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Philadelphia 1876
Compiled by suenteus po 147
--*--

At the occasion of the World's Fair held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in the United States of America, a number of exhibitions and events were organized to take place during the fair in order to attract foreign interests and representatives to American soil. In addition to many wonderous inventions debuted at the fair, including such curiosities as the telegraph, the telephone, and the typewriter, the 4th US Chess Congress was held. It was the perfect opportunity, not only to attract foreign chess masters but also to celebrate the US centennial. Nine American chess players, some of whom had only taken up residence in the United States only recently, participated in the tournament through registering the $20 entrance fee. The complete list of participants included L.D. Barbour, Henry Edward Bird (originally from England), Harry Davidson, Jacob Elson, Max Judd, Dion Martinez (originally from Cuba), James Mason (originally from Ireland and Great Britain), Albert Roberts, and Preston Ware. Martinez played two of his opponents in both double rounds, but was called back to Cuba when an illness in his family became known to him. His early exit caused his participation from the tournament to be cancelled and his results and games were expunged from the final record. His four games are included in the collection for historical accuracy and completeness. The organization of games and format for timing and pairing were still unstandardized at this time, so players often ended up completing and playing additional games in their pairings on the same day. While the format below does not follow any clear separation of rounds, the dates for each games completion is correct. Play had been scheduled to begin on August 15th, but was delayed to August 16th. All games were played through to August 31st, 1876, with Sundays reserved as rest days. James Mason won the $300 grand prize, as well as the Governor Garland Silver Cup for placing first with ten and a half points out of fourteen in the final. The other prizes went to Judd, who received $200 for second place, Bird, who received $150 for third place, Elson, who received $100 for fourth place, Davidson, who received $50 for fifth place, and Roberts, who received $8 for sixth place. Each place to receive money aside from first also received a gold medal to commemorate their participation.

The final standings and crosstable:

1st Mason 10/14 xx 1 10 1 1 1 11 1 --

2nd Judd 9/14 0 xx 00 10 1 11 11 11 --

=3rd Davidson 8/14 01 11 xx 0 0 1 01 11 --

=3rd Bird 8/14 0 01 1 xx 0 11 1 1 --

5th Elson 8/14 0 0 1 1 xx 10 11 --

6th Roberts 5/14 0 00 0 00 xx 1 11 --

7th Ware 4/14 00 00 10 0 01 0 xx --

8th Barbour 2/14 0 00 00 0 00 00 xx --

--- Martinez 1/4 00 -- -- -- -- -- -- xx

Round One, August 16th
L D Barbour vs M Judd, 1876
(A00) Uncommon Opening, 34 moves, 0-1

Bird vs J Mason, 1876 
(A02) Bird's Opening, 98 moves, 0-1

H Davidson vs D M Martinez, 1876
(C01) French, Exchange, 61 moves, 1/2-1/2

J Elson vs P Ware, 1876
(B01) Scandinavian, 39 moves, 1-0

M Judd vs L D Barbour, 1876
(A10) English, 28 moves, 1-0

Round Two, August 17th
L D Barbour vs Albert Roberts, 1876
(C78) Ruy Lopez, 40 moves, 0-1

D M Martinez vs H Davidson, 1876 
(A83) Dutch, Staunton Gambit, 72 moves, 1/2-1/2

J Mason vs Bird, 1876 
(C33) King's Gambit Accepted, 38 moves, 1/2-1/2

Albert Roberts vs L D Barbour, 1876
(C42) Petrov Defense, 26 moves, 1-0

P Ware vs J Elson, 1876 
(A80) Dutch, 69 moves, 1-0

Round Three, August 18th
L D Barbour vs J Mason, 1876 
(C66) Ruy Lopez, 91 moves, 1/2-1/2

Bird vs P Ware, 1876 
(B01) Scandinavian, 87 moves, 1/2-1/2

H Davidson vs M Judd, 1876 
(B45) Sicilian, Taimanov, 51 moves, 1-0

J Elson vs Albert Roberts, 1876
(C77) Ruy Lopez, 38 moves, 1/2-1/2

M Judd vs H Davidson, 1876 
(A10) English, 48 moves, 1/2-1/2

P Ware vs Bird, 1876 
(A80) Dutch, 62 moves, 0-1

Round Four, August 19th
D M Martinez vs J Mason, 1876 
(A83) Dutch, Staunton Gambit, 42 moves, 0-1

J Mason vs L D Barbour, 1876 
(B42) Sicilian, Kan, 27 moves, 1-0

Albert Roberts vs J Elson, 1876
(C01) French, Exchange, 38 moves, 1/2-1/2

Round Five, August 21st
L D Barbour vs H Davidson, 1876 
(C43) Petrov, Modern Attack, 45 moves, 0-1

Bird vs Albert Roberts, 1876 
(C45) Scotch Game, 38 moves, 1-0

H Davidson vs L D Barbour, 1876 
(C42) Petrov Defense, 15 moves, 1-0

M Judd vs P Ware, 1876
(B01) Scandinavian, 43 moves, 1-0

J Mason vs D M Martinez, 1876 
(C01) French, Exchange, 27 moves, 1-0

Albert Roberts vs Bird, 1876 
(C80) Ruy Lopez, Open, 20 moves, 0-1

Round Six, August 22nd
L D Barbour vs Bird, 1876 
(C80) Ruy Lopez, Open, 27 moves, 1/2-1/2

Bird vs L D Barbour, 1876 
(C40) King's Knight Opening, 25 moves, 1-0

H Davidson vs J Elson, 1876
(C01) French, Exchange, 47 moves, 0-1

J Mason vs Albert Roberts, 1876 
(C77) Ruy Lopez, 28 moves, 1-0

Albert Roberts vs J Mason, 1876
(C43) Petrov, Modern Attack, 21 moves, 1/2-1/2

P Ware vs M Judd, 1876
(D00) Queen's Pawn Game, 77 moves, 0-1

Round Seven, August 23rd
L D Barbour vs P Ware, 1876 
(B01) Scandinavian, 75 moves, 1/2-1/2

M Judd vs Bird, 1876 
(C45) Scotch Game, 42 moves, 0-1

J Mason vs J Elson, 1876
(C01) French, Exchange, 39 moves, 1-0

Albert Roberts vs H Davidson, 1876
(C33) King's Gambit Accepted, 36 moves, 0-1

P Ware vs L D Barbour, 1876 
(D00) Queen's Pawn Game, 55 moves, 1/2-1/2

Round Eight, August 24th
Bird vs M Judd, 1876 
(C77) Ruy Lopez, 43 moves, 0-1

H Davidson vs Albert Roberts, 1876
(C60) Ruy Lopez, 24 moves, 1/2-1/2

P Ware vs Albert Roberts, 1876
(A80) Dutch, 50 moves, 1/2-1/2

Round Nine, August 25th
J Elson vs J Mason, 1876
(C11) French, 33 moves, 1/2-1/2

J Mason vs H Davidson, 1876 
(C33) King's Gambit Accepted, 42 moves, 0-1

Albert Roberts vs P Ware, 1876
(B01) Scandinavian, 51 moves, 1-0

Round Ten, August 26th
L D Barbour vs J Elson, 1876
(C43) Petrov, Modern Attack, 23 moves, 0-1

H Davidson vs J Mason, 1876
(C61) Ruy Lopez, Bird's Defense, 61 moves, 0-1

J Elson vs L D Barbour, 1876
(B44) Sicilian, 48 moves, 1-0

Round Eleven, August 28th
H Davidson vs Bird, 1876 
(C61) Ruy Lopez, Bird's Defense, 25 moves, 0-1

J Elson vs M Judd, 1876
(C60) Ruy Lopez, 28 moves, 0-1

M Judd vs J Elson, 1876 
(A83) Dutch, Staunton Gambit, 32 moves, 1/2-1/2

M Judd vs Albert Roberts, 1876 
(C45) Scotch Game, 13 moves, 1-0

Albert Roberts vs M Judd, 1876 
(C30) King's Gambit Declined, 37 moves, 0-1

Round Twelve, August 29th
Bird vs H Davidson, 1876 
(A03) Bird's Opening, 41 moves, 1/2-1/2

J Mason vs P Ware, 1876
(D30) Queen's Gambit Declined, 36 moves, 1-0

Round Thirteen, August 30th
Bird vs J Elson, 1876 
(A03) Bird's Opening, 45 moves, 0-1

J Elson vs Bird, 1876 
(C61) Ruy Lopez, Bird's Defense, 38 moves, 1/2-1/2

P Ware vs J Mason, 1876 
(C00) French Defense, 33 moves, 0-1

Round Fourteen, August 31st
H Davidson vs P Ware, 1876 
(A10) English, 49 moves, 0-1

M Judd vs J Mason, 1876 
(C00) French Defense, 48 moves, 0-1

P Ware vs H Davidson, 1876
(A40) Queen's Pawn Game, 69 moves, 0-1

58 games

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