Amarande: How about 9 ... Qa5?
Plan: 10 ... Bb4 and 11 ... Bxd2+ exchanging the Queens as well, thus significantly blunting any White attacking chances. The only real downside I see is that now White is given two Bishops and Black is left with the somewhat restricted Bc8 but any immediate danger has been stopped.
Possible White counters -
10 a3, preventing Bb4 and threatening to win the e-pawn with 11 b4. Here Black would have to play 10 ... f5 and White would be able to try the King-side attack along similar lines, on the other hand Black has not exchanged his dark-square bishop and any attempt to enforce such an exchange, if possible, is likely to exchange off White's own dark squared bishop for it (and this piece as we see is a virtual essential to the attack). Again any advantage will likely ultimately derive more from Black's Bc8 being bad than from an all out assault.
Better appears 10 Qb3 (better than Qc2, as after 10 Qc2 Bb4 White's Queen gets exchanged since he can't prevent it with Rd1 or 0-0-0 without dropping the a-pawn) after which 10 ... Bb4 would then appear to be a mistake:
(after 9 ... Qa5, instead of von Scheve's 9 ... Bb4)
10 Qb3 Bb4(?) 11 0-0-0! f5 12 c5!
(taking advantage of the fact that not only Pe4, but also Pe6 is a target, to corral Black's Bishop and seize definite control of the hole d6)
12 ... Nf6 13 a3!
(and now Black must exchange the B as in the game)
13 ... Bxd2+ 14 Rxd2 0-0
(he must do this right away or 15 Bd6 will prevent it for quite a long time; as White can still enforce exf3, and can then apply additional blasting-powder with e4, this is likely to be fatal. Now 15 Bd6 would be faulty on account of Rf7 followed by Ne8 kicking the Bishop out)
15 Qc2 Bd7 16 f3
(As per Tarrasch. Now Black must exchange, since otherwise Be5 or Bg5 forces the issue by attacking the guard)
16 ... exf3 17 gxf3 b6
(As in the game I see little chance for Black here outside of a counterattack. However to Black's woe b8 is covered firmly by the White Bishop and there is no real way to drive it off. Still he must try)
18 Rg2 bxc5 19 dxc5 a6
(To bring the Rook to b7 via a7 and drum up some sort of attack)
20 Rhg1 Ne8 21 Bc4!
(Here the Bishop is actually useful! Its development prevents Qe1+ and also Qxc5, since there would follow 22 Bxe6+ and woe to the conquered Queen. Not 21 Be5?? Qe1+! 22 Qd1 Qxe3+ and Black wins!)
21 ... Ra7 22 Be5 Rf7 23 Bc3
(The time has come to drive off the Queen. If now 23 ... Qxc5? 24 Bd4, or perhaps even stronger 24 Bxg7!)
23 ... Qd8 24 Rg3 Rb7 25 Qg2 Bc8
and here I will take leave of my analysis; Black's Bishop is thoroughly bad, his Rooks and Knight are chained to g7 and most of his pawns are weak. Against this White has only the Pc5 as any significant weakness and has a tremendous attack. White should certainly win ...