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🏆 7th WSB Congress, Aachen, (1868)

  PARTICIPANTS (sorted by highest achieved rating; click on name to see player's games)
Adolf Anderssen, Johannes Zukertort, Wilfried Paulsen, Emil Schallopp, Max Lange Chess Event Description
7th WSB Congress, Aachen, (1868)

Aachen, Prussia, Germany; 2 August 1868—6 August 1868

1 2 3 4 Wins Place/Prizes ———————————————————————————————————————————————————————— 1 Lange • 0 1 1 2 1st* 50 Thalern 2 Anderssen 1 • 0 ½1 2 3 W. Paulsen 0 1 • 0 1 4 Zukertort 0 ½0 1 • 1 ———————————————————————————————————————————————————————— 5 Schallopp - 0 - 0 Withdrew from the tournament ———————————————————————————————————————————————————————— Unplayed games: + for a win, = for a draw, - for a loss. * The play-off game to decide first was won by Lange.

This is the master tournament played in Aachen at the 7th Congress of the Chess Association of West-Germany (Westdeutscher Schachbund) from August 2 to August 6, 1868. The congress has been organized by the Aachener Schachverein 1856, the local chess club.

The participants were Professor Adolf Anderssen (Breslau), Dr. Max Lange (Leipzig), Wilfried Paulsen (Nassengrund/Blomberg), Emil Schallopp (Anklam) and Johannes Zukertort (Berlin). Every player should meet every opponent for one decisive game, i. e., draws did not count and were replayed, but this happened only once. At the beginning the games were played consecutively, but later some games were played in parallel, but there were no rounds in the usual sense. The time limit was 20 moves within 2 hours, but in the absence of clocks it was illusory.

Schallopp departed after losing two games. The reason is unclear. Some say he withdrew because of the bad results, others say he had to leave. The latter is not unlikely, because according to the original schedule the award ceremony should take place already in the evening of August 4, the day he played his 2nd game. It was decided that his games would not count.

All games of the tournament are preserved, but two game scores are incomplete (Zukertort vs Anderssen, 1868 and Anderssen vs Zukertort, 1868).

The colours of the players were determined for every game by lot, and Anderssen had the luck of playing White in all games except the first one with Zukertort.

Louis Paulsen was also present, but as usual at these congresses he avoided playing against his brother, and gave only a blindfold simultaneous exhibition on 5 boards (+2 =2 -1). Zukertort performed another blindfold simultaneous exhibition on 5 boards (+2 -3).

Single and group pictures of the six masters have been made, but they are probably lost.

Schachzeitung, v23 n16, 15 August 1868, pp249-253
Schachzeitung, v23 n17/18, 1/15 September 1868, pp266-270
Neue Berliner Schachzeitung, v5 n9, September 1868, pp257-263
Aachener Zeitung, several reports from August 4 to August 9, 1868
Echo der Gegenwart, several reports from August 3 to August 8, 1868

Based off of the Game Collection: Aachen 1868 by User: thomastonk.

 page 1 of 1; 10 games  PGN Download 
Game  ResultMoves YearEvent/LocaleOpening
1. Anderssen vs W Paulsen 0-14218687th WSB Congress, Aachen, C39 King's Gambit Accepted
2. Zukertort vs M Lange 0-13918687th WSB Congress, Aachen, C51 Evans Gambit
3. Anderssen vs E Schallopp 1-02618687th WSB Congress, Aachen, C51 Evans Gambit
4. Anderssen vs M Lange 1-03418687th WSB Congress, Aachen, C51 Evans Gambit
5. M Lange vs W Paulsen 1-05118687th WSB Congress, Aachen, C80 Ruy Lopez, Open
6. E Schallopp vs Zukertort 0-14218687th WSB Congress, Aachen, C67 Ruy Lopez
7. Anderssen vs Zukertort 1-03818687th WSB Congress, Aachen, C65 Ruy Lopez, Berlin Defense
8. Zukertort vs Anderssen ½-½4018687th WSB Congress, Aachen, A00 Uncommon Opening
9. W Paulsen vs Zukertort 0-15918687th WSB Congress, Aachen, C65 Ruy Lopez, Berlin Defense
10. Anderssen vs M Lange 0-15418687th WSB Congress, Aachen, C77 Ruy Lopez
  REFINE SEARCH:   White wins (1-0) | Black wins (0-1) | Draws (1/2-1/2)  

Kibitzer's Corner
Jun-19-14  Nosnibor: In the excellent biography of Zukertort by Jimmy Adams the tournament record states that there was a tie for second place between Lange and Zukertort with Anderssen winning the event on 3 points.This was because the losses of Schallop are included in the tournament and match record on page 126.It would appear from examining the two games played by Schallop that he withdrew due to his very poor form. In particular leaving a mate in one on to Zukertort and defending poorly against Anderssen`s Evans Gambit.
Mar-31-15  thomastonk: <Nosnibor> Thank you for your comment. I have seen it only recently, because I am inactive here for almost one year. This page is my only tournament contribution at cg and I still feel some responsibility for it. So I have checked the sources once more and spent also some time in the local library reading the old newspapers again.

You wrote: <In the excellent biography of Zukertort by Jimmy Adams the tournament record states that there was a tie for second place between Lange and Zukertort with Anderssen winning the event on 3 points.>

If Adams wrote this, then there are at least two mistakes in this biography. Firstly, Anderssen definitely didn't win this event. Secondly, Lange and Zukertort did not tie for the second place.

I can state this safely, because the sources I gave about two years ago are clear in both respects. [BTW, German is my native language, if you were in doubt.] You and everybody else can check this most easily in "Schachzeitung" 1868 at Google books. The last sentence starting on page 270 and ending on page 271 clarifies the treatment of Schallopp's games. Here my rough translation: <After loosing several games, Schallopp could no longer delay his departure and hence he was considered to be withdrawn, or, in fact, to be not involved in the tournament.>

And on page 273 everyone can find who won the tournament and how. Again a rough translation: <According to the presented games and results, Anderssen and Lange, which both lost only one game, stood equal, and hence a deciding game was played, which Lange won and therefore he became the victor and won the price.>

The summary report in the "Aachener Zeitung" of 9th August 1868 confirmes this perfectly.

Less clear is the description in "Neue Berliner Schachzeitung" (NBS) of 1868, the magazine edited by Zukertort (officially: Anderssen and Zukertort, of course). There, no winner is explicitely mentioned! Only an implicit description in the middle of page 262 can be used to derive that Lange won the tournament by winning the so-called second game with Anderssen on the final day.


Did Adams give sources? I don't have a copy of his book, but as far as I know (see Edward Winter's Chess Note 8788 - worth reading anyway), he did not. What a pity!


Present conclusion: my old description of the event is correct.

For the future: I am willing to check the description again, but only if reliable sources are provided, i.e. primary sources as historians call them.

Apr-07-15  TheFocus: It is nice to see you posting again <thomastonk>!
Premium Chessgames Member
  perfidious: Here's to that.
Premium Chessgames Member
  offramp: <thomastonk> good to see you back!

Have you considered sending the apparent confusion in to Eddie Winter? It is the kind of problem he likes.

I am SURE you are right, by the way!

Premium Chessgames Member
  offramp: Some sources give the venue as Aix-la-Chapelle. :-)
Apr-13-15  thomastonk: Some extra material - maybe someone is interested in.

The organisation of the master tournament was a real mess, whereas the so-called main tournament for players of the Chess Association of West-Germany (Aachen, Barmen, Bonn, Cologne, Düsseldorf, Elberfeld, Eschweiler and Krefeld) went according to plan.

Zukertort arrived on 31st July, a Friday, the other masters on Saturday 1st August. These masters were guests of the local club. Further invitees were Morphy, de Rivière, Staunton, Kolisch and Ehrmann; except of Kolisch, who did not reply, all others declined with regret.

The congress begun on 1st August in the afternoon with initial hellos of almost all participants. Then followed a banquet in the evening including speaches, songs or poems, toasts etc.

Tournament play was planned to begin on 2th August (Sunday) and to be finished on 4th August (Tuesday). The games of the master tournament should be played consecutively with draws to be replayed.

<Sunday:> The first game begun in the morning between Zukertort and Lange and it was finished before lunch, another festive matter. In the afternoon, around 5 pm, Anderssen and W.Paulsen begun their game, which ended after five or six hours (the sources are not that exact). First day: two games of 10 or more are finished!

<Monday:> On Monday morning, the third game was played: Anderssen vs Lange. On Monday afternoon, Louis Paulsen gave a blindfold simultananeous exhibition on five boards, which ended on Tuesday at 2:30 am!

<Monday/Tuesday:> The fourth game, Anderssen vs Schallopp is a little mystery. "NBS", page 267 states that it was played on 3rd August and lasted 90 minutes. "Schachzeitung", page 256 states that it was played on 4th August between 9 and 11 am. A simple typo (4. instead of a correct 3.) is not possible here, because Anderssen played at this time against Lange. [I don't remember whether I noticed this problem two years ago, but the "Aachener Zeitung" of 9th August reported that Anderssen won on Monday against Lange AND Schallopp.]

Second day: three or four games of 10 or more are finished!

<Tuesday:> According to plan the final day of the tournament, and Schallopp had played at most one game! And things went even worse: in the morning Zukertort played his 5-board blindfold exhibition, where W.Paulsen and poor Schallopp announced the moves to him. And the next festive dinner is scheduled at 5 pm in a local hotel! The "Aachener Zeitung" puts it mildly: the price ceromony this evening is in doubt!

Let us assume for a moment that Schallopp had to leave Aachen on Wednesday. Then he knew already that he wouldn't be able to finish the tournament. So, should he withdraw immediately? Hardly possible, because he was guest of the local club and invited for playing!

It is known that Schallopp's two games with Anderssen and Zukertort lasted together 2.5-3 hours only, whereas the longest game, i.e. Lange vs W.Paulsen, lasted 15.5 hours, followed by Paulsen vs Zukertort 12 hours and Anderssen vs Lange 8.5 hours. So, we see Schallopp and his opponents played quite fast in these two games, and if we add missing motivation on Schallopp's side, these games reveal in a different light compared to <nosnibor's> impression of <"very poor form">, which is of course another possible point of view.

I think that even a more extreme theory then the simple "bad form = bad sportsmanship" is possible: Schallopp lost his games intentionally! This is speculation, of course, but if he knew he wouldn't stay to the end, winning could have been very unfair!

Schallopp departed in fact on Wednesday like the participants of the main tournament, and since the sources indicate two different reasons, the introduction above does it as well.

Jul-24-15  thomastonk: From the "Illustrated London News" of 15 August 1868, page 163:


The seventh annual meeting of this society was held at Aix-la-Chapelle, on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th inst., and, whether in the quality or number of the competitors, appears to have been fully equal to any previous assemblage of the league. As a proof of this it is enough to say that Messrs. Anderssen, Paulsen, Max. Lange, and Zukertort were in the lists, and that eighteen chess-boards were in constant requisition when play was going on.

The chief players in the grand tourney were Anderssen, Max. Lange, W. Paulsen, Zukertort, and Schallopp, who contested their games, for the most part, in the gardens of the Erholung. Some of the games in this tournament were remarkable good, and excited the intensest interest; more particularly the one between Mr. Anderssen and Dr. Lange, which in parts, was admirable; that between Messrs. W. Paulsen und Zukertort, which occuppied eleven hours; and the game between Dr. Lange and W. Paulsen, which lasted 15 hours, and served, eventually to place Dr. Lange at the head of the competitors. The following is the score of the four leading combatants in the chief tourney: --

Max. Lange won 1 game of Anderssen and lost 1 game to Anderssen

Max. Lange won 1 game of W. Paulsen

Max. Lange won 1 game of Zukertort

Anderssen won 1 game of Max. Lange and lost one game to Max. Lange

Anderssen won 1 game of Zukertort and lost 1 game to W. Paulsen, 1 game ended drawn

Zukertort won 1 game of W. Paulsen and lost one game to Max. Lange

Zukertort won 1 game of Schallopp and lost 1 game to Anderssen

W. Paulsen won 1 game of Anderssen and lost 1 game to Zukertort

W.Paulsen lost one game to Max. Lange
[This presentation is slightly modified due to format reasons.]

In the Tourney by players belonging to the Rhenish province, the first prize was gained by Mr. Tendering, of Bonn; the second by Dr. Schuster, of Aachen. The proceedings were enlivened on the 2nd inst. by a dinner at ''Bernart's Locale'', at which above sixty guests sat down, and interchanged toasts, songs, and sentiments for many hours.

Upon the termination of the congress, all the games played were equally divided between Messrs. Max. Lange and Zukertort, for the Berlin and Leipsic Chess Magazines; but some of the finest were cheerfully presented to the ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS. - From a Correspondent.>

Okay, there are a some flaws :
a. The game Lange vs W. Paulsen did not place Lange at the top.

b. It is hard to see that the only drawn game was Zukertort vs Anderssen, 1868.

c. One of Schallopp's games is mentioned, though he did not belong to the "four leading combatants".

d. The games were in fact not divided for publication in the German chess magazines; Minckwitz published at least 7, Zukertort at least 10 games.

During the next months, several games of the tournament appeared in the "ILN".

On 5 December (page 555), the game Anderssen vs Paulsen, 1868 was published with this introduction: <The following noteworthy Game between Messrs. ANDERSSEN and LOUIS PAULSEN was played, at Aix-la-Chapelle, after the tournament at the above meeting.>

This game appeared already in the "Neue Berliner Schachzeitung" 1868, pages 300-301, and the "ILN" quotes a comment from there.

There is a second game between Anderssen and Louis Paulsen, also played after the tournament, which seems to be unknown, and the reason is simple: it was not finished.

On 6 August, the game went as follows:

[Event "Offhand"]
[Site "Aachen"]
[Date "1868.08.06"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Paulsen, Louis"]
[Black "Anderssen, Adolf"]
[Result "*"]
[ECO "C45"]
[PlyCount "74"]

1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. d4 exd4 4. Nxd4 Nge7 5. Bc4 Nxd4 6. Qxd4 Nc6 7. Qd5 Qf6 8. O-O Be7 9. Nc3 d6 10. Nb5 Kd8 11. Qxf7 Rf8 12. Qxf6 Bxf6 13. c3 Ne5 14. Be2 Be6 15. f4 Nc4 16. Nd4 Bg8 17. b3 Nb6 18. Bb2 Re8 19.Bf3 c6 20. Rad1 Kc7 21. Nf5 Rad8 22. Rf2 g6 23. Nd4 a6 24. Rfd2 c5 25. Nc2 c4 26. b4 Na4 27. Nd4 Bxd4+ 28. cxd4 d5 29. e5 Be6 30. Kf2 b5 31. Rc1 Rf8 32. Ke3 Rf7 33. Bd1 Nb6 34. Bc3 Rdf8 35. Rf2 Nc8 36. Bc2 Ne7 37. a3 Kb6 *

The game was adjourned and continued the next day. The remaining moves are unknown, but the game was again adjourned in the following position:

click for larger view

"Neue Berliner Schachzeitung" 1868, pages 301-302.

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  offramp: When great tournaments are talked about, this is mentioned FIRST. Alphabetically.

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