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Horatio Caro
H Caro 
Circa 1905, Wikimedia Commons.  
Number of games in database: 115
Years covered: 1886 to 1908

Overall record: +33 -42 =40 (46.1%)*
   * Overall winning percentage = (wins+draws/2) / total games in the database.

With the White pieces:
 Queen's Pawn Game (17) 
    D02 D05 D00
 Vienna Opening (8) 
    C29 C25
 King's Indian Attack (4) 
 Bishop's Opening (4) 
    C24 C23
With the Black pieces:
 Ruy Lopez (12) 
    C67 C70 C61 C65 C62
 Caro-Kann (7) 
    B15 B18 B13
 Petrov (6) 
 Queen's Pawn Game (5) 
    D00 D02 D05
 Four Knights (5) 
 Vienna Opening (5) 
    C29 C28 C25
Repertoire Explorer

NOTABLE GAMES: [what is this?]
   H Caro vs Lasker, 1890 1-0
   L Forgacs vs H Caro, 1904 0-1
   H Caro vs W Kunze, 1904 1-0
   H Caro vs Von Scheve, 1888 1-0
   H Caro vs Schiffers, 1897 1-0
   A Neumann vs H Caro, 1905 0-1
   M Lewitt vs H Caro, 1905 0-1
   B Lasker vs H Caro, 1886 0-1
   I Kopa vs H Caro, 1905 1/2-1/2
   Blackburne vs H Caro, 1898 0-1

NOTABLE TOURNAMENTS: [what is this?]
   Barmen Meisterturnier B (1905)
   Berlin (1897)
   Coburg (Meisterturnier) (1904)
   Vienna (1898)

Search Sacrifice Explorer for Horatio Caro
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(born Jul-05-1862, died Dec-15-1920, 58 years old) United Kingdom

[what is this?]

Horatio Caro was born in England but spent most of his chess career in Berlin, Germany. He handed future world champion Emanuel Lasker the shortest loss of his career in H Caro vs Lasker, 1890. Caro won the 1904 Berlin Championship, half a point ahead of Ossip Bernstein and Rudolf Spielmann. He lost matches to Simon Winawer and Jacques Mieses, drew twice with Curt von Bardeleben, and defeated Moritz Lewitt.

He is best known for the opening that bears his name and that of Marcus Kann, the Caro-Kann Defense (B12). Caro analysed the opening in the German magazine Brüderschaft in 1886, calling it "Caro's Eröffnung." The year before, the Austrian master Marcus Kann had won a memorable game with the opening against the young Jacques Mieses, J Mieses vs M Kann, 1885. Curt von Bardeleben in the July 1890 Deutsche Schachzeitung called the opening "Zur Eröffnung Caro-Kann," and the name stuck. The Caro-Kann is today the fourth most popular response to 1.e4, after the Sicilian (1...c5), the double king pawn (1...e5), and the French (1...e6).

Wikipedia article: Horatio Caro

Last updated: 2023-03-20 06:57:05

 page 1 of 5; games 1-25 of 124  PGN Download
Game  ResultMoves YearEvent/LocaleOpening
1. B Lasker vs H Caro 0-1351886BerlinB15 Caro-Kann
2. Von Bardeleben vs H Caro  0-1371886Casual gameB13 Caro-Kann, Exchange
3. Muenchoff vs H Caro  0-1181886Casual gameB10 Caro-Kann
4. H Caro vs K Hollaender ½-½421888corres GERC29 Vienna Gambit
5. H Caro vs Von Scheve 1-0211888BerlinC29 Vienna Gambit
6. H Caro vs Harmonist  1-0481888BerlinC29 Vienna Gambit
7. H Caro vs C Doppler  1-0361888BerlinC25 Vienna
8. H Caro vs B Huelsen  0-1591889BerlinC29 Vienna Gambit
9. von der Lasa vs H Caro 1-0281890Berlin cgC29 Vienna Gambit
10. H Caro vs Lasker 1-0141890BerlinD02 Queen's Pawn Game
11. B Lasker vs H Caro 1-0381890BerlinC62 Ruy Lopez, Old Steinitz Defense
12. R Wehner vs H Caro 0-1321894BerlinA07 King's Indian Attack
13. J Mieses vs H Caro 1-0291897Berlin (m/ )C28 Vienna Game
14. M Michaelson vs H Caro 0-1391897Correspondence gameC45 Scotch Game
15. H Caro vs Winawer  ½-½691897BerlinD02 Queen's Pawn Game
16. H Caro vs Chigorin  ½-½731897BerlinD02 Queen's Pawn Game
17. Teichmann vs H Caro 1-0301897BerlinC61 Ruy Lopez, Bird's Defense
18. Alapin vs H Caro  0-1491897BerlinC25 Vienna
19. Metger vs H Caro  0-1501897BerlinD50 Queen's Gambit Declined
20. Schlechter vs H Caro  ½-½231897BerlinC49 Four Knights
21. A Zinkl vs H Caro ½-½861897BerlinC49 Four Knights
22. H Caro vs G Marco  ½-½211897BerlinD02 Queen's Pawn Game
23. K Walbrodt vs H Caro ½-½521897BerlinC61 Ruy Lopez, Bird's Defense
24. H Caro vs Burn 0-1491897BerlinD02 Queen's Pawn Game
25. H Caro vs Janowski ½-½811897BerlinC24 Bishop's Opening
 page 1 of 5; games 1-25 of 124  PGN Download
  REFINE SEARCH:   White wins (1-0) | Black wins (0-1) | Draws (1/2-1/2) | Caro wins | Caro loses  

Kibitzer's Corner
< Earlier Kibitzing  · PAGE 3 OF 3 ·  Later Kibitzing>
Aug-19-12  Karpova: In 1905 the Berlin Championship was decided by a match between Caro and Dr. Lewitt. Time control was 1 hour for 15 moves but the time consumed would only be measured at the end of the game and overstepping the time limit did not lead to the loss of the game but cost 1 Mark per 5 minutes (page 259).

The match was terminated with a final standing of +4 =6 -4 and counted as a draw (page 325).

Source: 1905 'Wiener Schachzeitung'

Jul-05-15  ketchuplover: Caro Kann !
Premium Chessgames Member
  MissScarlett: Another chess master who died in penury:
Premium Chessgames Member
  FSR: Ironically, he played 1...e5 six times as often as his eponymous opening.
Premium Chessgames Member
  HeMateMe: Perhaps this is his Horatio algorithm?
Jun-17-17  zanzibar: RE: "Die Brüderschaft"

<The reprint of the first volume 1885 was a great challenge as the original was handwritten in Old German cursive writing, so at first it had to be transcribed into common Latin characters.>


Jul-06-18  offramp: He is the only chess player in history whose first and last names both end in <o>.
Premium Chessgames Member
  Gregor Samsa Mendel: *sigh*

Sandro Mareco

Laszlo Szabo

Jun-24-19  mifralu: In 1914, thousands of British civilians and merchant seamen, along with foreigners from other nationalities with British connections, were interned at the hastily constructed prisoner of war camp at Ruhleben racecourse by Spandau, near Berlin, Germany. Most would not see freedom from the camp until the end of the war, but managed to maintain a unique way of life for the four years of their unwelcome internment.

< Caro

Caro was released from Ruhleben in January 1917, as reported in the Scotsman newspaper on January 31st 1917 ("British Civilians From Ruhleben", p.6). >

Premium Chessgames Member
  DanQuigley: Interesting. He didn't live too much longer after his release as a POW. I wonder if his inability to grow a real moustache was a handicap?
Premium Chessgames Member
  Phony Benoni: You run into a lot of players who are identified with a single game, generally one they lost. You know, like Kieseritzy, or Dufresne, or The Duke and The Count, or Curt von Bardeleben, or Friedirch Samisch, or Donald Byrne. Off the top of your head, are you familiar with another game any of them played?

Horatio Caro falls into this category, but has the fortunate distinction of having won his Only Game.

May-20-22  Retireborn: <PB> I'm not sure which game you mean? Off the top of my head the only game of his I remember is a Caro-Kann(!) which he lost to Pillsbury.
Premium Chessgames Member
  Phony Benoni: <Retireborn> Sorry; I should have specified H Caro vs Lasker, 1890
May-20-22  Retireborn: <PB> Thanks. Actually I had not seen that game before. I've never been able to work up much enthusiasm for 19th century chess.
Aug-07-22  wrap99: My understanding of the British workhouses is that they were deliberately not pleasant places. The sentence, "Discharged from workhouse, reason: dead." Right up there with Hemmingway's "Baby Shoes" short story as being one of the saddest ultra-short stories. One wonders the circumstances of Caro having to go into a workhouse but in our own time, more than one very good player has ended up in desperate circumstances.
Premium Chessgames Member
  HeMateMe: the workhouse was debtor's prison.
Aug-07-22  wrap99: <HeMateMe> My understanding is that there were workhouses that were simply homeless shelters in which one worked to pay for room and board, such as it was. I do not know if one could be imprisoned for debt in England in the 20th century but it is certainly possible -- there are actually ways that this still happened until quite recently in the USA although this may have changed in the past decade or so. What I read was failure to pay hospital/medical bills in some states could result in imprisonment. It may still occur.
Aug-07-22  stone free or die: RE: Workhouses

<Paupers Behaving Badly: Punishment in the Victorian Workhouse>

The deterrent workhouse, with its strict rules for the behavior of inmates and boundaries of authority of the workhouse officers, was a central expression of the Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834, known widely as the New Poor Law.


he workhouse was a central feature of Britain's New Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834, and discipline and punishment for transgressions were essential to the workhouse regime. Nassau Senior, a member of the Royal Commission whose report resulted in the act, wanted relief to the poor to be given only within “the strict discipline of well-regulated workhouses." He saw maintaining discipline as an essential part of enforcing deterrence and efficiently administering a workhouse full of resentful inmates; yet discipline was more problematic than in asylums or prisons, as workhouse populations were constantly changing. Senior wished to introduce the “workhouse test” as a measure of true destitution and the only means whereby paupers could receive poor relief in a workhouse.Moreover, workhouses were designed to deter the poor from applying for relief. This was achieved by their prison-like appearance, their location, often on the outskirts of provincial towns, and also by the separation of men, women, and children, the provision of hard work, and a highly regimented daily timetable. Discipline was essential because of the low ratio of staff to inmates; in Norwich workhouse in 1881, for instance, there were 529 paupers to twenty staff members.>

Premium Chessgames Member
  MissScarlett: Horatio doesn't feature on this list of prominent inmates of Ruhleben:

Many of the released/exchanged prisoners - including Caro - returned home via Flushing. Never heard of it, but it turns out to be the Dutch city of Vlissingen, which I'd never heard of either:

Premium Chessgames Member
  HeMateMe: I was referring to the 19th, not 20th centuries.
Aug-08-22  wrap99: <HeMateMe> He was in a workhouse in the 20th century.
Premium Chessgames Member
  MissScarlett: Like two bald men fighting over a comb.
Aug-09-22  stone free or die: I have plenty of hair, and I'd still like to add a bit more on workhouses.

Here's an overall review of their history, including a few

And here's a BBC article on a woman who grew up in a workhouse in the 20th century:


Nov-29-22  wrap99: I have plenty of hair and I'd sure like that comb.
Premium Chessgames Member
  FSR: <From John Townsend (Wokingham, England):

"Your feature article on the Caro-Kann Defence includes a request for information about Horatio Caro’s final years, and I can provide some information on his last two and a half months. The admission and discharge register, 1919-1921, of the South Grove Institution, Mile End Road, London, a workhouse, includes the following entry for an admission:

"Date: Friday 1 October 1920
Name: Caro Horatio
Calling, if any: Laborer [sic] (Casl.)
Religious Persuasion: Hebrew
When Born: 1863
Infirm Adults: 1
Parish from which Admitted: Infirmary
By whose Order Admitted: Board’s
Date of the Order of Admission: 1.10.20."

In a separate discharge register for the South Grove Institution, an entry dated 15 December 1920 for "Caro Horatio", an infirm adult, records simply that he is "Dead".

Both the above records can be viewed online.

He was buried in the East Ham Jewish Cemetery in a grave on which a plaque gives his date of death as 15 December 1920. A good photograph of the grave, provided by Geoffrey Gillon, can be seen on the Find A Grave website.’>

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