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Vienna Tournament

Wilhelm Steinitz23/34(+19 -7 =8)[games]
Simon Winawer23/34(+21 -9 =4)[games]
James Mason21/32(+15 -5 =12)[games]
George Henry Mackenzie20.5/32(+16 -7 =9)[games]
Johannes Zukertort19.5/31(+16 -8 =7)[games]
Joseph Henry Blackburne19.5/32(+16 -9 =7)[games]
Berthold Englisch18.5/33(+10 -6 =17)[games]
Louis Paulsen16.5/32(+11 -10 =11)[games]
Alexander Wittek15/30(+9 -9 =12)[games]
Vincenz Hruby14/32(+11 -15 =6)[games]
Max Weiss13.5/31(+9 -13 =9)[games]
Mikhail Chigorin11/31(+10 -19 =2)[games]
Henry Bird11/28(+9 -15 =4)[games]
Adolf Schwarz11/29(+5 -12 =12)[games]
Philipp Meitner10/31(+7 -18 =6)[games]
Josef Noa9/17(+7 -6 =4)[games]
Preston Ware8/31(+6 -21 =4)[games]
Bernhard Fleissig6/20(+4 -12 =4)[games]
* Chess Event Description
Vienna (1882)

Vienna, Austria; 10 May 1882—24 June 1882

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Score Place/Prizes —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————— 1 Steinitz •• 1½ ½½ ½1 0½ 10 ½½ 11 01 1½ 01 11 10 11 11 01 1+ 1+ 24 1st-2nd 1000ƒ and 1750₣ 2 Winawer 0½ •• 00 0½ 1½ 10 11 10 01 1½ 11 11 11 11 11 11 1+ 0+ 24 1st-2nd 1000ƒ and 1750₣ 3 Mason ½½ 11 •• ½1 0½ ½½ ½½ 11 11 10 01 ½1 11 1½ 0½ 11 0+ ½+ 23 3rd 1200₣ 5 Mackenzie ½0 1½ ½0 •• ½½ 10 ½1 1½ ½0 11 11 01 01 11 10 1½ 1+ 1+ 22½ 4th-5th 700₣ 4 Zukertort 1½ 0½ 1½ ½½ •• 0½ 0½ 11 11 00 11 01 01 11 1+ 11 1+ 0+ 22½ 4th-5th 700₣ and 800₣* 6 Blackburne 01 01 ½½ 01 1½ •• ½½ 0½ 10 01 10 1½ 11 11 10 11 0+ 1+ 21½ 6th 400₣ 7 Englisch ½½ 00 ½½ ½0 1½ ½½ •• 11 ½0 ½½ ½½ ½½ 0½ 01 11 11 1+ ½1 19½ 8 L. Paulsen 00 01 00 0½ 00 1½ 00 •• ½½ ½1 ½1 ½1 11 ½1 ½1 11 ½+ ½+ 18½ 9 Wittek 10 10 00 ½1 00 01 ½1 ½½ •• ½0 01 ½½ 10 ½½ ½+ 1½ ½+ 1+ 18 10 Weiss 0½ 0½ 01 00 11 10 ½½ ½0 ½1 •• 0½ 0½ 11 0½ 0+ 00 1+ 1+ 16½ 11 Hruby 10 00 10 00 00 01 ½½ ½0 10 1½ •• ½½ 10 11 01 10 0+ 1+ 16 12 Schwarz 00 00 ½0 10 10 0½ ½½ ½0 ½½ 1½ ½½ •• 0- ½0 1+ ½- 0+ 1+ 14 13 Chigorin 01 00 00 10 10 00 1½ 00 01 00 01 1+ •• 00 11 1½ 0+ 01 14 14 Meitner 00 00 0½ 00 00 00 10 ½0 ½½ 1½ 00 ½1 11 •• 0+ 01 0+ 1+ 13 15 Bird 00 00 1½ 01 0- 01 00 ½0 ½- 1- 10 0- 00 1- •• 11 ½+ 01 12 16 Ware 10 00 00 0½ 00 00 00 00 0½ 11 01 ½+ 0½ 10 00 •• 0+ 1+ 11 17 Noa 0- 0- 1- 0- 0- 1- 0- ½- ½- 0- 1- 1- 1- 1- ½- 1- •• ½- 9 18 Fleissig 0- 1- ½- 0- 1- 0- ½0 ½0 0- 0- 0- 0- 10 0- 10 0- ½- •• 6 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————— Unplayed games: + for a win, = for a draw, - for a loss. Format: Double round-robin. Time Control: 15 moves per hour. * Zukertort took the special prize for the best score against the top three.(3)

Playoff 1 2 Score ———————————————————— Winawer 1 0 1 Steinitz 0 1 1 ————————————————————

In 1882, two men associated with the Wiener Schachgesellschaft - Ignatz von Kolisch, an honorary member of the club, and Albert von Rothschild, the club's president, organized an international tournament to celebrate its 25th anniversary. The two of them collected over 7500 francs as a prize purse for the top six places and a brillancy prize, to which Kaiser Franz Josef added 2000 Austrian Gulden as a Kaiserpreis to be paid to the winner.

Vienna was the site of one of the first international tournaments (Vienna (1873)), as well as the early stomping grounds for Wilhelm Steinitz. In the tradition of these two facts, Steinitz agreed to participate and 17 other chess masters from around the world were invited, among them the top ten in the world at the time. Of note, Simon Winawer and Mikhail Chigorin came from Russia, George Mackenzie and James Mason from the US, Joseph Henry Blackburne from England, and Louis Paulsen from Germany - making this the most internationally diverse tournament at that point. The tournament was a double round robin held from May 10th to June 24th. Games started each day at 10 am, and the players had to make 15 moves every hour. After the first four hours, all ongoing games were suspended for a two hour break, then resumed again for another four hours. Any games continuing until midnight were adjourned to be finished on rest days. Under this format, up to 90 moves had to be played each day.

As the tournament wore on, the grueling schedule took its toll on many of the players. Fleissig abandoned the tournament after the 20th round, Bird fell ill between rounds 29 and 33, and a few other players abdicated their games in the last few rounds. Noa was called away by judicial duties after the 17th round. All of their games were forfeited to their opponents.

Everyone was eager to prove himself against Steinitz, the best player in the world, especially since he had been out of practice, having last played (and won) the Steinitz - Blackburne (1876) match. But Steinitz was as formidable as ever. Despite a rough start (prompted by the end of his 25 game winning streak in the third round), he was only one point behind the leader Mackenzie, and half a point behind second place Winawer after the first half of games.

At the end, Steinitz and Winawer tied for first with 24 points each. A two game playoff match was devised to determine the victor, but it was tied at one game each, leaving the lion's share of the prize purse to be split between the two winners. The tournament was both Steinitz and Winawer's greatest international victory, as well as a landmark event for international chess. It would be only four years later that Steinitz would go on to defeat one of his rivals, Zukertort, in a match for the world championship, becoming the undisputed greatest player in the world. The tournament itself would later be heralded as the strongest of the 19th century, if not all time.

General Rules (1)
1. The entrance fee of each competitor is fixed at £4.
2. Each player plays with each other two games with alternative first move. The winners of the greatest number of games receive the six prizes.
3. A drawn game scores half for each of the two players.
4. If two or more players score an equal number of games, they play amongst themselves for the respective prizes. They have to play again two games. Should then two players score again the same number of games, the pries will be divided between them.
5. The order in which the several competitors have to play will be fixed by drawing before the commencement of the tournament. The first move in the first game will also be decided by drawing.
6. From the commencement of the match until the termination of the same each competitor must play daily, with the exception of Sundays and holidays, one game with the antagonist allotted to him.
7. Play to commence at 10 a.m. and to be continued until 2 p.m. At this hour each player may demand an adjournment of not above two hours' duration. Latest at 4 o'clock the game must be recommenced and finished without any further interruption. But if the game is not finished at midnight, either player is at liberty to demand an adjournment, and the Committee will then determine the time of its recommencement.
8. The time limit is fixed at 15 moves an hour.
9. The player who exceeds the time limit, forfeits the game which will be scored as won by the opponent.
10. The clock of the player who does not appear at the time fixed will be set in motion. After a delay of one hour the game will be scored as lost for the absentee and as won by his antagonist. Should none of the two players appear, the game will be counted as lost for both.
11. All the games are the property of the Vienna Chess Club. The winner of a game or the first mover in a drawn game is bound to deliver within 24 hours a legible copy of the same to the person appointed by the Committee. The non-compliance of this rule involves the loss of half a game.
12. In case of an adjournment, the player whose turn it is to move has to deliver his next move in a sealed envelope to the person designated by the Committee. Consultations as well as analysing on the Chessboard during the interval are strictly prohibited and involve the exclusion from the tournament.
13. Each competitor is bound to play all the games with his whole strength. All private arrangements which may influence the final result of the tournament are prohibited, and involve the exclusion from the tournament.
14. The Chess rules adopted for the present tournament are those of the last edition of Bilguer's Handbook, with the addition that after the third repetition of the same series of moves the opponent is at liberty to claim a draw.
15. All matters of dispute which may occur, as also all cases not provided for by the present rules, will be finally decided by the Committee appointed above.

Prizes (2)
The generosity of H.M. the Emperor enabled the Committee to raise the prizes in the following proportion:—
First prize, 2000fl. plus 1000fr., instead of 5000fr.
Second prize, 2500fr., instead of 2000fr.
Third prize, 1200fr., instead of 1000fr.
Fourth prize, 800fr., instead of 500fr.
Fifth prize, 600fr., instead of 300fr.
Sixth prize, 400fr., instead of 200fr.

The special prize for the player who will show the best score against the prize-takers remains 800fr. as before.

(1) Chess Monthly, v3 n8, April 1882, pp234-235
(2) Chess Monthly, v3 n10, June 1882, p290
(3) Chess Monthly, v3 n11, July 1882, p324

Original collection: Game Collection: Vienna 1882, by User: suenteus po 147.

 page 1 of 11; games 1-25 of 270  PGN Download
Game  ResultMoves YearEvent/LocaleOpening
1. B Fleissig vs Englisch  ½-½371882ViennaC65 Ruy Lopez, Berlin Defense
2. Mackenzie vs Winawer 1-0311882ViennaC65 Ruy Lopez, Berlin Defense
3. J Noa vs Meitner  1-0291882ViennaC67 Ruy Lopez
4. A Schwarz vs Paulsen  ½-½461882ViennaB30 Sicilian
5. Steinitz vs Blackburne 1-0561882ViennaC29 Vienna Gambit
6. P Ware vs M Weiss 1-0381882ViennaD00 Queen's Pawn Game
7. Wittek vs J Mason 0-1601882ViennaC11 French
8. Zukertort vs V Hruby 1-0481882ViennaA13 English
9. Bird vs B Fleissig 0-1551882ViennaC53 Giuoco Piano
10. Blackburne vs Winawer 0-1681882ViennaA06 Reti Opening
11. Englisch vs Paulsen 1-0451882ViennaB25 Sicilian, Closed
12. V Hruby vs M Weiss 1-0371882ViennaC65 Ruy Lopez, Berlin Defense
13. J Mason vs P Ware  1-0581882ViennaC27 Vienna Game
14. Meitner vs Chigorin 1-0561882ViennaC45 Scotch Game
15. A Schwarz vs Wittek ½-½431882ViennaC48 Four Knights
16. Steinitz vs J Noa 1-0501882ViennaC30 King's Gambit Declined
17. Zukertort vs Mackenzie ½-½551882ViennaC77 Ruy Lopez
18. Blackburne vs V Hruby 1-0721882ViennaC45 Scotch Game
19. Chigorin vs B Fleissig 0-1541882ViennaC01 French, Exchange
20. Englisch vs Bird 1-0531882ViennaC61 Ruy Lopez, Bird's Defense
21. Mackenzie vs Steinitz ½-½361882ViennaC70 Ruy Lopez
22. J Noa vs P Ware 1-0481882ViennaB00 Uncommon King's Pawn Opening
23. Paulsen vs J Mason 0-1491882ViennaC02 French, Advance
24. A Schwarz vs Meitner  ½-½311882ViennaC46 Three Knights
25. Wittek vs M Weiss  ½-½441882ViennaC11 French
 page 1 of 11; games 1-25 of 270  PGN Download
  REFINE SEARCH:   White wins (1-0) | Black wins (0-1) | Draws (1/2-1/2)  

Kibitzer's Corner
< Earlier Kibitzing  · PAGE 2 OF 2 ·  Later Kibitzing>
Apr-07-16  zanzibar: Sometimes I'm a bit thick...

What would be a natural place to look for good coverage of this tournament?

Chess-Monthly - edited by Hoffer and Zukertort.

Z also being a player, it would be a natural first stop.

Unfortunately for me, the relevant issue isn't available on google books, so I don't have the PDF. It was only after stumbling through the other sources, and not finding a game, that I found this:

It's a shame that google books doesn't have it, as it comes from Princeton library, and they have many other issues. I think this one volume got damaged(?).

I haven't systematically looked through it, but it's coverage appears to be the best.

Apr-09-16  zanzibar: Sadly for me, I forgot this info. It was refound in some deleted (ok, hidden) forum:

<There was no contemporary tournament book and, with such a huge number of games, only a small percentage appeared promptly in chess magazines. Hermann Lehner (co-editor of the 1873 Vienna congress book) had access to the original game score manuscripts in the Vienna Chess Club archives and he was editor of a literary magazine entitled the <<Oesterreichische Lesehalle>> "Austrian reading room") which devoted considerable space to chess each month. Lehner transcribed and published the game scores, continuing until 1887, though sometimes truncating the finishes. His magazine, together with reports in the <<Wiener Allgemeine Zeitung>> were the foundation for Christian Bijl's <<Das II. Internationale Schachmeisterturnier Wien 1882>>, which appeared in 1984 as part of the Tschaturanga series from the Zürich publishing house Olms—a true labor of love by both Lehner and Bijl. This book (subsequently referred to as "Bijl") also includes notes from other contemporary journals and annotations to about 40 games by Dutch IM Corvan Wijgerden>

Harding - Blackburne p177

* * * * *

Hermann Lehner seems to not have a <CG> page. Pity that.

Apr-09-16  zanzibar: Lehner's obit in ACM v1 (1897) p23:


Apr-13-16  zanzibar: BTW- In the intro, I would have written the drop-outs in chronological order, starting with Noa. Maybe even explicitly mentioned that he missed the entire 2nd half of the tournament. I'd also explicitly mention that Bird forfeited his games (after all, they could have been rescheduled).

Finally, a list of the other forfeits might be useful, even if only relegated to a footnote.

BTW- I tried to reconstruct the playing schedule from <DSZ v37 (1882) p234/252>, but only ended up being confused.

It took me awhile to notice one problem, that the pairing <Hruby--Schwarz> shows up twice. This is indicative of non-sense, from which only confusion can result.

So, despite DSZ looking like it had a helpful layout, it seems that only Lehner can be used.

Apr-13-16  zanzibar: Oh, and did I mention that DSZ skips from R29 (06.15) to R31 (06.17), completely omitting R30 (06.16)?
Apr-13-16  zanzibar: The second half scheduling is confusing, as the Committee rearranged pairings for some reason.

This lead to Fleissig having a double-forfeit in R33, which can cause confusion (as is guaranteed by altering the schedule in the first place).

There is also a strange episode with the Chigorin--Wittek (R32) forfeit win by Chigorin:

<NR. Mit Bezugnahme auf § 2 der „Zusatzbestimmungen" (Oesterr. Lesehalle 1882, Seite 146) ordnete das Turnier-Comite an, dass die für den 34. Gang ausgelosten Partien bereits im 32. Gang und vice versa die für den 32. Gang ausgelosten erst am Schluss des Turniers an die Reihe kommen. Die Partie Tschigorin-Wittek wurde verschollen, da Tschigorin keine Kenntniss von obigem Beschluss hatte; Dr. Meitner bekam gegen Bird (gichtleidend), Paulsen und Zukertort gegen zurückgetretene Partner je 1 Zähler gut geschrieben.>

If a German-speaker could explain exactly why Chigorin scored the win, I'm be much obliged.

Apr-13-16  zanzibar: There is also this missing game:

<Schwarz--Ware (0-1)>

I'm not sure what the story is, or even when it was scheduled.

Apr-13-16  mike1: Hi Zanzibar

The German text does not explain why Chigorin won; it says that the complete pairings for rounds 32 & 34 are played in reverse order and that The game Chigorin- Wittek is postponed (verschollen would be : missing but I think the text would read: verschoben, hence my translation as postponed), because Chigorin does not have any knowledge of that reversal. As you said: lots od confusion!

Apr-13-16  zanzibar: <mike1> Thank you. That's what google translate suggested.

I think maybe Chigorin got confused, not knowing German, during the schedule change, and that the game did get delayed. But Wittek probably just forfeited it as a courtesy to the foreign visitor.

Apr-13-16  zanzibar: Even the <BCM> suggested a double forfeit by Fleissig in R33, <BCM v6 (28 Jun 1882) p301/314>.

Of course, this would require some other player to have a double entry for the "missing" Fleissig round.

With a little sweat, blood, and tears, I put the <Schwarz--Ware> forfeit in R29, and got some semblance of a workable schedule (9 games/round, etc.).

One has to wonder if this much effort is worth it, but at least one can accurately follow the BCM round-by-round synopses.

The take-home lesson is, don't reschedule in the middle of a tournament unless absolutely necessary!

Apr-14-16  zanzibar: I think the xtab is wrong... what was the source?

Also, it's difficult to reference, lacking the needed index numbers on the first column and on the top row.

Apr-15-16  suenteus po 147: <zanzibar> I used for the crosstable. I think I also cross checked it against another site (don't currently have the link to that one) and found no discrepancies.
Apr-15-16  suenteus po 147: <zanzibar> If I were you I would bookmark Van Reek's website (especially on historical tournaments) for your ongoing verification/correction of tournament pages based on my game collections. I assembled quite a few (without crediting Van Reek) before I got in the habit of giving credit to sources. He was always my main resource since he often included some kind of narrative context in addition to xtabs and dates.
Apr-15-16  zanzibar: Thanks <suenteus po 147>.

I'm familiar with Van Reek, and use him for, er.., "color". Partly because he's very selective in what games he hosts in PGN downloads, and partly because of the occasional missing detail.

In this case I think the double-forfeit game <Noa--Fleissig> was scored 1/2-1/2 by the "Committee". Which makes sense since both had withdrawn - either score it 0-0 or 1/2-1/2.

My go-to source for standings, where I first caught the discrepancy, is Reichhelm's <Fifty Tournaments>:

or my version:

Where you can see me as I work through the list (bold-facing the tournaments as they get processed).

OK, thanks again.

Apr-15-16  zanzibar: Compelled to mention, another example of the utility of stubs...

(not Complied... gheesh, too many typos tonight!)

Apr-15-16  zanzibar: Excluding Noa (dropped out after R17), Fleissig (after R20), and Bird (ill R29-R33), here are the other defaults I have:

1882.06.19 A00 0 (R32) 1-0 Chigorin -- Wittek

1882.06.21 A00 0 (R34) 0-1 Schwarz -- Chigorin

1882.06.15 A00 0 (R29) 0-1 Schwarz -- Ware


Apr-15-16  zanzibar: BTW- I reread van Reek's page on the tournament, and it's pretty good:

His xtab has index row/column, but doesn't split the point for <Noa--Fleissig (R27)>.

Aug-20-16  ughaibu: So, which game won the brilliancy prize?
Aug-21-16  sneaky pete: <ughaibu> No game did, since there was no brilliancy prize (you shouldn't believe everything you read in the introductions here).

There was, however, a special prize for the player (finishing 4th or lower) with the best result against the top three finishers. A win against number one counted for 2 points, against number two for 1.5 points and against number three for 1 point, and draws against the top three had half this value. Zukertort won this special prize.

Aug-21-16  ughaibu: I see. Thanks.
Premium Chessgames Member
  Fusilli: This marathon tournament lasted from May 10th to June 24th. How did people afford this kind of tournament? There were prizes only for the first six, and a brilliancy prize. Did the organizers pay for the trip and the stay? Who were the rich sponsors? Or did players take on the expense?
Premium Chessgames Member
  Telemus: From the introduction: <The tournament itself would later be heralded as the strongest of the 19th century, if not all time.>

Compare this with this sentence from the introduction of Hastings (1895) <In 1895 the club organized a tournament (1) that was the strongest ever held up to that time.>

Here (1) points to .

Premium Chessgames Member
  Fusilli: <Fusilli> OK, correcting myself. Not brilliancy prize but the special prize described by <sneaky pete> below. But I still wonder how they financed this.
Oct-06-19  SChesshevsky: < Fusilli: This marathon tournament lasted from May 10th to June 24th. How did people afford this kind of tournament?>

Speaking in generalities because I don't know for certain on any of these players and based on U.S. chess through the 70's anyway, I'm guessing many weren't full time professional chess players. Meaning that they had regular jobs to support themselves but taking time off for play. The full time players probably scrounged money from sponsors, including family, and exhibitions and maybe some chess related writing. Only a top few well known players might be able to negotiate some sort of guarantee from the organizers for expenses in turn for a commitment.

Great question. It be interesting to hear any specifics on any of these guys.

Premium Chessgames Member
  MissScarlett: <I thought I saw something about <Vienna (1882)> being first - perhaps the first RR2 where draws counted as 1/2? But Baden-Baden (1870) seems to predate it on all counts.>

Vienna (1882) (kibitz #8)

Harding (again) says it was the first major double round-robin event that saw two cycles of games (with opposite colours) with the opponents played in the same order. The earlier events involved two (or best-of-three) games between opponents played consecutively.

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