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Akiba Rubinstein
Number of games in database: 1,036
Years covered: 1897 to 1948
Overall record: +475 -165 =294 (66.6%)*
   * Overall winning percentage = (wins+draws/2) / total games
      Based on games in the database; may be incomplete.
      102 exhibition games, odds games, etc. are excluded from this statistic.

With the White pieces:
 Queen's Pawn Game (128) 
    D02 A46 D05 D00 A40
 Orthodox Defense (50) 
    D63 D61 D64 D53 D52
 Nimzo Indian (39) 
    E38 E34 E46 E44 E21
 Queen's Gambit Declined (38) 
    D37 D30 D31 D36 D35
 Tarrasch Defense (33) 
    D33 D32 D34
 King's Gambit Declined (23) 
    C30 C31 C32
With the Black pieces:
 Ruy Lopez (102) 
    C79 C77 C98 C68 C88
 Orthodox Defense (51) 
    D63 D60 D52 D61 D55
 Four Knights (46) 
    C48 C49 C47
 Queen's Pawn Game (46) 
    D02 D00 D04 D05 A46
 French Defense (41) 
    C01 C11 C10 C00 C02
 Queen's Gambit Declined (35) 
    D31 D30 D37 D06
Repertoire Explorer

NOTABLE GAMES: [what is this?]
   Rotlewi vs Rubinstein, 1907 0-1
   Rubinstein vs Lasker, 1909 1-0
   Rubinstein vs Hromadka, 1923 1-0
   Rubinstein vs Salwe, 1908 1-0
   Rubinstein vs Capablanca, 1911 1-0
   Rubinstein vs Schlechter, 1912 1-0
   Alekhine vs Rubinstein, 1912 0-1
   Rubinstein vs Duras, 1908 1-0
   Rubinstein vs Janowski, 1925 1-0
   Rubinstein vs Alekhine, 1911 1-0

NOTABLE TOURNAMENTS: [what is this?]
   St Petersburg (1909)
   Bad Pistyan (1912)
   Karlsbad (1907)
   18th DSB Kongress (1912)
   San Sebastian (1912)
   Vienna (1922)
   Marienbad (1925)
   Karlsbad (1911)
   Gothenburg (1920)
   Baden-Baden (1925)
   San Remo (1930)
   Prague (1908)
   Vienna (1908)
   London (1922)
   Karlsbad (1929)

GAME COLLECTIONS: [what is this?]
   Dry Rubinstein by Gottschalk
   Rubinstein's Chess Masterpieces by Karpova
   Rubinstein vs World Champions Decisive Games by visayanbraindoctor
   Akiba Rubinstein's Best Games by KingG
   The Unknown Rubinstein - Forgotten treasures by Karpova
   Rubinstein Rubies by chocobonbon
   Match Rubinstein! by amadeus
   Guess-the-Move Chess: 1920-1939 (Part 2) by Anatoly21
   Rubinstein's Rook Endings by kiadd
   Learn from the great Rubinstein by timothee3331
   Akiba Rubinstein's Rook Endings by Knight Pawn
   annotated games & lis short brilliancys by gmlisowitz
   Akiva Rubinstein by Archives
   classicisme by Duveltje

   Spielmann vs Rubinstein, 1920
   Salwe vs Rubinstein, 1907
   O Bernstein vs Rubinstein, 1912
   Rubinstein vs Loman / Van Gelder, 1920

Search Sacrifice Explorer for Akiba Rubinstein
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(born Dec-01-1880, died Mar-15-1961) Poland (citizen of Belgium)

[what is this?]
Akiba (Akiva, Akiwa) Kiwelowicz Rubinstein was born on December 1st, 1880,(kwabc) in Stawiski, Poland, to a Jewish family. They had planned for him to become a rabbi, but Rubinstein did not complete his studies. Instead, he decided to devote his full time to chess after drawing his first match against Georg Salwe thereby qualifying for the 3rd All-Russian Championship in Kiev, 1903, and finishing 5th/19. Encouraged by that success, his career flourished from 1904 to 1912. After his shared win at the Barmen Hauptturnier in 1905, he was recognized as a master.

His first big victory was his first place at Lodz, 1906, ahead of Mikhail Chigorin and at Ostende, 1906, he came in 3rd leaving future World Championship Challengers Frank James Marshall and David Janowski behind. He won Karlsbad (1907) and shared first place at Ostende, 1907, together with Dr. Ossip Bernstein. Furthermore, he won matches against Richard Teichmann and Frank James Marshall in 1908 and also winning Lodz (1908) ahead of the latter.

Following his shared first place at St Petersburg (1909) together with World Champion Dr. Emanuel Lasker, the public began to regard him as a possible Challenger for the Worldchampionship title. While he had to contend himself with a shared 2nd place at San Sebastian (1911), Rubinstein remained undefeated and beat the winner Jose Raul Capablanca in their individual encounter. The year 1912 is considered his magical year as he won four consecutive Major Tournaments: San Sebastian (1912), Bad Pistyan (1912), 18th DSB Kongress (1912) and Vilnius All-Russian Masters (1912). His worst result prior to World War One was his elimination in the preliminary tournament at St Petersburg (1914) with an equal score.

World Championship Challenger

Rubinstein was never given a chance to play the World Champion Dr. Emanuel Lasker because their match for the World Championship, scheduled to begin in October 1914, was cancelled after World War One broke out. After the War, he was unable to raise sufficient funds to meet the financial demands to play Jose Raul Capablanca.

Career after the First World War

Confined to stay in Poland, a major battleground, during the war, it was not until 1918 that Rubinstein could travel to Berlin and participate in events financed by Bernhard Kagan. He won the match Rubinstein-Schlechter (1918) but, overall, his play became more uneven after World War One and very good tournaments followed very bad ones. Yet he was still a World Class Grandmaster. Rubinstein won a match against the future Worldchampionship Challenger Efim Bogoljubov in 1920, triumphed at Triberg, 1921, and remained unbeaten at Vienna (1922) which was one of his greatest tournaments ever.

He came in 2nd at Baden Baden (1925) and shared 1st place at Marienbad (1925). In 1927, he won the Polish Championship in Lodz ahead of Dr. Savielly Tartakower. The year 1929 saw him following his 4th place at Karlsbad (1929) with a 2nd place at Budapest (1929) and finally a 1st place at Rogaska Slatina, 1929, ahead of Salomon Flohr and Geza Maroczy. He was the leader of the Polish team that won the Chess Olympiad in Hamburg in 1930, with a stunning record of +13 =4 -0. In 1931, at the Prague Olympiad, Poland managed to win the Silver medal. After 1932, he withdrew from active tournament play. He passed away in Antwerp, Belgium in 1961.

Legacy and Testimonials

Today, the Rubinstein variation of the Nimzo-Indian Defense (1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 Bb4 4.e3) is the most popular line of the Nimzo-Indian.

Former World Champion Garry Kasparov wrote that: "Careful analysis shows that modern chess, proceeding from the Botvinnik era, is very strongly influenced by the games of Rubinstein, who was, essentially, one of the fathers of modern chess history." -- On My Great Predecessors Part I (Everyman, 2003, p. 204)

Former World Champion Vladimir Kramnik once said that Rubinstein was: “ incredibly talented and fantastic chess player...Why didn't he become a World Champion? That's a mystery to me…” (

"Rubinstein stands as the greatest end-game player of all time." - Barnie Frank Winkelman

"The sublime end-game virtuoso of all time." - Dr. J. Hannak, author of Emanuel Lasker: The Life of a Chess Master (1959).

Additional Information

Here's an overview of Rubinstein's individual scores against the strongest players of his time: User: RubinsteinScores.

Here's more on Rubinstein's life: User: RubinsteinLife and User: RubinsteinLife2.

Here's an overview of Rubinstein's matches: User: RubinsteinMatches.

Here's an overview of Rubinstein's tournament career:

jessicafischerqueen's documentary of Rubinstein can be found in three parts at, and

Sources: J Donaldson & N Minev, The Life & Games of Akiva Rubinstein - Volume 1: Uncrowned King, 2nd edition, 2006, Russell Enterprises, Inc., Milford, CT, USA, J Donaldson & N Minev, The Life & Games of Akiva Rubinstein - Volume 2: The Later Years, 2nd edition, 2011, Russell Enterprises, Inc., Milford, CT, USA

A good online source for more on Rubinstein's life: by User: anyi

(kwabc) Elżbieta Kusina and Jan Kusina of the Malopolska Chess Association, Poland, Krakow, according to the April 19, 2014, news of the Kenneth Whyld Foundation & Association,

 page 1 of 42; games 1-25 of 1,036  PGN Download
Game  ResultMoves Year Event/LocaleOpening
1. Rubinstein vs G G Bartoszkiewicz 1-017 1897 CorrespondenceC55 Two Knights Defense
2. Rubinstein vs NN 1-018 1902 ?000 Chess variants
3. Chigorin vs Rubinstein 1-033 1903 KievC00 French Defense
4. Salwe vs Rubinstein 0-114 1903 LodzC50 Giuoco Piano
5. Rubinstein vs V Nikolaev 1-040 1903 Third All-Russian ChampionshipD37 Queen's Gambit Declined
6. Chojnacki vs Rubinstein 0-123 1903 Handicap tournament000 Chess variants
7. Rubinstein vs Salwe 1-032 1903 Lodz mD05 Queen's Pawn Game
8. M Lowcki vs Rubinstein 1-029 1903 RUS-ch03D31 Queen's Gambit Declined
9. Rubinstein vs S Levitsky ½-½38 1903 Third All-Russian ChampionshipD08 Queen's Gambit Declined, Albin Counter Gambit
10. Salwe vs Rubinstein 1-030 1903 Lodz mB57 Sicilian
11. Rubinstein vs Dus Chotimirsky 0-175 1903 RUS-ch03D05 Queen's Pawn Game
12. Salwe vs Rubinstein 1-049 1903 ConsultationC55 Two Knights Defense
13. Rubinstein vs P P Benko 1-018 1903 RUS-ch03A84 Dutch
14. W Von Stamm vs Rubinstein 0-127 1903 Third All-Russian ChampionshipD32 Queen's Gambit Declined, Tarrasch
15. Rubinstein vs V N Kulomzin 1-020 1903 Third All-Russian ChampionshipD32 Queen's Gambit Declined, Tarrasch
16. S Izbinsky vs Rubinstein 0-136 1903 RUS-ch03C81 Ruy Lopez, Open, Howell Attack
17. N E Kalinsky vs Rubinstein 0-139 1903 Third All-Russian ChampionshipC22 Center Game
18. Salwe vs Rubinstein ½-½39 1903 RUS-ch03D02 Queen's Pawn Game
19. Rubinstein vs S F Lebedev 1-059 1903 Third All-Russian ChampionshipC10 French
20. Rubinstein vs A Rabinovich 0-149 1903 Third All-Russian ChampionshipA84 Dutch
21. Rubinstein vs O Bernstein 0-125 1903 Third All-Russian ChampionshipC45 Scotch Game
22. Rubinstein vs Znosko-Borovsky ½-½24 1903 Kiev All-Russian chD53 Queen's Gambit Declined
23. Yurevich vs Rubinstein 0-164 1903 Third All-Russian ChampionshipA02 Bird's Opening
24. Rubinstein vs NN 1-022 1903 Handicap tournament ?000 Chess variants
25. Schiffers vs Rubinstein 0-121 1903 Third All-Russian ChampionshipC11 French
 page 1 of 42; games 1-25 of 1,036  PGN Download
  REFINE SEARCH:   White wins (1-0) | Black wins (0-1) | Draws (1/2-1/2) | Rubinstein wins | Rubinstein loses  

Kibitzer's Corner
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Premium Chessgames Member
  Karpova: Dr. Emanuel Lasker, Berlin, August 31, 1911, on Karlsbad (1911) (on August 31st, round 8 had just been played):

<Aber er ist einer von den sehr wenigen, die kein Glück brauchen.>

(But he [Rubinstein] is one of the very few who do not need luck.)

Source: 'Pester Lloyd', 1911.09.03, page 7

Lasker's point is that Rubinstein will become a threat to the tournament leaders, although after 8 rounds he had aleady suffered two losses.

Premium Chessgames Member
  Karpova: Dr. Emanuel Lasker, Berlin, February 22, 1912:

<Das Turnier zu San Sebastian wird, man kann es unbesorgt prophezeien, Rubinstein Triumph und Anerkennung bringen. Sein Stil hat das, was den Erfolg erzwingt. Perlenklar, aus einer Gedankenwelt stammend, die die Wahrheit um ihrer selbst willen erstrebt und verehrt, und voll urwüchsiger Kraft, weil er jedes gesteckte Ziel mit den geringsten Mitteln zu erreichen weiß, hat seine Spielkunst sich die Bewunderung der Kenner erobert. Die große Menge versteht ihn noch nicht. Bisher hat es ihm an Willen gefehlt, ihr sein Können zu beweisen. Nun sprechen manche Zeichen dafür, daß er den Willen zur Tat gefunden hat. San Sebastian wird aller Welt seine vollendete Meisterschaft offenbar machen.>

(The San Sebastian tournament will, one can prophesy it unconcerned, bring triumph and recognition to Rubinstein. His style has what is needed to enforce the success. Clear like a pearl, originating from an intellectual world which strives for and adores truth for its own sake, and full of lusty power, because he knows how to reach every set goal with the least means, his art of play has seized the admiration of the connoisseurs. The crowd doesn't understand him yet. So far, he lacked the will to demonstrate his capability to them. Now, some signes bespeak that he found the will to deed. San Sebastian will make his perfect mastery obvious to the whole world.)

Source: 'Pester Lloyd', 1912.02.25, page 11

Premium Chessgames Member
  Karpova: Dr. Emanuel Lasker, Göttingen, March 27, 1912:

<Rubinstein hat an mich von San Sebastian geschrieben. Er wünscht mit mir ein Match um die Weltmeisterschaft auszutragen. Für dieses Match würde, wie ich glaube, sich ein starkes Interesse zeigen, und auch ich würde gern mit einem solchen Meister spielen. Ich bin aber momentan noch gebunden, weil Capablanca sich noch nicht erklärt hat, ob er protestieren wird oder nicht. [...] Ich werde Capablanca bis zum 20. April Zeit lassen, den Protest einzureichen. Sollte er bis zu jenem Datum die Gelegenheit nicht benützt haben, werde ich diese Angelegenheit für erledigt erachten und dem Ersuchen von Rubinstein nähertreten.>

(Rubinstein wrote to me from San Sebastian. He wishes to play a match for the world championship against me. For this match, as I believe, strong interest would be shown, and I would also like to play against such a master. But I am currently still bound, as Capablanca didn't declare yet whether he will file a protest or not. [...] I will grant Capablanca time until April 20th to file the protest. If he won't have made use of the opportunity until then, I will consider this matter finished and approach the request of Rubinstein.)

Source: 'Pester Lloyd', 1912.03.31, page 10

Premium Chessgames Member
  Karpova: Dr. Emanuel Lasker, Berlin, June 13, 1912:

<Durch seinen überlegenen Sieg zu Pöstyen hat Rubinstein endlich den Platz eingenommen, der ihm gebührt. Er zählt jetzt zweifelsohne zu den wenigen, die Anspruch darauf erheben können, in die Reihe der großen historischen Schachpersönlichkeiten eingeordnet zu werden. Noch schlummern unberührte Kräfte in ihm. Die Schachwelt wird seiner ferneren Laufbahn mit Interesse folgen.>

(By his superior win at Pistyan, Rubinstein finally took the place that is due to him. Without a doubt, he now belongs to the few who can lay claim to be classified in the line of the great historical chess personalities. Still, untouched powers are slumbering within him. The chess world will follow his future career with interest.)

Source: 'Pester Lloyd', 1912.06.12, page 12

Premium Chessgames Member
  Karpova: Dr. Emanuel Lasker, Leipzig, June 27, 1912:

<Die Entwicklung von Rubinsteins Stil ist erstaunlich. Wenige auch der hervorragendsten Schachmeister haben den Einfluß des Erfolges ausgehalten, aber Rubinstein erringt Sieg auf Sieg und erklettert nichtsdestoweniger immer steilere Höhen der Kunst. Unabänderlich bewahrt er die Strenge gegen sich selbst. Nur ganz bescheidene Naturen vermögen kritisch gegen sich selbst zu bleiben, wenn ihrer Eitelkeit so viele Lockungen geboten werden.>

(The development of Rubinstein's style is stunning. Few even of the most outstanding chessmasters have stood the influence of success, but Rubinstein scores win on win, and nonetheless climbs up always steeper heights of the art. Unchangeably does he keep the strictness towards himself. Only very humble natures manage to stay critical towards themselves, if their vanity is exposed to so many enticements.)

Source: 'Pester Lloyd', 1912.07.07, page 8

Premium Chessgames Member
  Karpova: Information on the negotiations from Dr. Emanuel Lasker (Berlin, August 8, 1912):

- On his travel to Vilnius, Rubinstein stayed for a few days at the Hiddensee to recover. He visited Dr. Lasker there and they talked about the world championship match conditions.

- They agreed on the main points and there was disagreement over one condition only.


- 8 games up, draws not counting

- If this goal wasn't reached after 30 games, the player with most points wins.

- The only exception is, if a contestant is only one point ahead, in this case, the match will proceed until another decisive game is played, but only for 4 games at maximum

- If the match is not yet decided after those 4 additional games, a difference of 1 point shall not decide the match (<Nach Erledigung dieser Anzahl von Partien solle eine Differenz von einem Point nicht entscheiden.>)

- 5 playing days per week

- 12 moves per hour

- Every day either 4 consecutive hours, or 2 sessions of 2.5 hours with a 2 hour break

- Disagreement about the playing time: Dr. Lasker suggests play between 1400 and 2200 (e. g. 1400 to 1800, or 1500 to 1730 and 1930 to 2200), but Rubinstein doesn't want to play in the evening, suggesting to start at 1100. Dr. Lasker cannot accept Rubinstein's proposal as he is not used to intellectual work in the morning and he believes that there would not be enough spectators.

Source: 'Pester Lloyd', 1912.08.11, p. 8

Premium Chessgames Member
  Karpova: Dr. Emanuel Lasker: <Rubinstein ist ein Leu.> (Rubinstein is a lion.)

Source: 'Pester Lloyd', 1912.09.22, p. 8 (written by Lasker in Berlin, on September 19th)

For the context, see Vilnius All-Russian Masters (1912)

Premium Chessgames Member
  offramp: I think that the best chess book that has not yet been written is <The Collected Chess Journalism of Akiva Rubinstein>.

Someone would have to translate it from the Yiddish.

Premium Chessgames Member
  Karpova: Dr. Emanuel Lasker reports (Berlin, November 7), that Rubinstein would participate in the New York-Havana tournament. Geza Maroczy also accepted the invitation (<Von Newyork kommt die Nachricht, daß Rubinstein an dem Turniere teilnehmen wird. Auch Maroczy hat zugesagt.>).

Source: 'Pester Lloyd', 1912.11.10, p. 9

The tournament was never arranged. In the 'Pester Lloyd' of September 29, 1912 (p. 9), Dr. Lasker had voiced doubts that Rubinstein among others would participate (<Ich glaube, daß zumindesten Dr. Bernstein, ich selbst, Maroczy, Rubinstein, Dr. Tarrasch und Dr. Vidmar zweifelhaft sind.>, written in Berlin, on September 26).

Premium Chessgames Member
  Karpova: Dr. Emanuel Lasker, Berlin, November 14:

<Von Newyork kommt die erstaunliche Nachricht, daß das geplante Turnier, dessen Anfang so zuversichtlich auf den 30. November festgesetzt war, aufgehoben ist. Eine lakonische Depesche meldete das Faktum ohne Angabe von Gründen dem europäischen Vertreter des Komitees Herrn Hoffer, der es lakonisch weitergab. [...] Für die Schachmeister, die sich zum Turniere gerüstet haben, hat der plötzliche Umschwung eine sehr bedauerliche Konsequenz. Sie hatten für vier oder fünf Monate ihrer nächsten Zukunft alle Dispositionen getroffen, um sich auf den Kampf vorzubereiten und eine geraume Zeit auf Reisen in fernen Landen zu verbringen. Nun stehen sie ohne Engagements da. Ihr einziger Fehler ist gewesen, daß sie den Worten des Komitees geglaubt haben. Augenscheinlich hat dies die Verpflichtung, den empfindlichen Schaden, den es angerichtet hat, soweit dies überhaupt geschehen kann, wieder gutzumachen.>

(The astonishing news arrives from New York, that the planned tournament, scheduled so confidently for November 30th, is cancelled. A laconic telegram reported the fact without a mention of the reasons to the European representative of the committee, Mr. Hoffer, who relayed it laconically. [...] For the chessmasters who prepared for the tournament, the sudden turnaround has a very regretful consequence. They had met for four to five months of their next future all dispositions, to prepare for the competition and to spend a lot of time on travelling in far away countries. Now they are left without engagements. Their sole mistake was to believe the words of the committee. Obviously the committee now has the duty to atone for the damage it has caused, as far as that is possible at all.)

Source: 'Pester Lloyd', 1912.11.17, p. 12

Dr. Lasker raises an important point. It should be noted, that in Berlin, on October 3rd ('Pester Lloyd', 1912.10.06, p. 9) he had written <Aber an dessen Zustandekommen braucht man nicht zu zweifeln.> (But one need not doubt it taking place.) So while it was not yet clear, how it would exactly be, Dr. Lasker was also sure that it would take place.

Nothing is known about Rubinstein playing serious chess in 1913. There are probably several possible reasons for that: He had to recover from the many chess tournaments in 1912, he arranged the match against Dr. Lasker and probably prepared for it. But the influence of such a failed tournament can also have a great impact, as Dr. Lasker makes clear. They had planned to invest about 4 to 5 months into it - and now nothing was left.

Another important point not mentioned yet is, that this not only influenced the plans of the chessplayers, but also other chess tournament organizers. See for example my post Georg Rotlewi for a tournament that was postponed due to other tournaments taking place, and finally never arranged.

Premium Chessgames Member
  offramp: «Rubinstein told me that he could communicate with his housefly through her food, but I pooh-poohed the idea.»
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  Karpova: Dr. Emanuel Lasker, Berlin, January 30:

<Seit einigen Tagen findet in Newyork ein Turnier statt, das die amerikanische Schachwelt veranstaltet hat, um sich für den Ausfall des internationalen Turniers zu entschädigen. Auf diese Weise haben die Beteiligten, insbesondere Capablanca und Felix Cahn, ihren guten Willen an den Tag gelegt. Die europäischen Meister allerdings, die auf die Teilnahme am geplanten großen Turnier gerechnet und demgemäß ihre Arrangements getroffen hatten, bleiben ohne Kompensation.>

(A few days ago, a tournament commenced in New York, which was arranged by the American chess world to recoup themselves for the cancellation of the International tournament. This way, the involved parties, especially Capablanca and Felix Cahn, displayed their good will. The European masters however, who had counted on the participation in the planned great tournament, and made their arrangements accordingly, remain without compensation.)

Source: 'Pester Lloyd', 1913.02.02, p. 9

Among those masters was Rubinstein. Janowski travelled there nonetheless and played in the compensatory, national tournament.

Premium Chessgames Member
  Karpova: Dr. Emanuel Lasker, Berlin, February 20:

<Das Komitee des amerikanischen Turniers hat die Verpflichtung, die es auf sich genommen hatte, anerkannt und einigen der Meister, die sich zur Teilnahme am Turnier vorbereitet hatten, eine Entschädigung gezahlt.>

(The committee of the American tournament has acknowledged the duty it had shouldered and paid compensation to some of the masters, who had prepared for the participation in the tournament.)

Source: 'Pester Lloyd', 1913.02.23, p. 11

Now further information, so it's not known whether Rubinstein was affected.

Premium Chessgames Member
  Karpova: Dr. Emanuel Lasker, Berlin, August 21:

<Rubinstein ist heute hier angelangt. Die Besprechungen wegen eines Matches um die Weltmeisterschaft scheinen zum Ziele zu führen.>

(Rubinstein arrived here today. The discussions on a match for the world championship appear to achieve results.)

Source: 'Pester Lloyd', 1913.08.24, p. 7

Premium Chessgames Member
  Karpova: Dr. Emanuel Lasker (Berlin, August 28) announces that the negotiations for a world championship match against Rubinstein were finished.

- The match is to be played in the next year.

- Winner is he who has most points after 20 games.

- Time control is 2 hours for every 30 moves

- Playing time is 1500 to 1900

- They play on 5 days per week

- To be appointed are an arbiter, a treasurer, a tournament director and seconds; negotiations with chess clubs are necessary, and determination of the playing venues and the travel route.

- There's a novelty: No stake, but a match book with annotations by both masters. Chess friends shall subscribe to it and it will only be delivered to subscribers. The price of the book will be either 20 <Mark> or 24 <Kronen>, and they hope to gather enough money to substitute a stake.

<Ein solcher Wettkampf soll ja nicht der Eitelkeit der Spieler dienen oder eine Meinung über deren Stärkeverhältnis klären, sondern vor allem Tausenden von Schachfreunden Freude machen.>

(Such a match shall not serve the players' vanity or settle an opinion on their strength relation, but foremost bring joy to thousands of chess friends.)

<Ohne Zweifel wird das Match hohes Interesse erregen, und nicht bloß in Europa. Rubinstein hat einen glänzenden Aufstieg genommen. Er hat sich, man kann es wohl mit Bestimmtheit behaupten, allen seinen Turniergegnern überlegen gezeigt. Es erhebt sich daher naturgemäß die Frage, ob er auch der letzten Ehre, die die Schachwelt zu vergeben hat, des Titels der Weltmeisterschaft, würdig ist. Solche Fragen sind nicht a priori zu beantworten. Hier ist eine Rätselfrage, die dem Scharfsinn jedes Philosophen widerstehen würde; hier entscheidet einzig der Versuch, das Ergeignis, die Kampfesprobe.>

(Without a doubt, the match will cause great inerest, and not only in Europe. Rubinstein has taken a brilliant ascent. He has himself, one can probably state it with certainty, shown to be superior to all his tournament competitors. Naturally, the question arises whether he is worthy of the last honour the chess world has to offer, the title of world champion. Such questions cannot be answered a priori. Here is a puzzle, which would resist the acumen of every philosopher; here decides only the try, the event, the test in the struggle.)

Source: 'Pester Lloyd', 1913.08.31, p. 11

Premium Chessgames Member
  Karpova: Dr. Emanuel Lasker, Berlin, September 3:

<Die Nachricht von dem zwischen Rubinstein und mir geschlossenen Uebereinkommen hat gewaltiges Interesse erweckt. Ich habe bereits mehrere Briefe von Klubs erhalten, die einen Teil des Matches in ihren Räumen zu sehen wünschen. Ohne Zweifel erhofft die Schachwelt von dem Kampfe eine Bereicherung der Theorie und des Stils.>

(The news of the agreement between Rubinstein and me awoke enormous interest. I already received several letters from Clubs who want to see a part of the match taking place in their rooms. Without a doubt, the chess world hopes for an enrichment of theory and style.)

Source: 'Pester Lloyd', 1913.09.07, p. 9

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  Karpova: Dr. Emanuel Lasker, Berlin, September 11:

<Die Verhandlungen wegen der Partien des Matches Rubinstein-Lasker machen guten Fortschritt. Es ist zu hoffen, daß das Programm des Matches im Monat Oktober festgelegt werden kann. Wenn nun die Subskription auf das Buch des Matches einen günstigen Fortgang nimmt, wird der Kampf, für den sich allerorts großes Interesse kundgibt, im Frühjahr beginnen können.>

(The negotiations because of the games of the match Rubinstein-Lasker are making good progress. It is hoped that the program of the match can be determined in October. If now the subscription for the match book goes on favourably, the match, for which great interest is voiced everywhere, can begin in spring.)

Source: 'Pester Lloyd', 1913.09.14, p. 9

Premium Chessgames Member
  Karpova: There was obviously a misunderstanding (although Dr. Lasker presumes it may have been intentional) to which the line quoted here Akiba Rubinstein gave rise:

<Ein solcher Wettkampf soll ja nicht der Eitelkeit der Spieler dienen oder eine Meinung über deren Stärkeverhältnis klären, sondern vor allem Tausenden von Schachfreunden Freude machen.>

(Such a match shall not serve the players' vanity or settle an opinion on their strength relation, but foremost bring joy to thousands of chess friends.)

The 'St. Petersburger Zeitung' now assumed the match would not be taken seriously, as the players played without inner solicitousness (as they didn't play because of vanity or relative strength) and the 'Wochenschach' adopted the misunderstanding without correcting it.

So Dr. Lasker makes clear how it was meant. <Wenn man sagt, der Mensch lebt nicht, um zu essen, heißt das etwa, daß der Mensch nicht esse?> (If you say that men don't live to eat, does that perhaps mean that men don't eat?). He merely wanted to stress that there are also completely different motifs for a world championship (not just those misconceptions (<Wir haben gegenüber falschen Auffassungen der Weltmeisterschaftskämpfe hervorheben wollen [...].>)). World championship matches are unlike private games, they are an ostantation and the personal has to take a back seat.

Source: 'Pester Lloyd', 1913.10.19, p. 9 (written in Berlin, October 16)

Premium Chessgames Member
  Karpova: Dr. Emanuel Lasker, Barmen, November 6:

<Die Unterhandlungen mit den Klubs wegen Uebernahme der zwanzig Partien des Wettkampfes mit Rubinstein machen erfreulichen Fortschritt. Die Orte, wo vierzehn der Partien gespielt werden, sind bereits festgestellt. Es sind dies die Städte Berlin, Frankfurt, Moskau, Lodz, Warschau. Außerdem sind Verhandlungen im Gange mit Zürich und Malmö.>

(The negotiations with the clubs because of acceptance of the 20 games of the match against Rubinstein make pleasant progress. The venues where 14 games will be played, have already been determined. These are the cities Berlin, Frankfurt, Moscow, Lodz, Warsaw. Furthermore, negotiations are under way with Zürich and Malmö.)

Source: 'Pester Lloyd', 1913.11.09, p. 11

Apr-19-14  thomastonk: Recent news on his date of birth:
Premium Chessgames Member
  Karpova: <thomas>

Thanks for the interesting news item! I updated the biography.

Apr-19-14  thomastonk: <Karpova> Thank you for the update! I wasn't completely sure (-> Editorial in "Karl", 3/2013), and so I left it to the expert.
Premium Chessgames Member
  Stonehenge: Should be updated here too:

User: RubinsteinLife

Premium Chessgames Member
  Karpova: Hermann Helms: <Rubinstein who is staying with his wife at the Hotel Majestic in Manhattan, smiled good-naturedly when told about Capablanca's latest whim. The Polish expert is on excellent terms with the former world champion.>

Source: 'Brooklyn Daily Eagle', 16 February 1928, p. 4A,

Found by Christian Sánchez (Rosario, Argentina) and posted in C.N. 8689,, as Rubinstein opposed Capablanca's proposed changes to chess.

Premium Chessgames Member
  Chessical: Information on Rubinstein circumstances immediately after the Second World War from Chess Review. Mrs Genia Rubinstein "We are alive. Akiba is much better and he will give a simultaneous exhibition in February. We have lost everything and we haven't even a place to live. We are staying in the home of the famous Belgium painter Kurt Leiser at 44, Rue du Chateau d'Eau, (Uccle) Brussels. We need assistance".

<Chess Review page 12, March 1945>.

Isador Samuel Turover was shown Chairman of the Rubinstein Relief Committee. He was a wealthy patron who had lived in Belgium before emigrating to the United States

"His son writes. It gives me pleasure to inform you that my father, who was in an asylum during the occupation, is in a satisfactory condition, as is our entire family. He has even began to play in public (for 12 years he had refrained from playing in public) and on the second of this month (March) will give a simultaneous exhibition against the players of the first category of Brussels."

<Chess Review page 4, May 1945>.

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