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Jose Raul Capablanca
Capablanca 
 
Number of games in database: 1,152
Years covered: 1893 to 1941

Overall record: +375 -46 =265 (74.0%)*
   * Overall winning percentage = (wins+draws/2) / total games in the database. 466 exhibition games, blitz/rapid, odds games, etc. are excluded from this statistic.

MOST PLAYED OPENINGS
With the White pieces:
 Ruy Lopez (147) 
    C66 C78 C62 C84 C83
 Orthodox Defense (79) 
    D63 D51 D52 D50 D67
 Queen's Gambit Declined (66) 
    D30 D37 D31 D38 D06
 Queen's Pawn Game (49) 
    D02 D00 D05 D04 A46
 French Defense (46) 
    C12 C01 C11 C14 C10
 Four Knights (35) 
    C49 C48
With the Black pieces:
 Orthodox Defense (53) 
    D63 D67 D53 D51 D64
 Ruy Lopez (52) 
    C72 C66 C77 C68 C71
 Queen's Pawn Game (39) 
    A46 D00 D02 D05 E10
 French Defense (19) 
    C01 C12 C15 C00 C09
 Nimzo Indian (19) 
    E24 E34 E40 E37 E23
 Caro-Kann (19) 
    B13 B18 B15 B12 B10
Repertoire Explorer

NOTABLE GAMES: [what is this?]
   Capablanca vs Tartakower, 1924 1-0
   Capablanca vs Marshall, 1918 1-0
   O Bernstein vs Capablanca, 1914 0-1
   Nimzowitsch vs Capablanca, 1927 0-1
   Capablanca vs M Fonaroff, 1918 1-0
   Lasker vs Capablanca, 1921 0-1
   Capablanca vs K Treybal, 1929 1-0
   Capablanca vs J Corzo, 1901 1-0
   Janowski vs Capablanca, 1916 0-1
   Marshall vs Capablanca, 1909 0-1

WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS: [what is this?]
   Lasker - Capablanca World Championship Match (1921)
   Capablanca - Alekhine World Championship Match (1927)

NOTABLE TOURNAMENTS: [what is this?]
   Capablanca - Marshall (1909)
   American National (1913)
   Rice Memorial (1916)
   New York (1918)
   New York Masters (1915)
   Hastings (1919)
   London (1922)
   Budapest (1929)
   New York (1927)
   Havana (1913)
   New York Masters (1911)
   St. Petersburg (1914)
   New York (1924)
   Karlsbad (1929)
   Moscow (1925)

GAME COLLECTIONS: [what is this?]
   Capablanca! by chocobonbon
   Capa.blanca by fredthebear
   Match Capablanca! by amadeus
   Capablanca plays the world... (II) by MissScarlett
   Capablanca plays the world....(I) by MissScarlett
   Jose Raul Capablanca's Best Games by KingG
   Immortal Games of Capablanca, F. Reinfeld by mjk
   Immortal Games of Capablanca, F. Reinfeld by demirchess
   Delicatessen by Gottschalk
   Veliki majstori saha 12 CAPABLANCA (Petrovic) by Chessdreamer
   capablanca best games by brager
   Capablanca´s Official Games (1901-1939) Part I by capablancakarpov
   World Champion - Capablanca (I.Linder/V.Linder) by Qindarka
   Capablanca plays the world... (III) by MissScarlett

GAMES ANNOTATED BY CAPABLANCA: [what is this?]
   Lasker vs Capablanca, 1921
   Capablanca vs Lasker, 1921
   Capablanca vs Lasker, 1921
   Lasker vs Schlechter, 1910
   Nimzowitsch vs Capablanca, 1913
   >> 27 GAMES ANNOTATED BY CAPABLANCA


Search Sacrifice Explorer for Jose Raul Capablanca
Search Google for Jose Raul Capablanca


JOSE RAUL CAPABLANCA
(born Nov-19-1888, died Mar-08-1942, 53 years old) Cuba

[what is this?]

José Raúl Capablanca y Graupera was the third World Champion, reigning from 1921 until 1927. Renowned for the simplicity of his play, his legendary endgame prowess, accuracy, and the speed of his play, he earned the nickname of the "Human Chess Machine".

Background

Capablanca, the second son of a Spanish Army officer, was born in Havana. He learned to play at an early age by watching his father and defeated Cuban Champion Juan Corzo in an informal match in 1901 by 6.5-5.5 (+4 −3 =5), turning 13 years of age during the match. Despite this and despite taking 4th place in the first Cuban Championship in 1902, he did not focus on chess until 1908 when he left Columbia University where he had enrolled to study chemical engineering and play baseball. He did, however, join the Manhattan Chess Club in 1905, soon establishing his dominance in rapid chess. He won a rapid chess tournament in 1906 ahead of the World Champion Emanuel Lasker, and played many informal games against him. Within a year or two of dropping out of university and after playing simultaneous exhibitions in dozens of US cities, winning over 95% of his games, Capablanca had established himself as one of the top players in the world, especially after the Capablanca - Marshall (1909) New York match exhibition win 15-8 (+8 -1 =14).

Tournaments

Capablanca won the 1910 New York State Championship by defeating co-leader Charles Jaffe in a tiebreaker match. In 1911, he placed second in the National Tournament in New York, with 9½ out of 12, half a point behind Marshall, and half a point ahead of Jaffe and Oscar Chajes. There followed Capablanca’s ground breaking win at San Sebastian (1911) with 9.5/14 (+6 -1 =7), ahead of Akiba Rubinstein and Milan Vidmar on 9, Marshall on 8.5, and other luminaries such as Carl Schlechter , Siegbert Tarrasch and Ossip Bernstein. Before the tournament, Aron Nimzowitsch protested the unknown Capablanca’s involvement in the event, but the latter demonstrated his credentials by defeating Nimzowitsch in in their game. Winning at San Sebastian was only the second time a player had won a major tournament at his first attempt since Harry Nelson Pillsbury ’s triumph at Hastings in 1895, and it provided a powerful boost to his credibility to challenge for the world title. He did so, but the match did not take place for another 10 years.

In early 1913, Capablanca won a tournament in New York with 11/13 (+10 -1 =2), half a point ahead of Marshall. Capablanca then finished second with 10/14 (+8 -2 =4), a half point behind Marshall in Havana, losing one of their individual games, rumour having it that he asked the mayor to clear the room so that no-one would see him resign. Returning to New York, Capablanca won all thirteen games at the New York tournament of 1913, played at the Rice Chess Club. 1914 saw the <"tournament of champions"> played at St. Petersburg. Capablanca, with 13/18 (+10 -2 =6), came second behind Lasker and well ahead of Alexander Alekhine on 10, Tarrasch on 8.5 and Marshall on 8.

After the outbreak of World War I, Capablanca stayed in New York and won tournaments held there in 1915 (13/14 (+12 -0 =2)), 1916 (14/17 (+12 -1 =4)) and 1918 (10.5/12 (+9 =3)). During the New York 1918 tournament, Marshall played his prepared Marshall Attack of the Ruy Lopez* against Capablanca, but Capablanca worked his way through the complications and won. Soon after the war, Capablanca crossed the Atlantic to decisively win the Hastings Victory tournament 1919 with 10.5/11, a point ahead of Borislav Kostic.

Capablanca did not play another tournament until 1922, the year after he won the title from Lasker. During his reign, he won London 1922 with 13/15 (no losses), 1.5 points ahead of Alekhine; placed second behind Lasker at New York 1924 (suffering his first loss in eight years – to Richard Reti – since his 1916 lost to Oscar Chajes); placed 3rd at Moscow in 1925 behind Efim Bogoljubov and Lasker respectively with +9 =9 -2; won at Lake Hopatcong (New York) 1926 with 6/8 (+4 =4), a point ahead of Abraham Kupchik; and won at New York in 1927 with 14/20 (+10 -1 =9), 2.5 points clear of Alekhine, his last tournament before his title match with Alekhine. During the latter tournament, Capablanca, Alekhine, Rudolf Spielmann, Milan Vidmar, Nimzowitsch and Marshall played a quadruple round robin, wherein Capablanca finished undefeated, winning the mini-matches with each of his rivals, 2½ points ahead of second-placed Alekhine, and won the "best game" prize for a win over Spielmann. This result, plus the fact that Alekhine had never defeated him in a game, made him a strong favourite to retain his title in the upcoming match against Alekhine. However, Alekhine's superior preparation prevailed against Capablanca's native talent.

After losing the title, Capablanca settled in Paris and engaged in a flurry of tournament competition aimed at improving his chances for a rematch with Alekhine. However the latter dodged him, refusing to finalise negotiations for a rematch, boycotting events that included Capablanca, and insisting that Capablanca not be invited to tournaments in which he participated. In 1928, Capablanca won at Budapest with 7/9 (+5 =4), a point ahead of Marshall, and at Berlin with 8.5/12 (+5 =7), 1.5 points ahead of Nimzowitsch; he also came second at Bad Kissingen with 7/11 (+4 -1 =6), after Bogoljubov. In 1929, Capablanca won at Ramsgate with 5.5/7 (+4 =3) ahead of Vera Menchik and Rubinstein, at Budapest with 10.5/13 (+8 =5), and at Barcelona with 13.5/14, two points clear of Savielly Tartakower; he also came equal second with Spielmann and behind Nimzowitsch at Carlsbad with 14.5/21 (+10 -2 =9). He won at the 1929-30 Hastings tournament and came second at Hastings in 1930-31, behind Max Euwe, his only loss being to Mir Sultan Khan. Several months later he won New York for the last time, this time with a score of 10/11 (+9 =2) ahead of Isaac Kashdan.

Perhaps discouraged by his inability to secure a rematch with Alekhine, there followed a hiatus for over three years before he reentered the fray with a fourth placing at Hastings in 1934-35 with 5.5/9 (+4 -2 =3), behind Sir George Alan Thomas, Euwe and Salomon Flohr but ahead of Mikhail Botvinnik and Andre Lilienthal. In 1935, he secured 4th place in Moscow with 12/19 (+7 -2 =10), a point behind Botvinnik and Flohr, and a half point behind the evergreen Lasker. Also in 1935, he came second at Margate with 7/9 (+6 -1 =2), half a point behind Samuel Reshevsky. 1936 was a very successful year, coming 2nd at Margate with 7/9 (+5 =4), a half point behind Flohr, but then he moved up a gear to take Moscow with 13/18 (+8 =10), a point ahead of Botvinnik who in turn was 2.5 points ahead of Flohr, and then came =1st with Botvinnik at the famous Nottingham tournament, with 10/14 (+7 -1 =6) ahead of Euwe, Reuben Fine and Reshevsky on 9.5, and Flohr and Lasker on 8.5. These latter two results were the only tournaments in which he finished ahead of Lasker, which enhanced his chances of challenging for the title, but a challenge to World Champion Euwe was out of the question until after the Euwe - Alekhine World Championship Rematch (1937) , which was won by Alekhine. In 1937, Capablanca came =3rd with Reshevsky at Semmering with 7.5/14 (+2 -1 =11) behind Paul Keres and Fine and in 1938 he won the Paris tournament with 8/10 (+6 =4) ahead of Nicolas Rossolimo. The worst result of his career occurred at the AVRO tournament which was played in several cities in the Netherlands in 1938, placing 7th out of 8 players with 6/14 (+2 -4 =8), the only time he ever had a negative score in a tournament. His health in this tournament was fragile as he had suffered severe hypertension, which affected his concentration towards the end of his games; he may have also suffered a slight stroke halfway through the tournament. Traveling between the numerous cities in which the tournament was played was also hard on the ageing master. In 1939 he played his last tournament at Margate, placing =2nd with Flohr on 6.5/9 (+4 =5) a point behind Keres. Shortly afterwards, he finished his playing career – albeit unknowingly - in a blaze of glory by winning gold with +7 =9 on board one for Cuba at the 8th Olympiad in Buenos Aires.

Matches

In addition to the informal match against Corzo in 1901 and the exhibition match against Marshall in 1909 (see above), Capablanca played a three game match against Charles Jaffe in New York in 1912, winning two and drawing one, and won the first game of a match against Chajes before the latter withdrew from the match. In 1914, he defeated Ossip Bernstein 1.5-0.5, Tartakower by 1.5-0.5 and Andre Aurbach by 2-0. On his way to the 1914 tournament in St Petersburg, he played two-game matches against Richard Teichmann and Jacques Mieses in Berlin, winning all his games. Once he reached Saint Petersburg, he played similar matches against Alexander Alekhine, Eugene Aleksandrovich Znosko-Borovsky and Fyodor Ivanovich Dus Chotimirsky, losing one game to Znosko-Borovsky and winning the rest. In 1919, Capablanca accepted a challenge to a match from Borislav Kostić who had come second at New York in 1918 without dropping a game. The match was to go to the first player to win eight games, but Kostić resigned the match, played in Havana, after losing five straight games. In late 1931, just before his temporary retirement from top level chess, Capablanca also won a match (+2 −0 =8) against Euwe.

World Championship

Capablanca’s win at San Sebastian in 1911 provided the results and the impetus for Capablanca to negotiate with Lasker for a title match, but some of Lasker’s conditions were unacceptable to Capablanca, especially one requiring the challenger to win by two points to take the title, while the advent of World War I delayed the match. In 1920, Lasker and Capablanca agreed to play the title match in 1921, but a few months later, former was ready to surrender the title without a contest, saying, "You have earned the title not by the formality of a challenge, but by your brilliant mastery." A significant stake ($25,000, $13,000 guaranteed to Lasker) was raised that induced Lasker to play in Havana where Capablanca won the Lasker - Capablanca World Championship Match (1921) - without losing a game - after Lasker resigned from the match when trailing by 4 games, the first time a World Champion had lost his title without winning a game until the victory by Vladimir Kramnik in the Kasparov - Kramnik World Championship Match (2000). From 1921 to 1923, Alekhine, Rubinstein and Nimzowitsch all challenged Capablanca, but only Alekhine could raise the money stipulated in the so-called “London Rules”, which these players had signed in 1921. A group of Argentinean businessmen, backed by a guarantee from the president of Argentina, promised the funds for a World Championship match between Capablanca and Alekhine, and once the deadline for Nimzowitsch to lodge a deposit for a title match had passed, the title match was agreed to, beginning in September 1927. Capablanca lost the Capablanca - Alekhine World Championship Match (1927) at Buenos Aires in 1927 by +3 -6 =25 in the longest title match ever, until it was surpassed by the legendary Karpov - Kasparov World Championship Match (1984). The match lasted over ten weeks, taking place behind closed doors, thus precluding spectators and photographers. All but two of the 34 games opened with the Queen's Gambit Declined. Before Capablanca and Alekhine left Buenos Aires after the match, they agreed in principle to stage a rematch, with Alekhine essentially sticking with the conditions initially imposed by Capablanca. Despite on-again off-again negotiations over the next 13 years, the rematch never materialised, with Alekhine playing two title matches each against Bogolyubov and Euwe in the subsequent decade. While Capablanca and Alekhine were both representing their countries at the Buenos Aires Olympiad in 1939, an attempt was made by Augusto de Muro, the President of the Argentine Chess Federation, to arrange a World Championship match between the two. Alekhine declined, saying he was obliged to be available to defend his adopted homeland, France, as World War II had just broken out. A couple of days prior to this, Capablanca had declined to play when his Cuban team played France, headed by Alekhine, in the Olympiad.

Simultaneous exhibitions

Capablanca’s legendary speed of play lent itself to the rigours of simultaneous play, and he achieved great success in his exhibitions. From December 1908 through February 1909, Capablanca toured the USA and in 10 exhibitions he won 168 games in a row before losing a game in Minneapolis; his final tally for that tour was 734 games, winning 96.7% (+703 =19 -12). In March and April 1911, Capablanca toured Europe for the first time, giving exhibitions in France and Germany scoring +234=33-19. Once completed, he proceeded to San Sebastian and his historic victory before again touring Europe via its cities of Rotterdam, Leiden, Middelburg, The Hague, Amsterdam, Copenhagen, Hamburg, Berlin, Breslau, Allenstein, Prague, Budapest, Vienna, Stuttgart, Mannheim, Frankfurt, Paris, London and Birmingham at the end of which his tally was +532=66-54. After he received his job as a roving ambassador-at-large from the Cuban Foreign Office, Capablanca played a series of simuls in London, Paris, Berlin, Warsaw, Riga, Moscow, Kiev, and Vienna on his way to St Petersburg in 1914, tallying +769=91-86. In 1922, Capablanca gave a simultaneous exhibition in Cleveland against 103 opponents, the largest in history up to that time, winning 102 and drawing one – setting a record for the best winning percentage ever – 99.5% - in a large simultaneous exhibition. In 1925 Capablanca gave a simultaneous exhibition in Leningrad and won every game but one, a loss against 12 year old Mikhail Botvinnik, whom he predicted would one day be champion. Capablanca still holds the record for the most games ever completed in simultaneous exhibitions, playing and completing 13545 games between 1901-1940.**

Legacy, testimonials and life

Soon after gaining the title, Capablanca married Gloria Simoni Betancourt in Havana. They had a son, José Raúl Jr., in 1923 and a daughter, Gloria, in 1925. His father died in 1923 and mother in 1926. In 1937 he divorced Gloria and in 1938 married Olga Chagodayev, a Russian princess.

Capablanca's famous “invincible” streak extended from February 10, 1916, when he lost to Oscar Chajes in the New York 1916 tournament, to March 21, 1924, when he lost to Richard Réti in the New York International tournament. During this time he played 63 games, winning 40 and drawing 23, including his successful title match against Lasker. Between 1914 and his World Championship match against Alekhine, Capablanca had only lost four games of the 158 match and tournament games he had played. In match, team match, and tournament play from 1909 to 1939 he scored +318=249-34. Only Spielmann held his own (+2 −2 =8) against Capablanca, apart from Keres who had a narrow plus score against him (+1 −0 =5) due to his win at the AVRO 1938 tournament, during which the ailing Capablanca turned 50, while Keres was 22.

Capablanca played himself in Chess Fever http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0015673/, a short film shot by V. Pudovkin at the 1925 Moscow tournament. The film can be seen at http://video.google.com/videoplay?d....

On 7 March 1942, Capablanca collapsed at the Manhattan Chess Club and he was taken to Mount Sinai Hospital, where he died the next morning from "a cerebral haemorrhage provoked by hypertension". Emanuel Lasker had died in the same hospital the year before. Capablanca's body was given a public funeral in Havana's Colón Cemetery a week later, with President Batista taking personal charge of the funeral arrangements.

Capablanca proposed a new chess variant, played on a 10x10 board or a 10x8 board. He introduced two new pieces. The chancellor had the combined moves of a rook and knight (the piece could move like a rook or a knight). The other piece was the archbishop that had the combined moves of a bishop and knight.

Capablanca‘s style also heavily influenced the styles of later World Champions Botvinnik, Robert James Fischer and Anatoly Karpov. Botvinnik observed that Alekhine had received much schooling from Capablanca in positional play, before their fight for the world title made them bitter enemies. While not a theoretician as such, he wrote several books including A Primer of Chess, Chess Fundamentals and My Chess Career.

Alekhine: <…Capablanca was snatched from the chess world much too soon. With his death, we have lost a very great chess genius whose like we shall never see again.>

Lasker: <I have known many chess players, but only one chess genius: Capablanca.>

Notes

Capablanca occasionally played consultation on the team consisting of Reti / Capablanca.

Sources:

Bill Wall's Chess Master Profiles - http://billwall.phpwebhosting.com/a...; Edward Winter's article A Question of Credibiity: http://www.chesshistory.com/winter/...; Chess Corner's article on Capablanca: http://www.chesscorner.com/worldcha... and <kingcrusher>'s online article at http://www.gtryfon.demon.co.uk/bcc/.... A list of books about Capablanca can be found at http://www.chesshistory.com/winter/....

* Ruy Lopez, Marshall (C89) ** http://www.fide.com/component/conte...

Wikipedia article: José Raúl Capablanca


 page 1 of 47; games 1-25 of 1,152  PGN Download
Game  ResultMoves YearEvent/LocaleOpening
1. R Iglesias vs Capablanca 0-1381893Odds game000 Chess variants
2. Capablanca vs E Delmonte 1-0181901Match-seriesB21 Sicilian, 2.f4 and 2.d4
3. Leon Paredes vs Capablanca 0-1451901Match-seriesC44 King's Pawn Game
4. Capablanca vs E Corzo 1-0351901Match-seriesC67 Ruy Lopez
5. Capablanca vs A Fiol  ½-½491901Match-seriesC45 Scotch Game
6. J Corzo vs Capablanca 1-0411901Havana casualB01 Scandinavian
7. A Gavilan vs Capablanca 0-1391901Match-seriesC45 Scotch Game
8. A Ettlinger vs Capablanca 0-1531901Havana casualC45 Scotch Game
9. Capablanca vs M Marceau 1-0311901Match-seriesC45 Scotch Game
10. M M Sterling vs Capablanca ½-½501901HavanaC77 Ruy Lopez
11. Capablanca vs J A Blanco 1-0491901Match-seriesC45 Scotch Game
12. E Delmonte vs Capablanca 0-1321901Match-seriesD00 Queen's Pawn Game
13. Capablanca vs Leon Paredes 1-0291901Match-seriesC02 French, Advance
14. E Corzo vs Capablanca  1-0321901Match-seriesC11 French
15. Capablanca vs J Corzo 0-1601901Havana casualC45 Scotch Game
16. A Fiol vs Capablanca 0-1361901Habana (Cuba)C55 Two Knights Defense
17. Capablanca vs A Gavilan 1-0771901Match-seriesC01 French, Exchange
18. Capablanca vs M M Sterling 1-0301901HavanaC01 French, Exchange
19. Capablanca vs E Corzo 1-0421901Havana casualC40 King's Knight Opening
20. Capablanca vs E Corzo 0-1301901Havana casualC40 King's Knight Opening
21. J A Blanco vs Capablanca 0-1771901Habana (Cuba)C55 Two Knights Defense
22. Capablanca vs C Echevarria 1-0491901Simul, 8bC44 King's Pawn Game
23. Capablanca vs J Corzo 0-1291901Capablanca - CorzoC45 Scotch Game
24. J Corzo vs Capablanca 1-0271901Capablanca - CorzoC52 Evans Gambit
25. Capablanca vs J Corzo ½-½611901Capablanca - CorzoA80 Dutch
 page 1 of 47; games 1-25 of 1,152  PGN Download
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Kibitzer's Corner
< Earlier Kibitzing  · PAGE 257 OF 257 ·  Later Kibitzing>
Dec-07-17
Premium Chessgames Member
  MissScarlett: <C.H.Y.P. Tournament>

See: https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt...

The Fox and Helms games were played in November. I believe they were training matches ahead of the CHYP event.

Dec-07-17
Premium Chessgames Member
  Sally Simpson: "casual/offhand should not be considered a value judgement on the quality/seriousness of the play..."

Yet it's strange that possibly the three most famous games of all time. The Immortal, The Evergreen and Morphy at the Opera were all casual/offhand games.

Also up there would be this famous offhand game.

Capablanca vs M Fonaroff, 1918

Dec-29-17
Premium Chessgames Member
  Jonathan Sarfati: At Moscow (1936), Capablanca was still super-strong at blitz. Mikhail Botvinnik said he gave odds of one minute to five against “almost every Soviet master” (according to the biography by Andrew Soltis https://www.amazon.com/dp/078647337...).
Dec-29-17
Premium Chessgames Member
  TheFocus: <Jonathan Sarfati: At Moscow (1936), Capablanca was still super-strong at blitz. Mikhail Botvinnik said he gave odds of one minute to five>

I seriously doubt there were any clocks in 1936 that could be set for one minute. I smell BS.

Dec-29-17  john barleycorn: < Sally Simpson: ...
...

Also up there would be this famous offhand game.

Capablanca vs M Fonaroff, 1918>

Let us include this one as well:

Nimzowitsch vs Alapin, 1914

Dec-29-17
Premium Chessgames Member
  Jonathan Sarfati: <TheFocus:> Come off it. Analog clocks with minute hands have been around for a long time now. I'm old enough to have given 1-5 odds before digital clocks.
Dec-29-17
Premium Chessgames Member
  Jonathan Sarfati: Ad for an alarm clock with minute hands from 1910 https://clockhistory.com/westclox/c...
Dec-29-17  WorstPlayerEver: <TheFocus>

That was funny. What did you smoke?

Dec-29-17
Premium Chessgames Member
  visayanbraindoctor: <Jonathan Sarfati: Analog clocks with minute hands have been around for a long time now. I'm old enough to have given 1-5 odds before digital clocks.>

I've done the same thing myself. <1-5 odds before digital clocks> IS possible.

Any kibitzer can prove this. Get an analog chess clock (better yet an old pre WW2 chess clock), set it to 5 minutes each, and then play blitz. I assure you it's possible to do so without breaking the chess clock. (Unless your intention is to biasedly do so in the first place, in which case you could slam down on the clock every time you move. Then again if that is your intention why not just throw the chess clock down on the floor and smash it to smithereens?)

There is an argument here that pre-WW2 chess players have never played blitz because the old analog pre-WW2 chess clocks would have broken down.

Breaking down that statement, it's the same thing as saying:

1. It is possible to set up a chess clock with 5 minutes (or 1 or 3 or 15 or 30 or 60 minutes) for each player.

2. The players would refuse to do so because of the theoretical possibility that the chess clock would break down.

3. Therefore no one has ever attempted to do so for fear of breaking down the chess clock.

4. Therefore <pre-WW2 chess players have never played blitz>

I don't buy it at all. I think it is the most natural thing in the world for two players wanting to play a quick game to set up their chess clock with 5 minutes each. Someone must have attempted doing so way back to the time when analog chess clocks were invented, simply because it's possible to do so.

To prove that analog chess clocks were never used in blitz games before WW2, we would have to find:

1. written documents of cases wherein the analog chess clocks ALWAYS broke down during 5 + 5 minute blitz games such that it was impossible to play such games to completion.

2. written statements of pre-WW2 chess players saying that every one was so scared of possibility #1 above that no one had ever attempted to play a blitz game at all.

Feb-11-18  WilhelmThe2nd: Played in Capablanca’s simul at the Westmount Chess Club, Montreal, Canada on June 30th, 1909.

White: C. T. Anstey Black: J. R. Capablanca

1. e4 e5 2. f4 exf4 3. Nf3 g5 4. h4 g4 5. Ne5 Nf6 6. Bc4 d5 7. exd5 Bd6 8. d4 Nh5 9. O-O Qxh4 10. Rxf4 Nxf4 11. Bxf4 Nd7 12. g3 Qh3 13. Qxg4 Nxe5 14. Qxh3 Nf3+ 15. Kf2 Bxh3 16. Kxf3 Bxf4 17. Kxf4 Rg8 18. Be2 Kd7 19. Nd2 Rae8 20. Bf3 Rg6 21. Rh1 Rf6+ 22. Kg5 Rxf3 23. Nxf3 Bg2 24. Rxh7 Bxf3 25. Rxf7+ Kd6 26. Rxf3 Kxd5 27. Rf5+ Kd6 28. Rf2 Rg8+ 29. Kf4 Kd5 30. Ke3 Rxg3+ 31. Kf4 Draw. [Source: 'La Presse' (Montreal), July 17th, 1909, page 19]

Feb-11-18  WilhelmThe2nd: The text quoted below is partly inaccurate since it is known that Capablanca actually played two simuls in Montreal in June of 1909: June 29th (+12 =3 -0) & June 30th (+15 =2 -0). Wilson’s name does not appear in the list of Capablanca’s opponents in the June 29th simul. I have been unable to locate a list of names of his opponents in the June 30th simul. Wilson's name does appear in the list of people defeated by Capablanca in the Nov. 17th simul.

From the Canadian Supplement to CHESS, October, 1942 (with descriptive notation changed to algebraic notation):

<Our query of a few months ago as to reminiscences of Capablanca's visit to Canada in 1909 has brought the score of the following game played against him by Stanley B. Wilson, Westmount, Que. Capa came twice in that year and never again. In the June exhibit he played 24, winning 22, drawing 1 and losing 1. We have not been able to obtain the name of the latter. In the November simul he had 24 opponents again, most of exceptional strength and including Canadian champion Joseph Sawyer, who lost. Capa won 22 and drew 2. The future world champion was 20 years old then. He also visited Toronto in that year but we have not been able to obtain any data.

White: S. B. Wilson, Westmount, Que. Black: J. R. Capablanca

Giuoco Piano

1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bc4 Bc5 4. c3 Nf6 5. d3 O-O 6. Bg5 d6 7. Nbd2 Be6 8. O-O Ne7 9. Qc2 Ng6 10. Rae1 h6 11. Be3 Bb6 12. d4 Bxc4 13. Nxc4 d5 14. exd5 e4 15. Nfe5 Qxd5 16. b3 Nxe5 17. Nxe5 Qe6 18. f3 exf3 19. Rxf3 Nd5 20. Bd2? Rae8 21. Rg3 c5! 22. Bxh6? Qxh6 23. Rh3 cxd4! 24. Kh1 d3! 25. Nxd3 (a) Qg6 26. Qd2 Rxe1+ 27. Nxe1 Re8 [White] Resigns.

(a) Obviously forced, for is [sic] Qxd3 then simply Rxe5.>

Feb-12-18
Premium Chessgames Member
  MissScarlett: <it is known that Capablanca actually played two simuls in Montreal in June of 1909: June 29th (+12 =3 -0) & June 30th (+15 =2 -0).>

Are you sure? I know that's what <TUC> list says, but the <BDE> of July 4th in a report on a potential match challenge by Rubinstein, mentions that Capablanca has just returned from a trip to Montreal, where the two simuls results were +12 =3, and +15 -1 =2, respectively. <The Cuban said he would not shrink from a match with Rubinstein...> implying that Helms, presumably, had gotten the simul scores directly from Capablanca.

<Wilson's name does appear in the list of people defeated by Capablanca in the Nov. 17th simul.>

Yes, annoying that CHESS didn't make it clear which simul Wilson's game was from, but the accuracy of their information about the November one arguably supports it being the occasion of Wilson's game. I'll submit the games, on that assumption, but can you provide more detail about what this <Canadian supplement> entails?

Feb-12-18
Premium Chessgames Member
  MissScarlett: <Ad for an alarm clock with minute hands from 1910 >

The wristwatch didn't become common until the first couple of decades of the twentieth century. I remember a period drama set in the 1850s had someone checking their wristwatch, presumably only to find that it was 50 years too fast.

Feb-12-18  WilhelmThe2nd: <MissS> No, I am not sure about score of the second simul. The only three Montreal newspapers that I could locate online that covered Capablanca's visits during 1909 ('The Gazette', 'La Presse', & 'La Patrie') did not, from what I can see, give reports on the second simul in June. However, they did mention that it was scheduled to take place and 'La Presse' did publish the Anstey game given above from it. I saw the <BDE> reference you give when I was researching the Wilson game but was more concerned about the dates & players rather than the scores. The report that accompanied the Wilson game was also mistaken in that Sawyer was listed as having played & lost in the June 29th simul but his name does not appear in the list of participants in the Nov. 17th simul. The erroneous information given for the first visit in the Canadian Supplement for CHESS in 1942 may have been copied from the 'Montreal Daily Herald' report quoted here (see page 35): http://www.thechessdrum.net/newsbri...

The Canadian Supplement to CHESS appears to have been an insert provided to Canadian subscribers to CHESS.

Feb-12-18
Premium Chessgames Member
  MissScarlett: Hmmm. I submitted the Anstey game, but will hold off on Wilson a little further. Not that muddy waters usually clear by wishful thinking.
Mar-07-18
Premium Chessgames Member
  Telemus: One of Peter Anderberg's beautiful discoveries is Capablanca's simultaneous display in Göttingen on April 9, 1935 (http://www.stadtarchiv.goettingen.d...)

He found announcements, reports and five games in the local press. Capablanca's result was +33, =1, -2. The draw was achieved by Heinz Wilhelm Duenhaupt.

Source: Kaissiber 30 (2008), p. 67-74 (see also http://www.kaissiber.de/Kaissiber_I...).

Mar-07-18
Premium Chessgames Member
  MissScarlett: Where are the damn games, you piker!?
Mar-08-18
Premium Chessgames Member
  Telemus: If you need more than the ref, you're nobody!

PS: Anyone with a Mega Database can help out.

Mar-26-18  sorrowstealer: As one by one I mowed them down, my superiority soon became apparent. Jose Raul Capablanca
Apr-21-18
Premium Chessgames Member
  Stonehenge: Photo from an 1897 simul :)

http://www.gahetna.nl/collectie/afb...

Apr-25-18
Premium Chessgames Member
  Jonathan Sarfati: Interesting assessment by Keres in 1941 of Alekhine and the other AVRO participants. He discounts ideas that Alekhine was weak by that time. http://www.chesshistory.com/winter/...
May-19-18
Premium Chessgames Member
  AlbertoDominguez: <<Stonehenge>>

I can't be 100% sure, but I am fairly certain that the picture is actually of Reshevsky. It's blurry, but it looks like the signature sailor suit he used for simuls as a child.

https://rarehistoricalphotos.com/sa...

It doesn't look very much like Capa did around that age.

https://en.chessbase.com/portals/4/...

May-19-18
Premium Chessgames Member
  MissScarlett: No recorded simul of Capa before 1901: http://www.chesshistory.com/winter/...

Also see C.N. 8034

May-19-18
Premium Chessgames Member
  TheFocus: <AlbertoDominquez> Right. Both your photos are of Reshevsky.
Jun-21-18
Premium Chessgames Member
  maxi: It is strange that in Keres' long and opinionated article (cited by <Jonathan Sarfati>, Keres talks about everyone and everything, yet could not give an opinion about who was to blame for the failure of all attempts at a rematch between Alekhine and Capablanca: "In conversations at Buenos Aires each of them accused the other for the failure of repeated negotiations, and of course I cannot judge as to who is right." (Keres.) He makes up for this shortcoming by a long and exalted description, that comprises about half of the article, of Alekhine's greatness.
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