned knight with e5. One way for white to convert the advantage is 52...♔d7 53.♗e3 ♘e6 54.♖h7+ ♔c6 55.♖h6 ♘c4 56.♔d3 ♔d7 57.f4 ♘xe3 58.♔xe3 h3 59.f5 ♘c5 60.e5 h2 61.♖xh2 ♔c6 62.f6 ♔d7 63.♖d2+ ♔e6 64.♖d6+ ♔f7 65.♖d5 ♘e6 66.♖xb5 Black is out of sufficient mating material and it's only a matter of time before the kill.


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    So on May 26th, 1894, Lasker defeated Steinitz and won the match with the score of 10-5 (12-7 including draws).

    ★★★ MINI TABLE ★★★

    Lasker 1 0 1 0 1/2 1/2 1 1 1 1 1 1/2 0 0 1 1 0 1/2 1 (10 wins, 5 losses, 4 draws) <63.2% score>

    Steinitz 0 1 0 1 1/2 1/2 0 0 0 0 0 1/2 1 1 0 0 1 1/2 0 (5 wins, 10 draws, 10 losses) <36.8% score>

    ★★★ OTHER LINKS ★★★

    See also: Lasker - Steinitz World Championship (1894)

    Head to Head Match Up Prior to 1894: http://www.chessgames.com/perl/ches... (never faced)

    Previous World Championship: Game Collection: 1892 World Chess Championship

    Next World Championship: Game Collection: 1896-1897 World Chess Championship

    19 games, 1894

  7. 1896-1897 World Chess Championship
    ★★★ INTRO ★★★

    The 1896-1897 World Championship was between 28 year old Emanuel Lasker of Germany who was the defending champion and 60 year old Wilhelm Steinitz of the United States who was the challenger.

    ★★★ BACKGROUND ★★★

    The match was a re-match from the 1894 championship (see Game Collection: 1894 World Chess Championship for games and more info).

    ★★★ CONDITIONS ★★★

    The winner would be the first to reach 10 wins (draws not counting, but total score in brackets). The match was played in Moscow. Game 1 began on November 6th, 1896.

    ★★★ NOTABLE GAMES ★★★

    Game 2: Lasker vs Steinitz, 1896

    1.e4 e5 2.♘f3 ♘c6 3.♗b5 ♗c5 4.c3 ♘ge7 5.0-0 ♘g6 6.d4 exd4 7.cxd4 ♗b6 8.♘c3 0-0 9.a4 a6 10.♗c4 h6 11.h3 d6 12.♗e3 ♘ce7 13.♖e1 c6 14.♕b3 ♗c7 15.♘d2 ♖b8 16.♖ac1 b5 17.axb5 axb5 18.♗d3 ♔h8 19.♘e2 f5 20.exf5 ♗xf5 21.♗xf5 ♖xf5 22.♘g3 ♖f8 23.♕e6 ♕c8 24.♕xc8 ♖fxc8 25.♘b3 ♔g8 26.♘e4 ♔f7 27.g3 ♔e8 28.♖e2 ♔d7 29.♖ce1 ♗b6 30.♗f4 ♗c7 31.h4 h5 32.♗g5 ♗d8 33.g4 hxg4 34.h5

    After 34.h5


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    White deflects the knight for protection of e5, which allows Lasker to sacrifice a knight.

    34...♘f8 35.♘ec5+ dxc5 36.♘xc5+ ♔d6 37.♗f4+ ♔d5 38.♖e5+ ♔c4 39.♖c1+ ♔xd4 40.♖e4+ ♔d5 41.♖d1+ 1-0

    41.♖d1+ 1-0


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    For the last 7 moves or so, the black pieces have just been spectators. White wins with 41...♔xc5 42.♗e3# 1-0


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    Game 3: Steinitz vs Lasker, 1896

    1.e4 e5 2.♘f3 ♘c6 3.♗c4 ♗c5 4.c3 ♘f6 5.d4 exd4 6.cxd4 ♗b4+ 7.♘c3 ♘xe4 8.0-0 ♗xc3 9.bxc3 d5 10.♗a3 dxc4 11.♖e1 ♗e6 12.♖xe4 ♕d5 13.♕e2 0-0-0 14.♘e5 ♖he8 15.♘xc6 ♕xc6 16.♖e1 ♖g8 17.♖e5 b6 18.♗c1 g5 19.♖xg5 ♖xg5 20.♗xg5 ♖g8 21.f4 ♗d5 22.g3 ♔b7 23.h3 ♕b5 24.♔h2 ♖g6 25.♕c2 f6 26.♗h4 ♗c6 27.g4 ♕d5 28.♕f2 h5 29.g5 fxg5 30.♗xg5 h4 31.♖f1 ♖g8 32.♕d2 a5 33.a4

    33.a4


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    Up to this point Steinitz had a pretty good attack going, but this is not the best move in the position, and Lasker makes him pay.

    33...♖e8 34.f5 ♖g8 35.♖e1 ♕xf5 36.♖e5 ♕f3 37.d5 ♕g3+ 38.♔h1 ♕xe5 39.dxc6+ ♔xc6 0-1

    39...♔xc6


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    After taking the pawn, black is up the exchange and 2 pawns, which is more than enough to win. Black threatens to win the bishop and to exchange queens, and there is no good response. Something like 40.♕g2+ ♕xd5 41. ♕xd5+ ♔xd5 42.♗xh4 ♖h8 43.♗g3 ♖xh3+ 44.♔g2 ♖h7 45.♗f2 ♔e4 46.♗d4 c5 47.♗f2 ♔d3 48.♗e1 ♖f7 is one possible way to obtain a clearer advantage. Black is still up the exchange and 2 pawns, and this is why Lasker is now up 3-0 in the series.


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    Game 12: Lasker vs Steinitz, 1896

    1.e4 e5 2.♘f3 ♘c6 3.♗b5 a6 4.♗a4 d6 5.d4 ♗d7 6.♗b3 ♗e7 7.dxe5 dxe5 8.♕d5 ♗e6 9.♕xd8+ ♖xd8 10.♗xe6 fxe6 11.c3 ♘f6 12.♘bd2 ♗c5 13.b4 ♗a7 14.a4 b5 15.♔e2 ♗b6 16.axb5 axb5 17.♘e1 ♖f8 18.f3 ♖f7 19.♘b3

    19.Nb3


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    According to some posts, this move is a blunder. This move allows black to win e4 (because capture of it will result in mate) and even a rook sacrifice.

    19...♘xe4 20.♗b2 ♘d6 21.♖f1 ♘c422.♗c1 ♘e7 23.♗g5 ♘d5 24.♗xd8 ♘f4+ 25.♔d1 ♖d7+ 26.♔c2 ♘e3+ 27.♔b2 ♘xf1 28.♗g5 ♘e3 29.♗xf4 exf4 30.♖c1 e5 0-1

    30...e5 0-1


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    Steinitz, who was trailing 7-0 in the match, wins with black in just 30 moves. White here is pretty much in zugzwang, and black can take advantage with 31.g4 g5 32.♔a1 ♖d5 33.♘c2 ♘c4 34.♔b1 ♗f2 35.♖f1 ♖h4 36.♖c1 ♖de3 37.♘e1 ♖e3 38.♘g2 ♖e2 39.♘xh4 gxh4 40.♔a1 h3 41.♖h1 ♖c2 42.♘c5 ♖xc3. Black is up 2 pawns, in addition to b4 and f3, which both could easily fall. Lasker had to resign.


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    ★★★ FINAL ★★★

    Heading into Game 17, Lasker had the black pieces and needed just one win before Steinitz got 8 to defend his title.

    Game 17: Steinitz vs Lasker, 1897

    1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.♘c3 ♘f6 4.♗g5 ♗e7 5.e3 0-0 6.♕b3 ♘bd7 7.♘f3 c6 8.♗d3 dxc4 9.♗xc4 b5 10.♗e2 a6 11.a4 b4 12.♘b1 c5 13.♘bd2 ♗b7 14.a5 cxd4 15.exd4 ♘d5 16.♗e3 ♗d6 17.♘c4 ♗c7 18.♗g5 f6 19.♗d2 ♕e7 20.♘e3 ♖ab8 21.♗c4 ♖fd8 22.0-0 ♘f8 23.♖fe1 ♕f7 24.♘f1 ♔h8 25.♘g3 ♗xg3 26.hxg3 ♘g6 27.♕d3 ♖d6 28.♖e2 ♗c8 29.♘e1 ♕d7 30.♘c2 e5 31.♖ae1 ♗b7 32.♕b3 ♗c6 33.♘xb4 ♘xb4 34 ♗xb4 ♖xd4 35.♕c3 ♗xg2

    35...♗xg2


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    35.Qc3 was a blunder, allowing black to sacrifice a bishop, and win a pawn. At the end of the line, black is up the exchange and a pawn, which is more than enough to win.

    36.♔xg2 ♕c6+ 37.♖e4 ♖xe4 38.♖xe4 ♕xe4+ 39.♔g1 ♕b7 40.♗c5 ♖d8 41.♗e2 e4 42.b4 ♘e5 43.♗e3 ♘d3 44.♗b6 ♖c8 45.♕d4 h6 46.♔h2 ♘e5 47.♕d1 ♖c3 48.♕d6 ♘f3+ 49.♔g2 ♕f7 50.g4 ♕a2 51.♗f1 ♘h4+ 52.♔g1 ♖c1 53.♗e3 ♘f3+ 54.♔g2 ♖xf1 55.♕xa6 ♖g1+ 56.♔h3 ♕d5 57.♕c8+ ♔h7 58.a6 ♖h1+ 59.♔g2 ♖g1+ 60.♔h3 ♖h1+ 61.♔g2 ♘h4+ 62.♔xh1 ♕d1+ 63.♔h2 ♕f1 0-1

    63...♕f1 0-1


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    Material is even, but position is not. White can not avoid mate, and so resigns. I believe the best way to postpone mate is 64.♔g3 ♕g2+ 65.♔f4 g5# 0-1 (or 65...♕f3# 0-1). If 65.♔xh4, 65...♕h2# 0-1 wins.


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    So on January 17th, 1897, Lasker won with black to defend his title with the score of 10-2 (12 1/2-4 1/2).

    ★★★ MINI TABLE ★★★

    Lasker 1 1 1 1 1/2 1 1/2 1/2 1/2 1 1 0 0 1 1/2 1 1 (10 wins, 2 losses, 5 draws) <73.5% score>

    Steinitz 0 0 0 0 1/2 0 1/2 1/2 1/2 0 0 1 1 0 1/2 0 0 (2 wins, 10 losses, 5 draws) <26.5% score>

    ★★★ OTHER LINKS ★★★

    See also: Lasker - Steinitz World Championship Rematch (1896)

    Head to Head Matchup Prior to 1896: http://www.chessgames.com/perl/ches... , Steinitz vs Lasker, 1896 and Lasker vs Steinitz, 1896 (14 wins, 5 losses and 5 draws in favour of Lasker)

    Previous World Championship: Game Collection: 1894 World Chess Championship

    Next World Championship: Game Collection: 1907 World Chess Championship

    17 games, 1896-1897

  8. 1907 World Chess Championship
    ★★★ INTRO ★★★

    The 1907 World Chess Championship was between 38 year old Emanuel Lasker of Germany who was the defending champion and 29 year old Frank James Marshall of the United States who was the challenger.

    ★★★ BACKGROUND ★★★

    After finishing 1st in Cambridge Springs 1904 (see Cambridge Springs (1904) for games and more info), including a full 2 points ahead of Lasker, Marshall agreed to play a WCC match against him.

    ★★★ CONDITIONS ★★★

    The winner would be the first to reach 8 wins (draws not counting, but shown in brackets). Game 1 was played on January 26th, 1907. The games were played in New York, Philadelphia, Washington D.C., Baltimore, Chicago and Memphis.

    ★★★ NOTABLE GAMES ★★★

    Game 1: Marshall vs Lasker, 1907

    1.e4 e5 2.♘f3 ♘c6 3.♗b5 ♘f6 4.d4 exd4 5.O-O ♗e7 6.e5 ♘e4 7.♘xd4 O-O 8.♘f5 d5 9.♗xc6 bxc6 10.♘xe7+ ♕xe7 11.♖e1 ♕h4 12.♗e3 f6 13.f3 fxe5 14.fxe4 d4 15.g3 ♕f6 16.♗xd4 exd4 17.♖f1 ♕xf1+ 18.♕xf1 ♖xf1+ 19.♔xf1 ♖b8 20.b3 ♖b5 21.c4 ♖h5 22.♔g1 c5 23.♘d2 ♔f7 24.♖f1+ ♔e7 25.a3 ♖h6 26.h4 ♖a6 27.♖a1 ♗g4 28.♔f2 ♔e6 29.a4 ♔e5 30.♔g2 ♖f6 31.♖e1 d3 32.♖f1 ♔d4 33.♖xf6 gxf6 34.♔f2 c6 35.a5 a6

    35...a6


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    Lasker activitated his king and now white is in zugwang. None of the pawns can move without being captured. If the knight moves e4 falls. If the king moves, black gains access to e3. Something has to be lost.

    36.♘b1 ♔xe4 37.♔e1 ♗e2 38.♘d2+ ♔e3 39.♘b1f5 40.♘d2 h5 41.♘b1 ♔f3 42.♘c3 ♔xg3 43.♘a4 f4 44.♘xc5 f3 45.♘e4+ ♔f4 46.♘d6 c5 47.b4 cxb4 48.c5 b3 49.♘c4 ♔g3 50.♘e3 b2 0-1

    50...b2 0-1


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    White can not prevent promotion (something like 51.♘f1+, trying to get to d2 fails to 51...♗xf1 52.♔xf1 b1=♕# 0-1). One way I see black can win is 51.c6 b1=♕+ 52.♔d2 ♕b2+ 53.♔e1 ♕c1+ 54.♘d1 ♕xd1# 0-1).


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    Game 2: Lasker vs Marshall, 1907

    1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.♘c3 ♘f6 4.♗d3 c5 5.exd5 cxd4 6.♗b5+ ♗d7 7.♗xd7+ ♕xd7 8.dxe6 ♕xe6+ 9.♘ce2 ♘c6 10.♘f3 ♗b4+ 11.♗d2 0-0-0 12.0-0 ♖he8 13.♘f4 ♕g4 14.h3 ♕f5 15.♘d3 ♗xd2 16.♕xd2 ♘e4 17.♕f4 ♕d5 18.♕g4+ f5 19.♕xg7 ♖g8 20.♕h6 ♘d2 21.♕xd2 ♕xf3 22.g3 h5 23.♕f4 ♕d5 24.♖fe1 ♖de8 25.♖xe8+ ♖xe8 26.♖e1 ♖e4 27.♕g5 ♘b4 28.♖xe4 fxe4 29.♕xd5 ♘xd5

    29...♘xd5


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    Marshall had a good attack going, but in the end, it is a king, knight and pawn ending where white is up a pawn (due to a g7 gambit from move 19 to try to up the g-file).

    30.♘c5 e3 31.♘d3 h4 32.gxh4 ♔d7 33.♔f1 ♔e6 34.♔e2 exf2 35.♔xf2 ♔f5 36.♔f3 ♘f6 37.♘c5 b6 38.♘d3 ♘h5 39.♘c1 ♘f6 40.♘e2 ♔e5 41.♘g3 ♘d5 42.h5 ♘e3 43.h6 ♔f6 44.c3 ♘d1 45.cxd4 ♘xb2 46.♘f5 ♔g6 47.d5 ♘c4 48.♔e4 ♘a5 49.d6 ♘b7 50.♔d5 ♘d8 51.d7 a5 52.♘e7+ 1-0

    52.♘e7+ 1-0


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    Lasker is now up 2-0 in the series. I believe if 52...♔xh6, then 53.♘c6 ♘f7 54.d8=♕ ♘xd8 55.♘xd8 is winning, because white up a whole piece. Even if black gets h3, the kingside pawns will fall, and the a2 pawn will be the game winner.


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    Game 3: Marshall vs Lasker, 1907

    1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.♘c3 ♘f6 4.♗g5 ♗e7 5.e3 ♘e4 6.♗xe7 ♕xe7 7.♗d3 ♘xc3 8.bxc3 ♘d7 9.♘f3 O-O 10.O-O ♖d8 11.♕c2 ♘f8 12.♘e5 c5 13.♖ab1 ♕c7 14.♕b3 b6 15.cxd5 exd5 16.♕a4 ♗b7 17.♕d1 ♖d6 18.♕g4 ♖e8 19.♕g3 ♖de6 20.♗f5 ♖6e7 21.f4 ♗c8 22.♗xc8 ♖xc8 23.♕f3 ♕d6 24.♖fc1 ♖ec7 25.h3 h6 26.♔h2 ♘h7 27.♕h5 ♘f6 28.♕f5 cxd4 29.exd4 ♘e4 30.♘xf7 ♖xf7 31.♕xc8+ ♖f8 32.♕b7 ♕xf4+ 33.♔g1 ♕g5 34.♔h2 ♕g3+ 35.♔g1 ♘d2 36.♕xd5+ ♔h8 37.♔h1 ♘f3

    37...♘f3


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    A great move by Lasker. Lasker is down the exchange and a pawn, but instead of simply grabbing the exchange (and still be down a pawn, with the attack over), Lasker decides to give up another knight. He will then be down a rook and pawn, but it's for the price of the king.

    38.gxf3 ♕xh3+ 39.♔g1 ♕g3+ 40.♔h1 ♖f4 41.♕d8+ ♔h7 42.♖f1 ♖f5 43.♕e8 ♕h4+ 0-1

    43...♕h4+ 0-1


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    Marshall resigns as even I can see 44.♔g2 ♖g5# 0-1. Lasker is now up 3-0 in the series (first to 8 wins) and now is looking to go up 4-0 with the white pieces next game.


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    ★★★ FINAL ★★★

    Game 15 was played on April 6th, 1907. Heading into this round, Lasker had the black pieces but needed just 1 more win to defend his title.

    Game 15: Marshall vs Lasker, 1907

    1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.♘c3 ♘f6 4.♗g5 ♗e7 5.e3 ♘e4 6.♗xe7 ♕xe7 7.cxd5 ♘xc3 8.bxc3 exd5 9.♕b3 c6 10.c4 O-O 11.♘f3 ♕c7 12.♖c1 ♕a5+ 13.♖c3 ♘d7 14.♘d2 c5 15.cxd5 cxd4 16.exd4 ♖e8+ 17.♖e3 ♖xe3+ 18.fxe3 ♘f6 19.♗e2 ♘e4 20.♕d3

    20.♕d3


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    Marshall is doing pretty well in this position, being up a pawn and having a 3-0 majority in the centre. However, his king is still un-castled, and this blunder would cost him.

    20...♗f5 21.O-O ♘g3 22.♖xf5 ♘xf5 23.e4 ♘e7 24.a3 ♖c8 25.d6 ♘g6 26.♘c4 ♕g5 27.♗f1 b5 28.♘a5 ♘f4 29.♕g3 ♕f6 30.♕e3 ♕xd6 31.♗xb5 ♕b6 32.♗c4 ♘e6 33.♗xe6 fxe6 34.♘b3 e5 35.♔f1 ♖b8 36.♘c5 exd4 37.♕xd4 ♖c8 0-1

    37...♖c8 0-1


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    Marshall resigns. He is down the exchange for a pawn, but the knight is pinned and will be won eventually. For instance, white could play 38.♕d5+ ♔h8 39.♘b3 ♕e3 40.g3 ♕f3+ 41.g3 ♕f3+ 42.♔g1 ♖f8 43.♕c4 h5 44.a4 ♖d8 and white will rather lose a piece or get mated.


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    With this victory, Lasker won by a whitewash with the score of 8-0 (11 1/2-3 1/2 including draws).

    ★★★ MINI TABLE ★★★

    Lasker 1 1 1 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1 1/2 1/2 1/2 1 1 1 1 (8 wins, 0 losses, 7 draws) <76.7% score>

    Marshall 0 0 0 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 0 1/2 1/2 1/2 0 0 0 0 (0 wins, 8 losses, 7 draws) <23.3% score>

    ★★★ OTHER LINKS ★★★

    See also: Lasker - Marshall World Championship Match (1907)

    Head to Head Record Prior to 1907: http://www.chessgames.com/perl/ches... (1 win, 0 losses and 1 draw in favour of Marshall)

    Previous World Championship: Game Collection: 1896-1897 World Chess Championship

    Next World Championship: Game Collection: 1908 World Chess Championship

    15 games, 1907

  9. 1908 World Chess Championship
    ★★★ INTRO ★★★

    The 1908 World Chess Championship was between 40 year old Emanuel Lasker of Germany who was the defending champion and 46 year old Siegbert Tarrasch also of Germany who was the challenger.

    ★★★ BACKGROUND ★★★

    Tarrasch was once considered to even be better than Lasker, although Lasker was the world chess champion at the time. Tarrasch challenged Lasker, although the match was delayed, and by then Tarrasch had lost some, but not all of his form.

    ★★★ CONDITIONS ★★★

    The winner would be the first to reach 8 wins (draws not counting, but shown in brackets). The games were played in Düsseldorf and Munich, Germany. Game 1 was played on August 17th, 1908.

    ★★★ NOTABLE GAMES ★★★

    Game 1: Lasker vs Tarrasch, 1908

    1.e4 e5 2.♘f3 ♘c6 3.♗b5 a6 4.♗xc6 dxc6 5.d4 exd4 6.♕xd4 ♕xd4 7.♘xd4 c5 8.♘e2 ♗d7 9.b3 ♗c6 10.f3 ♗e7 11.♗b2 ♗f6 12.♗xf6 ♘xf6 13.♘d2 O-O-O 14.O-O-O ♖d7 15.♘f4 ♖e8 16.♘c4 b6 17.a4 a5 18.♖xd7 ♘xd7 19.♖d1 ♘e5 20.♘xe5 ♖xe5 21.c4 ♖e8 22.♘h5 ♖g8 23.♖d3 f6 24.♔d2

    24.♔d2


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    Both sides have just a rook, minor piece and pawns at that point. Since white has a majority on the kingside, and black having doubled pawns, the white king starts getting active.

    24...♗e8 25.♘g3 ♗d7 26.♔e3 ♖e8 27.♘h5 ♖e7 28.g4 c6 29.h4 ♔c7 30.g5 f5 31.♘g3 fxe4 32.♘xe4 ♗f5 33.h5 ♖d7 34.♖c3 ♖d1 35.♔f4 ♗d7 36.♖e3 ♖h1 37.♘g3 ♖h4+ 38.♔e5 ♖h3 39.f4 ♔d8 40.f5 ♖h4 41.f6 gxf6 42.♔xf6 ♗e8 43.♘f5 ♖f4 44.g6 hxg6 45.hxg6 ♖g4 46.♖xe8+ ♔xe8 47.g7 ♔d7 48.♘h4 ♖xg7 49.♔xg7 ♔e6 50.♘f3 ♔f5 51.♔f7 ♔e4 52.♔e6 ♔d3 53.♔d6 ♔c3 54.♔xc6 ♔xb3 55.♔b5 1-0

    55.♔b5 1-0


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    This the 12th square the white king has traveled to in this game, and it comes just in time to protect a4 and c4. If those pawns are captured, black could win. At this point, if I were Lasker, I would just maintain the king position and use the knight. One way to win (although not the most accurate) could be 55...♔c3 56.♘e5 ♔d4 57.♘d7 ♔e4 58.♘xb6 ♔e5 59.♘d7+ ♔d6 60.♘xc5 ♔c7 61.♔xa5 ♔c6 62.♔b4 ♔b6 63.a5+ ♔a7 64.♔b5 ♔b8 65.a6 ♔a8 66.♔b6 ♔b8 67.♘e6 ♔a8 68.♘c7+ ♔b8 69.a7+ followed by promotion on the next move.


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    Game 2: Tarrasch vs Lasker, 1908

    1.e4 e5 2.♘f3 ♘c6 3.♗b5 ♘f6 4.O-O d6 5.d4 ♗d7 6.♘c3 ♗e7 7.♖e1 exd4 8.♘xd4 O-O 9.♘xc6 ♗xc6 10.♗xc6 bxc6 11.♘e2 ♕d7 12.♘g3 ♖fe8 13.b3 ♖ad8 14.♗b2 ♘g4 15.♗xg7 ♘xf2 16.♔xf2 ♔xg7 17.♘f5+ ♔h8 18.♕d4+ f6 19.♕xa7

    After 19.Qxa7


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    Tarrasch here is up a pawn, but with black's king now safe, and white's king not safe, Lasker starts an attack.

    19...♗f8 20.♕d4 ♖e5 21.♖ad1 ♖de8 22.♕c3 ♕f7 23.♘g3 ♗h6 24.♕f3 d5 25.exd5 ♗e3+ 26.♔f1 cxd5 27.♖d3 ♕e6 28.♖e2 f5 29.♖d1 f4 30.♘h1 d4 31.♘f2 ♕a6 32.♘d3 ♖g5 33.♖a1 ♕h6 34.♔e1 ♕xh2 35.♔d1 ♕g1+ 36.♘e1 ♖ge5 37.♕c6 ♖5e6 38.♕xc7 ♖8e7 39.♕d8+ ♔g7 40.a4 f3 41.gxf3 ♗g5 0-1

    41...♗g5 0-1


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    A nasty discovered attack is on the way. White probably does best with 42.♖xe6 ♖xe6 43.♕d7+ ♖e7 44.♕xe7+ ♗xe7 45.c4 ♗h4 46.♔c2 (46.♔e2 ♕f2+ will win the knight anyway) ♗xe1 47.f4 ♕e3 48.f5 ♕e2+ 49.♔c1 d3 with mate to follow in 3 moves (ex. 50.♖a2 ♕xa2 51.f6+ ♔xf6 52.c5 and black can chose 52...♕a1# 0-1 or 52...♕c2# 0-1.


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    Game 4: Tarrasch vs Lasker, 1908

    1.e4 e5 2.♘f3 ♘c6 3.♗b5 ♘f6 4.O-O d6 5.d4 ♗d7 6.♘c3 ♗e7 7.♖e1 exd4 8.♘xd4 ♘xd4 9.♕xd4 ♗xb5 10.♘xb5 O-O 11.♗g5 h6 12.♗h4 ♖e8 13.♖ad1 ♘d7 14.♗xe7 ♖xe7 15.♕c3 ♖e5 16.♘d4 ♖c5 17.♕b3 ♘b6 18.f4 ♕f6 19.♕f3 ♖e8 20.c3 a5 21.b3 a4 22.b4 ♖c4 23.g3 ♖d8 24.♖e3 c5 25.♘b5 cxb4 26.♖xd6 ♖xd6 27.e5 ♖xf4

    After 27...♖xf4


    click for larger view

    At first glance, 27.e5 seemed like a good move) but at the same time, it's a bad move, as it opens up the b1-h7 diagonal, and also allows for this rook sacrifice.

    28.gxf4 ♕g6+ 29.♔h1 ♕b1+ 30.♔g2 ♖d2+ 31.♖e2 ♕xa2 32.♖xd2 ♕xd2+ 33.♔g3 a3 34.e6 ♕e1+ 35.♔g4 ♕xe6+ 36.f5 ♕c4+ 37.♘d4 a2 38.♕d1 ♘d5 39.♕a4 ♘xc3 40.♕e8+ ♔h7 41.♔h5 a1=♕ 0-1

    41...a1=♕ 0-1


    click for larger view

    Black is up a queen and 3 pawns, which is way more than enough to win, especially at this level in this position. The way I see it, Tarrasch has one last trap in 42.♘e6 (if 42...fxe6?? 43.♕g6+ ♔g8 44.♕e8+ etc. saves the day), but 42...♕d1# 0-1 is a nice quick mate (if 42.♘f3 ♕d1 with mate to follow shortly).


    click for larger view

    ★★★ FINAL ★★★

    The final game of the match was played on September 30th, 1908. Entering the round, Lasker had an 7-3 lead and needed just 1 more win to secure his title.

    Game 16: Tarrasch vs Lasker, 1908

    1.e4 e5 2.♘f3 ♘c6 3.♗b5 ♘f6 4.♘c3 ♗b4 5.O-O O-O 6.d3 d6 7.♗g5 ♗e6 8.d4 exd4 9.♘xd4 h6 10.♗h4 ♘e5 11.f4 ♗c5

    After 11...♗c5


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    A pseudo sacrifice by Lasker, as he will, in a couple of moves, re-gain the material, and be superior.

    12.♗xf6 ♕xf6 13.fxe5 ♕xe5 14.♘e2 ♗g4 15.♖f3 ♗xf3 16.gxf3 f5 17.♕d3 c6 18.♗c4+ ♔h8 19.♔h1 b5 20.♗b3 fxe4 21.♕xe4 ♕xe4 22.fxe4 ♖ae8 23.♘xc6 ♖xe4 24.♘g3 ♖ee8 25.♖d1 ♖f2 26.♘d4 ♗xd4 0-1

    26...♗xd4 0-1


    click for larger view

    A blunder by Tarrasch. Even though the knight's not attacked for the moment, Tarrasch moves it anyway. I see that after 27.♖xd4, Lasker can force mate with 27...♖e1+ 28.♘f1 ♖exf1# 0-1. If white decides not to capture back, then black is still winning, as black has a rook and pawn for a knight.


    click for larger view

    Lasker won the match 8-3 (10 1/2-5 1/2 including draws) and defends his championship title for the 3rd consecutive time.

    ★★★ MINI TABLE ★★★

    Lasker 1 1 0 1 1/2 1 1/2 1/2 0 1 0 1 1/2 1/2 1 (8 wins, 3 losses, 5 draws) <65.6% score>

    Tarrasch 0 0 1 0 1/2 0 1/2 1/2 1 0 1 0 1/2 1/2 0 (3 wins, 8 losses, 5 draws) <34.4% score>

    ★★★ OTHER LINKS ★★★

    See also: Lasker - Tarrasch World Championship Match (1908)

    Head to Head Record Prior to 1908: http://www.chessgames.com/perl/ches... (tied 1 win, 1 loss and 0 draws)

    Previous World Championship: Game Collection: 1907 World Chess Championship

    Next World Championship: Game Collection: 1910 World Chess Championship (first one)

    16 games, 1908

  10. 1910 World Chess Championship (first one)
    ★★★ INTRO ★★★

    The 1910 World Chess Championship was between 42 year old Emanuel Lasker of Germany who was the defending champion and 36 year old Carl Schlechter of Austria who was the challenger.

    ★★★ CONDITIONS ★★★

    The match was a best of 10 games, meaning the first player to 5 1/2 points would win. If the match ended in a 5-5 tie, Lasker, the defending champion, wins. The games were played in Vienna and Berlin. It was the first world chess championship for 1910 (see: Game Collection: 1910 World Chess Championship (second one) for th 2nd one). Game 1 began on January 7th, 1910.

    ★★★ NOTABLE GAMES ★★★

    Game 1: Schlechter vs Lasker, 1910

    1. e4 e5 2. ♘f3 ♘c6 3. ♗b5 ♘f6 4. O-O d6 5. d4 ♗d7 6. ♖e1 exd4 7. ♘xd4 ♗e7 8. ♘c3 O-O 9. ♗xc6 bxc6 10. ♗g5 ♖e8 11. ♕f3 h6 12. ♗h4 ♘h7 13. ♗xe7 ♕xe7 14. ♖ad1 ♘f8 15. h3 ♘g6 16. ♕g3 ♕g5 17. ♕xg5 hxg5 18. f3 f6 19. ♔f2 ♔f7 20. ♘de2 a5 21. b3 ♖eb8 22. ♘c1 ♗e6 23. ♘d3 c5 24. ♘b2 ♘e5 25. ♘d5 ♖b7 26. ♖e3 ♘c6 27. ♖c3 g6 28. a4 f5 29. ♘e3 ♖e8 30. ♘ec4 ♖a7 31. ♖e1 ♗xc4 32. ♘xc4 ♔f6 33. ♘e3 ♘e5 34. exf5 gxf5 35. g3 ♖h8 36. f4 gxf4 37. ♘d5+ ♔f7 38. ♘xf4 ♖b7 39. ♔g2 c4 40. bxc4 ♖b4 41. c5 ♖xa4 42. cxd6 cxd6 43. ♖c7+ ♔f6 44. ♘d5+ ♔g5 45. h4+ ♔h6 46. ♘e7 ♖f8 47. ♖d1 ♖f7 48. ♖xd6+ ♔h7 49. ♖e6 ♘g6 50. ♖xg6 ♖xe7 51. ♖gc6 ♖xc7 52. ♖xc7+ ♔g6 53. ♖c6+ ♔f7 54. ♔f3 ♖e4

    After 54...♖e4


    click for larger view

    In this endgame, Lasker is down a pawn, but decides to sacrifice another one to draw this game.

    55. ♖c5 ♔f6 56. ♖xa5 ♖c4 57. ♖a6+ ♔e5 58. ♖a5+ ♔f6 59. ♖a6+ ♔e5 60. ♖a5+ ♔f6 61. ♖a2 ♔e5 62. ♖b2 ♖c3+ 63. ♔g2 ♔f6 64. ♔h3 ♖c6 65. ♖b8 ♖xc2 66. ♖b6+ ♔g7 67. h5 ♖c4 68. h6+ ♔h7 69. ♖f6 ♖a4 1/2-1/2

    Game 5: Schlechter vs Lasker, 1910

    Game 7: Schlechter vs Lasker, 1910

    ★★★ FINAL ★★★

    Game 10: Lasker vs Schlechter, 1910

    The final game was played on February 10th, 1910. Going into the final game, Schlechter was leading by one point, and just needed a draw to win Lasker's title. Schlechter had a winning position, but ended up losing the game (see Lasker vs Schlechter, 1910) and allowed the match to be drawn (by a score of 5-5), and allowing Lasker retain his title.

    ★★★ MINI TABLE ★★★

    Lasker 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 0 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1 (1 win, 1 loss, 8 draws) <50% score>

    Schlechter 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 0 (1 win, 1 loss, 8 draws) <50% score>

    ★★★ OTHER LINKS ★★★

    See also: Lasker - Schlechter World Championship Match (1910)

    Head to Head Record Prior to the match: http://www.chessgames.com/perl/ches... (3 wins, 1 loss and 3 draws in favour of Lasker)

    Previous World Championship: Game Collection: 1908 World Chess Championship

    Next World Championship: Game Collection: 1910 World Chess Championship (second one)

    10 games, 1910

  11. 1910 World Chess Championship (second one)
    ★★★ INTRO ★★★

    The 1908 World Chess Championship was between 42 year old defending champion Emanuel Lasker of Germany and 42 year old challenge David Janowski of France.

    ★★★ BACKGROUND ★★★

    Lasker and Janowski played 2 matches before, drawing the first one with 2 wins a piece in 1909, while Lasker won the 2nd one with 7 wins, 2 draws and a loss (see Game Collection: 0 for games).

    ★★★ CONDITIONS ★★★

    The winner would be the first to win 8 games (not counting draws). It was the second World Chess Championship for 1910 (see Game Collection: 1910 World Chess Championship (first one)). Game 1 was played on November 8th, 1910.

    ★★★ NOTABLE GAMES ★★★

    Game 3: Lasker vs Janowski, 1910

    Game 5: Lasker vs Janowski, 1910

    Game 9: Lasker vs Janowski, 1910

    ★★★ FINAL ★★★

    Game 11 was played on December 8th, 1910. Lasker won 8-0 (9 1/2-1 1/2 with draws). Note: Points measured in wins, with draws in bracket.

    ★★★ MINI TABLE ★★★

    Lasker 1 1/2 1/2 1 1 1/2 1 1 1 1 1 (8 wins, 3 draws, 0 losses) <86.4% score>

    Janowski 0 1/2 1/2 0 0 1/2 0 0 0 0 0 (0 wins, 3 draws, 8 losses)<13.6% score>

    ★★★ OTHER LINKS ★★★

    See also: Lasker - Janowski World Championship Match (1910)

    Head to Head Record Prior to 1910: http://www.chessgames.com/perl/ches... (14 wins, 4 draws and 4 losses in favour of Lasker)

    Previous World Championship: Game Collection: 1910 World Chess Championship (first one)

    Next World Championship: Game Collection: 1921 World Chess Championship

    11 games, 1910

  12. 1921 World Chess Championship
    ★★★ INTRO ★★★

    The 1921 World Chess Championship was between 32 year old Jose Raul Capablanca of Cuba who was the "challenger" and 52 year old Emanuel Lasker of Germany who was the "defending champion".

    ★★★ BACKGROUND ★★★

    As early as 1911, Capablanca wanted to challenge Lasker for the title. However, Lasker did not like Capablanca's terms, and responded with his own. Negotiations would continue for about a decade, and then World War I came. In the meantime, Capablanca got the upper hand of the world's leading players, and then Lasker resigned the title. Capablanca, however, still wanted to play and try to win without forfeit.

    ★★★ CONDITIONS ★★★

    The winner would be the first to reach 12 1/2 points OR win eight games (not including draws). If the match ended with a 12-12 tie, Lasker would retain his title. The match took place in Havana. Game1 was played on March 18th, 1921. Note: The total score is shown, while the wins are in brackets.

    ★★★ NOTABLE GAMES ★★★

    Game 5:

    Game 10:

    Game 11:

    ★★★ FINAL ★★★

    Lasker ended up resigning the match on April 28th, 1921, meaning that Lasker finally lost his title after 27 years. Capablanca was already leading 9-5 (4-0 in wins). This meant that Capablanca was the third official world chess champion.

    ★★★ MINI TABLE ★★★

    Capablanca 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1 1 1/2 1/2 1 (4 wins, 10 draws, 0 losses) <64.3 % score>

    Lasker 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 0 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 0 0 1/2 1/2 0 (0 wins, 10 draws, 4 losses) <35.7% score>

    ★★★ OTHER LINKS ★★★

    See also: Lasker - Capablanca World Championship Match (1921)

    Head to Head Record Prior to 1921: http://www.chessgames.com/perl/ches... (1 win, 2 draws, 0 losses in favour of Lasker)

    Previous World Championship: Game Collection: 1910 World Chess Championship (second one)

    Next World Chess Championship: Game Collection: 1927 World Chess Championship

    14 games, 1921

  13. 1927 World Chess Championship
    ★★★ INTRO ★★★

    The 1927 World Chess Championship was between 35 year old Alexander Alekhine of France who was the challenger and 38 year old Jose Raul Capablanca of Cuba who was the defending champion.

    ★★★ BACKGROUND ★★★

    Since Capablanca won the title in 1921, Alekhine has been hot, winning or sharing first in 12/20 tournaments. He seemed to be the only player who could match up against Capablanca AND secure the money. However, some still thought Alekhine would be crushed.

    ★★★ CONDITIONS ★★★

    The winner would be the first to win 6 games (draws are not included, but included in brackets). The match took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The first game was played on September 16th, 1927.

    ★★★ FINAL ★★★

    After 34 games, Alekhine won the title win the score of 6-3 (18 1/2-15 1/2 if draws were including) on November 29th, 1927 to become the 4th world chess champion.

    ★★★ MINI TABLE ★★★

    Alekhine 1 1/2 0 1/2 1/2 1/2 0 1/2 1/2 1/2 1 1 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 0 1/2 1/2 1 1/2 1 (6 wins, 25 draws, 3 losses) <54.4% score>

    Capablanca 0 1/2 1 1/2 1/2 1/2 1 1/2 1/2 1/2 0 0 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 0 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1 1/2 1/2 0 1/2 0 (3 wins, 25 draws, 6 losses) <45.6% score>

    ★★★ OTHER LINKS ★★★

    See also: Capablanca - Alekhine World Championship Match (1927)

    Head to Head Record Prior to 1927: http://www.chessgames.com/perl/ches... (4 wins, 4 draws and 0 losses in favour of Capablanca)

    Previous World Championship: Game Collection: 1921 World Chess Championship

    Next World Championship: Game Collection: 1929 World Chess Championship

    34 games, 1927

  14. 1929 World Chess Championship
    ★★★ INTRO ★★★

    The 1929 World Chess Championship was between 36 year old defending champion Alexander Alekhine of France and 40 year old challenger Efim Bogoljubov.

    ★★★ BACKGROUND ★★★

    After beating Capablanca, Alekhine allowed a re-match, but Capablanca had to fund it, and Alekhine would receive the majority of it, regardless of what happened. An Alekhine-Capablanca re-match didn't happened. Instead, Bogoljubov challenged Alekhine. He seemed like a very aggressive player, often risking the game for a win. Bogoljubov was the clear underdog, but was still up for the task.

    ★★★ CONDITIONS ★★★

    The winner would be the first to achieve 6 wins AND have more than 15 points. The match was played in Germany and the Netherlands. Round 1 was played on September 6th, 1929. Note: The match is measured in the amount of wins, with the total amount of points are measured in brackets.

    ★★★ NOTABLE GAMES ★★★

    Game 1:

    Game 8:

    Game 18:

    ★★★ FINAL ★★★

    The match concluded with Game 25 on November 12th, 1929. Alekhine won with a score of 11-5 in wins and 15 1/2-9 1/2 points in total.

    ★★★ MINI TABLE ★★★

    Alekhine 1 1/2 1/2 0 1 0 1 1 1/2 1 1/2 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1/2 1 1 1/2 1/2 1/2 (11 wins, 9 draws and 5 losses) <62% score>

    Bogoljubov 0 1/2 1/2 1 0 1 0 0 1/2 0 1/2 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1/2 0 0 1/2 1/2 1/2 (5 wins, 9 draws, 11 losses) <38% score>

    ★★★ OTHER LINKS ★★★

    See also: Alekhine - Bogoljubov World Championship Match (1929)

    Head to Head Record Prior to 1929: http://www.chessgames.com/perl/ches... (9 wins, 8 draws and 3 losses in favour of Alehkine)

    Previous World Championship: Game Collection: 1927 World Chess Championship

    Next World Championship: Game Collection: 1934 World Chess Championship

    25 games, 1929

  15. 1934 World Chess Championship
    ★★★ INTRO ★★★

    The 1934 World Chess Championship was between 41 year old defending champion Alexander Alekhine of France and 45 year old challenger Efim Bogoljubov of Nazi Germany.

    ★★★ BACKGROUND ★★★

    This wasn't the first time these two players played for the title (see Game Collection: 1929 World Chess Championship), as despite all the new talent coming up, Alekhine chose Bogoljubov for a re-match.

    ★★★ CONDITIONS ★★★

    The conditions for the winner were the same as last time. The first player to win six games AND have more than 15 points would be the winner. The match took place in Germany. Game 1 was played on April 1st, 1934. Note: The match is measured in wins. The total amount of points is measured in brackets.

    ★★★ NOTABLE GAMES ★★★

    Game 2:

    Game 4:

    Game 17:

    ★★★ FINAL ★★★

    The final round (Round 26) on June 14th, 1934 had the game being drawn. This meant that Alekhine had successfully defended his title. In wins, Alekhine had 8 wins against Bogoljubov's 3. In total was 15 1/2-10 1/2.

    ★★★ MINI TABLE ★★★

    Alekhine 1/2 1 1/2 1 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1 0 1 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1 1 1/2 1/2 1/2 1 1/2 0 0 1 1/2 (8 wins, 15 draws, 3 losses) <59.6% score>

    Bogoljubov 1/2 0 1/2 0 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 0 1 0 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 0 0 1/2 1/2 1/2 0 1/2 1 1 0 1/2 (3 wins, 15 draws, 8 losses) <40.4% score>

    ★★★ OTHER LINKS ★★★

    See also: Alekhine - Bogoljubov World Championship Rematch (1934)

    Head to Head Record Before 1934: http://www.chessgames.com/perl/ches... (21 wins, 21 draws and 9 losses in favour of Alehkine)

    Previous World Championship: Game Collection: 1929 World Chess Championship

    Next World Championship: Game Collection: 1935 World Chess Championship

    26 games, 1934

  16. 1935 World Chess Championship
    ★★★ INTRO ★★★

    The 1935 World Chess Championship was between 34 year old challenger Max Euwe of the Netherlands and 43 year old defending champion Alexander Alekhine of France.

    ★★★ BACKGROUND ★★★

    Bogoljubov was no longer a threat to Alekhine, so Alekhine decided to choose Euwe, who didn't fare really well against Bogoljubov.

    ★★★ CONDITIONS ★★★

    The winner would be the first player to achieve 6 wins AND have more than 15 points. The match took place in the Netherlands. Game 1 was played on October 3rd, 1935. Note: The match is measured in wins,the total amount of wins is measured in brackets.

    ★★★ NOTABLE GAMES ★★★

    Game 1:

    Game 4:

    Game 26:

    ★★★ FINAL ★★★

    Round 30 (the final round) was played on December 16th, 1935. Euwe drew the game and had defeated Alekhine 15 1/2-14 1/2 (9-8 in wins) to become the 5th official world champion.

    ★★★ MINI TABLE ★★★

    Euwe 0 1 0 0 1/2 1/2 0 1 0 1 1/2 1 1/2 0 1/2 1 1/2 0 1/2 1/2 0 1 1 1/2 1/2 1/2 1 1 0 1/2 1/2 1/2 (9 wins, 13 draws, 8 losses) <51.7% score>

    Alekhine 1 0 1 1 1/2 1/2 1 0 1 0 1/2 0 1/2 1 1/2 0 1/2 1 1/2 1/2 1 0 0 1/2 1/2 1/2 0 0 1 1/2 1/2 1/2 (8 wins, 13 draws, 9 losses) <48.3% score>

    ★★★ OTHER LINKS ★★★

    See also: Alekhine - Euwe World Championship Match (1935)

    Head to Head Record Prior to 1935: http://www.chessgames.com/perl/ches... (7 wins, 9 draws and 3 losses in favour of Alekhine)

    Previous World Championship: Game Collection: 1934 World Chess Championship

    Next World Chamiponship: Game Collection: 1937 World Chess Championship

    30 games, 1935

  17. 1937 World Chess Championship
    ★★★ INTRO ★★★

    The 1937 World Chess Championship was between 45 year old challenger Alexander Alekhine of France and 36 year old defending champion Max Euwe of the Netherlands.

    This was the last world championship match that the champion could set the match condition, choose his opponent, etc. In 1939, World War II broke in and delayed any world championship matches. After the war, sadly, on March 24th, 1946, Alexander Alekhine passed away at the age of 53 while he was still champion. This allowed FIDE to control the world championship matches.

    ★★★ BACKGROUND ★★★

    The match was a re-match (see Game Collection: 1935 World Chess Championship), as Euwe, the defending champion, had agreed to certain conditions.

    ★★★ CONDITIONS ★★★

    Like the previous match, the winner would be the first player to score at least 6 wins AND have at least 15 points. The match took place in the Netherlands. Note: The match is measured in wins, with the total amount of points is measured in brackets. The first game was played on October 5th, 1937.

    ★★★ NOTABLE GAMES ★★★

    Game 2:

    Game 6:

    Game 22:

    ★★★ FINAL ★★★

    The final round (Round 25) had Euwe resigning so Alekhine re-gains his title on December 4th, 1937. This was the first time someone had re-gained the world champion title after losing it. Alekhine won with a score of 15 1/2-9 1/2 (10-4 excluding draws).

    ★★★ MINI TABLE ★★★

    Alekhine 0 1 1/2 1/2 0 1 1 1 1/2 1 1/2 1/2 0 1 1/2 1/2 0 1/2 1/2 1/2 1 1 1/2 1 1 (10 wins, 11 draws, 4 losses) <62% score>

    Euwe 1 0 1/2 1/2 1 0 0 0 1/2 0 1/2 1/2 1 0 1/2 1/2 1 1/2 1/2 1/2 0 0 1/2 0 0 (4 wins, 11 draws, 10 losses) <38% score>

    ★★★ OTHER LINKS ★★★

    See Also: Euwe - Alekhine World Championship Rematch (1937)

    Head to Head Record Prior to 1937: http://www.chessgames.com/perl/ches... (16 wins, 23 draws and 13 losses in favour of Alekhine)

    Previous World Championship: Game Collection: 1935 World Chess Championship

    Next World Championship: Game Collection: 1948 World Chess Championship

    25 games, 1937

  18. 1948 World Chess Championship
    ★★★ INTRO ★★★

    The 1948 World Chess Championship was a 5 player five-cycle round robin (each player plays against each other 5 times) between 37 year old Mikhail Botvinnik of the Soviet Union, 27 year old Vasily Smyslov also of the Soviet Union, 37 year old Smauel Reshevsky of the United States, 32 year old Paul Keres of the Soviet Union and 47 year old Max Euwe of the Netherlands.

    ★★★ BACKGROUND ★★★

    The participants were the 8 players that competed in the 1938 AVRO Tournament (see AVRO (1938) for games). The players were Paul Keres, Reuben Fine, Mikhail Botvinnik, Max Euwe, Samuel Reshevsky, Alexander Alekhine, Jose Raul Capablanca and Salomon Flohr. However, not all of the above players competed. Capablanca died on March 8th, 1942 and Alekhine died on March 24th, 1946. As well, Salomon Flohr got replaced by Vasily Smyslov. Fine did not want to compete. FIDE organized a 5 player cycle round robin tournament. The tournament was down to 5 players: 37 year old Mikhail Botvinnik of the Soviet Union, 27 year old Vasily Smyslov also of the Soviet Union, 37 year old Smauel Reshevsky of the United States, 32 year old Paul Keres of the Soviet Union and 47 year old Max Euwe of the Netherlands.

    ★★★ CONDITIONS ★★★

    The match took place in The Hague.

    ★★★ MATCH ★★★

    After 5 rounds, Botvinnik took the lead with 3 1/2 points, Reshevsky was second with 2 1/2, Smyslov and Keres were close behind each having 2 and Euwe had scored none.

    After 10 rounds, Botvinnik kept the lead and had 6, Reshevsky was in second with 4 1/2 points, Smyslov and Keres was once again close behind with each having 4 but Euwe only had 1 1/2.

    After 15 rounds of play, Botvinnik kept leading with 9 points, Keres then took second with 6 1/2, Reshevsky close on his heels with 6, Smyslov with 5 1/2, and sadly,Euwe only had 3.

    After 20 rounds, Botvinnik kept a commanding lead with 12 points, Smyslov and Reshevsky tied for second each with 8 1/2, Keres with 7 1/2 and Euwe way behind with 3 1/2.

    ★★★ FINAL ★★★

    After 25 rounds of play, Botvinnik was crowded the first FIDE world champion finishing with 14 points out a possible 25. Smyslov took second with 11. Tied for third were Reshevsky and Keres each finishing with 10 1/2. Euwe came in last,and only had 4 points, 6 1/2 points behind 3rd place and 10 points behind the winner. Mikhail Botvinnik had became the 6th official world championship.

    ★★★ MINI TABLE ★★★

    Botvinnik - 1 1/2 1 1 1 - 1/2 1/2 1 1 1 - 0 1 1/2 1/2 1 - 1 1/2 1/2 1 0 (10 wins, 8 draws, 2 losses) <1st, 70% score>

    Smyslov 1/2 0 1/2 1 - 1/2 0 1/2 1 1 - 1/2 0 0 1/2 1 - 1/2 1 1/2 1/2 1/2 - 1 (6 wins, 10 draws, 4 losses) <2nd, 55% score>

    Reshevsky 1/2 - 1 0 1 1/2 1/2 - 1/2 1/2 0 0 1 - 1/2 1/2 1 0 1 - 1/2 1/2 0 1 (+6, =9, -5) <=3rd, 52.5%>

    Keres 1 1 0 - 0 1/2 1 1/2 0 - 1 1/2 1 0 1 - 0 0 0 1 1/2 - 1/2 1 (+8, =5, -7) <=3rd, 52.5%>

    Euwe 0 0 - 0 0 1/2 1/2 0 - 1/2 0 0 1 1/2 - 0 1/2 0 0 0 - 1/2 0 0 0 (+1, =6, -14) <5th, 20%>

    ★★★ OTHER LINKS ★★★

    See also: FIDE World Championship Tournament (1948)

    Head to Head Records Prior to 1948:

    Botvinnik-Smyslov: http://www.chessgames.com/perl/ches... (6 wins, 5 draws and 1 loss in favour of Botvinnik)

    Botvinnik-Reshevsky: http://www.chessgames.com/perl/ches... (2 wins, 3 draws and 0 losses in favour of Botvinnik)

    Botvinnik-Keres: http://www.chessgames.com/perl/ches... (2 wins, 6 draws and 0 losses in favour of Botvinnik)

    Botvinnik-Euwe: http://www.chessgames.com/perl/ches... (2 wins, 4 draws and 0 losses in favour of Euwe)

    Smyslov-Reshevsky: http://www.chessgames.com/perl/ches... (2 wins, 0 draws and 1 loss in favour of Smyslov)

    Smyslov-Keres: http://www.chessgames.com/perl/ches... (4 wins, 4 draws and 1 loss in favour of Keres)

    Smyslov-Euwe: http://www.chessgames.com/perl/ches... (Smyslov beat Euwe 1-0 in their only meeting prior to 1948)

    Reshevsky-Keres: http://www.chessgames.com/perl/ches... (3 wins, 3 draws and 2 losses in favour of Keres)

    Reshevsky-Euwe: http://www.chessgames.com/perl/ches... (1 win, 2 draws and 1 loss for both players)

    Keres-Euwe: http://www.chessgames.com/perl/ches... (7 wins, 5 draws and 7 losses for both players)

    Previous World Championship: Game Collection: 1937 World Chess Championship

    Next World Championship: Game Collection: 1951 World Chess Championship

    50 games, 1948

  19. 1951 World Chess Championship
    ★★★ INTRO ★★★

    The 1951 World Chess Championship was between 39 year old defending champion Mikhail Botvinnik of the Soviet Union and 27 year old challenger David Bronstein who was also the defending champion.

    ★★★ BACKGROUND ★★★

    To determine who would challenge Botvinnik for the title, FIDE held one interzonal tournament, with the top 8 advancing (see Saltsjöbaden Interzonal (1948) for games and more info). The top 8 advancing were Bronstein (13.5/19), Laszlo Szabo (12.5/19), Isaac Boleslavsky (12/19), Alexander Kotov (11.5/19), Andre Lilienthal (11/19) along with Miguel Najdorf, Gideon Stahlberg and Salomon Flohr (those 3, along with Igor Bondarevsky all finished with 10.5/19, and were going to compete for the 3 remaining spots in the next round, but Bondarevsky withdrew, automatically sending the other 3).

    The above 8, along with Vasily Smyslov, Paul Keres, Samuel Reshevsky and Max Euwe (who competed in the previous championship tournament) along with Reuben Fine (who had to withdraw the 1948 tournament) all competed in a double round robin in Budapest (see Budapest Candidates (1950) for games and more info. However, Reshevsky, Euwe and Fine refused to participate. Bronstein and Boleslavsky both finished with 12/18, and played a 12 game match (see Game Collection: WCC Index (Bronstein-Boleslavsky 1950) for games) to determine who would face Botvinnik. It was tied 6-6 after 12, so those two kept playing until a decisive game came up. Bronstein won the 2nd playoff game with the black pieces to advance.

    ★★★ CONDITIONS ★★★

    The match was a best of 24 games. The first player to reach 12 1/2 points would be the winner. If the match ended in a 12-12 tie, then the defending champion (in this case Botvinnik) would retain the title. The match took place in Moscow. The first game was played on March 14th, 1951.

    ★★★ FINAL ★★★

    The match ended on May 11th, 1951. After a draw in Game 24, the match was tied 12-12. Since the match was tied, the defending champion (Botvinnik in this case) retained his title.

    ★★★ MINI TABLE ★★★

    Botvinnik 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 0 1 1 1/2 1/2 1/2 0 1 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 0 1/2 1 1/2 0 0 1 1/2 (5 wins, 5 losses and 14 draws) <50% score>

    Bronstein 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1 0 0 1/2 1/2 1/2 1 0 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1 1/2 0 1/2 1 1 0 1/2 (5 wins, 5 losses and 14 draws) <50% score>

    ★★★ OTHER LINKS ★★★

    See also: Botvinnik - Bronstein World Championship Match (1951)

    Head to Head Record Before 1951: http://www.chessgames.com/perl/ches... (Bronstein with 1 win, 1 draw and 0 losses)

    Previous World Championship: Game Collection: 1948 World Chess Championship

    Next World Championship: Game Collection: 1954 World Chess Championship

    24 games, 1951

  20. 1954 World Chess Championship
    ★★★ INTRO ★★★

    The 1954 World Chess Championship was between 43 year old defending champion Mikhail Botvinnik of the Soviet Union and 33 year old challenger Vasily Smyslov who was also from the Soviet Union.

    ★★★ QUALIFICATION ★★★

    After Botvinnik tied the match with David Bronstein and retained his WCC title (see Game Collection: 1951 World Chess Championship for games and more info), it was time for someone else to try to snatch it. First, an interzonal tournament with 21 players was held (see Stockholm Interzonal (1952) for games and more info). The top 5 would qualify for the Candidates tournament. Advancing to the next round was Alexander Kotov (16.5/20), Mark Taimanov, Tigran Vartanovich Petrosian (both 13.5/20), Efim Geller (13/20) and Yuri Averbakh (12.5/20), all from the Soviet Union. Originally, only the top 5 can advance, but Gideon Stahlberg, Laszlo Szabo and Svetozar Gligoric (all 12/20) all made it.

    In the candidates tournament (see Zurich Candidates (1953) for games and more info), it would be a 15 player, double round robin. They would be the top 8 (previous mentioned) from the interzonal tournament, top 5 from the previous candidates tournament (Bronstein, Isaac Boleslavsky, Smyslov, Paul Keres and Miguel Najdorf) and the last 2 players that have not qualified yet from 1948 (Samuel Reshevsky and Max Euwe). Smyslov earned 18 points out of a possible 28 (+9,-1,=18), winning by 2 points to earn the right to challenge Botvinnik.

    ★★★ CONDITIONS ★★★

    The match took place in Moscow once again. The conditions for the match were the same as the 1951 match. The match was a best of 24 games. The first player to reach 12 1/2 points would be crowned world champion. If the match ended in a 12-12 tie, the defending champion (in this case Botvinnik) would retain his title. The first round was played on March 16th, 1954.

    ★★★ FINAL ★★★

    The match concluded on May 13th, 1954. It was a very tough match. The match once again ended in a 12-12 tie which meant the defending champion (in this case Botvinnik) retained his title.

    ★★★ MINI TABLE ★★★

    Botvinnik 1 1 1/2 1 1/2 1/2 0 1/2 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1/2 1/2 1/2 0 1/2 1/2 0 1/2 (7 wins, 7 losses and 10 draws) <50% score>

    Smyslov 0 0 1/2 0 1/2 1/2 1 1/2 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1/2 1/2 1/2 1 1/2 1/2 1 0 (7 wins, 7 losses and 10 draws) <50% score>

    ★★★ OTHER LINKS ★★★

    See also: Botvinnik - Smyslov World Championship Match (1954)

    Head to Head Record Prior to 1954: http://www.chessgames.com/perl/ches... (10 wins, 4 losses and 12 draws in favour of Botvinnik)

    Previous World Championship: Game Collection: 1951 World Chess Championship

    Next World Championship: Game Collection: 1957 World Chess Championship

    24 games, 1954

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