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  1. 35_BB:BN -the minor exchange squeeze
    Minor exchange - die kleine Qualität

    "The minor exchange refers to the capture of the opponent's bishop for the player's knight (or, more recently, the stronger minor piece for the weaker) (Soltis 2004). Bobby Fischer used the term (Benko 2007), but it is rarely used.

    In most chess positions, a bishop is worth slightly more than a knight because of its longer range of movement. As a chess game progresses, pawns tend to get traded, removing support points from the knight and opening up lines for the bishop. This generally leads to the bishop's advantage increasing over time.

    Traditional chess theory espoused by masters such as Wilhelm Steinitz and Siegbert Tarrasch puts more value on the bishop than the knight. In contrast, the hypermodern school favored the knight over the bishop. Modern theory is that it depends on the position, but that there are more positions where the bishop is better than where the knight is better (Mayer 1997).

    There are some occasions when a knight can be worth more than a bishop, so this exchange is not necessarily made at every opportunity to do so.

    A rook and bishop usually work better together than a rook and knight in the endgame (Mayer 1997), (Beliavsky & Mikhalchishin 2000).

    José Raúl Capablanca stated that a queen and knight work better together than a queen and bishop in the endgame (Mayer 1997).

    More recently, John Watson has stated that from his study of this endgame that an unusually large proportion of queen and knight versus queen and bishop endings are drawn, and that most decisive games are characterized by the winning side having one or more obvious advantages (for example, having a knight against a bad bishop in a closed position, or having a bishop in a position with pawns on both sides of the board, particularly if the knight has no natural outpost).

    Watson states that positions in this endgame in general "are very volatile, and often the winning side is simply the one who starts out being able to win material or launch an attack on the opposing king" (Watson 1998).

    Glenn Flear agrees with that assessment for endgames. He could not find an endgame by Capablanca that supported his statement. The statistics for queen and bishop versus queen and knight endgames are about even. Most decisive games were won because of a significant advantage from the middlegame and only a limited number of positions show an inherent superiority for one over the other (Flear 2007)."

    Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_e...

    Grandmaster Ronen Har-Zvi presented this game in a lecture: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aX4E... starts at around 29m00s

    Position after <28.Nxc1>:


    click for larger view

    = = =

    <Horseman - how do you know this is just a short squeeze, and not the beginning of something much more substantial?>

    http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Chess_...

    145 games, 1867-2019

  2. 4 pieces in a row: clearance for discovery
    _THREE_ pieces in a row make a discovery chain.

    So if there are _FOUR_ pieces in a row, we need to move one of our pieces out of the way with a <GAIN OF TIME (CLEARANCE)> so that we will have the requisite _THREE_ pieces in a row for the <DISCOVERED ATTACK>.

    3 games, 2007-2010

  3. 41_R+N - Tactical Tangos
    Müller/Lamprecht say that 15% of all games reach an ending of rook and minor piece vs rook and minor piece, so that you can expect to get such one in every tournament.

    Their statistics, with relative percentage frequencies, rounded:

    ♖♗ vs ♖♘ (45%)
    ♖♗ vs ♖♗ (22%)} with the same colored bishops
    ♖♗ vs ♖♗ (13%) with opposite colored bishops
    <♖♘ vs ♖♘ (20%)>

    external lectures: http://roman-chess.blogspot.de/2012...

    "In endings with rook and knight against rook and knight a slight initiative usually weighs heavily" - GM Karsten Müller

    375 games, 1896-2019

  4. 42_R+B (of same colour)
    Müller/Lamprecht say that 15% of all games reach an ending of rook and minor piece vs rook and minor piece, so that you can expect to get such one in every tournament.

    Their statistics, with relative percentage frequencies, rounded:

    ♖♗ vs ♖♘ (45%)
    --> ♖♗ vs ♖♗ (22%) some coloured ♗
    ♖♗ vs ♖♗ (13%) opp. coloured ♗
    ♖♘ vs ♖♘ (20%)

    < Könnte es sein, daß von hier eher Turmendspiele als Läuferendspiele entstehen? < Welche (Bauern-)Konstellation läßt so welche Endspiele enstehen? < Und warum ist das so?>>>

    229 games, 1858-2019

  5. 43_R+B -opp.col. (wonderful attacking weapons)
    Endings with Bishops of opposite color are of frequent occurence, yet the chess literature offers relatively few examples with a Rook added to each side.

    <The presence of the Rook often overcomes the drawish tendency that results from the Bishop's inability to command squares of more than one color.

    <The general strategic principles of endgame play are again to be observed. The player having <

    - the better centralized King,

    - pawns controlling squares of the same color as the enemy Bishop,

    - and the more mobile Rook

    < usually has winning chances.

    >>>>

    -- CJS Purdy "On The Endgame"

    = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

    <<Opposite colored Bishops> are wonderful attacking weapons in the middlegame (or in endgames with many pieces remaining) since one Bishop can attack something that the other can't defend.> -- Jeremy Silman

    = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

    Müller/Lamprecht say that 15% of all games reach an ending of rook and minor piece vs rook and minor piece, so that you can expect to get such one in every tournament.

    Their statistics, with relative percentage frequencies, rounded:

    ♖♗ vs ♖♘ (45%)
    ♖♗ vs ♖♗ (22%) same coloured ♗
    --> ♖♗ vs ♖♗ (13%) opp. coloured ♗
    ♖♘ vs ♖♘ (20%)

    <Bees of Opps and Rooks <>>

    external: http://www.ajedrezactual.com/fifi12...

    http://www.chess.com/article/view/c...

    D.♔ explains Carlsen vs Karjakin, 2013 here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MgT6...

    = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

    <T. Nissl> "Akademisches Monatsheft für Schach", 1910


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    #6

    <1.Bh4 Rd1 2.Bg3 Rc1 3.Bf4 Rc2 4.Bg5 Bf3 5.Bd8+ Rc7 6.Bxc7#>

    398 games, 1881-2019

  6. 46a_R:BB
    <In the struggle between a rook and two minor pieces, there is generally equality if the side with the rook has 1 or 2 pawns more. Somewhat fewer pawns are required if both minor pieces are knights, and on the other hand 2 pawns are necessary if we are talking about the bishop pair.

    <The average value of the exchange (rook against a knight or a single bishop) is about 13/8 of a pawn. The advantage for the side with the rook is only 1 and 3/20 of a pawn if the opposing side has the bishop pair. If all the other minor pieces are still on the board, the value of the exchange drops by (1/4) of a pawn. If, on the other hand, the queens and a pair of rooks have been exchanged off, it goes up by somewhat more than (1/4) of a pawn. >>

    http://www.chessbase.com/newsdetail...

    Endgame Explorer: RPPP vs BBPPP

    55 games, 1851-2019

  7. 49_Other endgames
    Simply 'other endgames'. Did you expect a long explanation ??? Keep on dreaming!

    <"Agreeing to draws in the middlegame, equal or otherwise, deprives you of the opportunity to practice playing endgames, and the endgame is probably where you need the most practice."> ~ Pal Benko

    A knowledge of the endgame is the magic key to the secrets of chess mastery. . . . Delving into the secrets of the endgame reveals an amazing world of chess harmony. --Vassily Smyslov
    * * *

    In order to improve your game, you must study the endgame before everything else. For whereas the endings can be studied and mastered by themselves, the middle game and end game must be studied in relation to the end game. - Jose Capablanca * * *

    Mastering endgame technique is equally important for defense of difficult positions. --Nikolai Minev

    (incl <Botvinnik's 25 most interesting endgames> collection ) if not put somewhere else... :D

    79 games, 1902-2017

  8. 50_Queenless middlegames
    Queenless middlegames - where the ♕s will be traded-off as 1st or 2nd pair of pieces until move 15.

    <1.e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bb5 Nf6 4. O-O Nxe4 5. d4 Nd6 6. Bxc6 dxc6 7. dxe5 Nf5 8. Qxd8+ Kxd8>


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    Berlin Wall (C67) Opening Explorer (1,734 games, and counting) --> Game Collection: Kramnik with Berlin Wall by tesasembiring and others...

    ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙

    <1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 g6 3. Nc3 Bg7 4. e4 d6 5. Nf3 O-O 6. Be2 e5 7. dxe5 dxe5 8. Qxd8 Rxd8 >


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    E92: King's Indian Defense: Exchange Variation Opening Explorer (555 games)

    ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙

    <1. e4 d6 2. d4 Nf6 3. Nc3 e5 4. dxe5 dxe5 5. Qxd8+ Kxd8>


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    B07: Pirc Defense, General Opening Explorer (543 games)

    ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙

    <1. d4 d5 2. c4 dxc4 3. e3 Nf6 4. Bxc4 e6 5. Nf3 c5 6. O-O a6 7. dxc5 Qxd1 8. Rxd1 Bxc5 >


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    D27: Queen's Gambit Accepted, Classical Opening Explorer (291 games)

    ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙

    <1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bb5 a6 4. Bxc6 dxc6 5. d4 exd4 6. Qxd4 Qxd4 7. Nxd4 >


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    C68: Ruy Lopez, Exchange Opening Explorer (244 games)

    ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙

    <1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nf6 3. Nxe5 d6 4. Nf3 Nxe4 5. Qe2 Qe7 6. d3 Nf6 7. Bg5 Qxe2+ 8. Bxe2 Be7 9. Nc3 >


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    C42 Russian Game: Cozio (Lasker) Attack Opening Explorer (233 games)

    ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙

    <1.d4 d5 2.c4 dxc4 3.Nf3 Nf6 4.e3 e6 5.Bxc4 c5 6.O-O a6 7.dxc5 Bxc5 8.Qxd8+ Kxd8>


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    D27: Queen's Gambit Accepted, Classical Opening Explorer (225 games)

    ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙

    <1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bb5 a6 4. Bxc6 dxc6 5. O-O f6 6. d4 Bg4 7. dxe5 Qxd1 8. Rxd1 fxe5 >


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    C69: Ruy Lopez, Exchange, Gligoric Variation, 6.d4 Opening Explorer (200 games)

    ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙

    <1.Nf3 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 d5 4.cxd5 Nxd5 5.e4 Nxc3 6.dxc3 Qxd1+ 7.Kxd1>


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    A 14 English Opening: Anglo-Indian Defense. King's Indian Formation Opening Explorer (175 games)

    ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙

    <1. d4 d6 2. c4 e5 3. dxe5 dxe5 4. Qxd8+ Kxd8 >


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    Rat Defense: English Rat (A41) Opening Explorer (132 games)

    ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙

    <1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 g6 3. Nc3 d5 4. cxd5 Nxd5 5. e4 Nxc3 6. bxc3 Bg7 7. Nf3 c5 8. Be3 Qa5 9. Qd2 Nc6 10. Rc1 cxd4 11. cxd4 Qxd2+ 12. Kxd2 >


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    Gruenfeld Defense: Exchange. Modern Exchange Variation (D85) Opening Explorer (107 games, probably more due to transpositions or similar move orders)

    ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙

    <1. Nf3 c5 2. c4 Nf6 3. g3 d5 4. cxd5 Nxd5 5. Bg2 Nc6 6. d4 cxd4 7. Nxd4 Ndb4 8. Nxc6 Qxd1+ 9. Kxd1 Nxc6 >


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    A15: English / A04: Reti Opening Opening Explorer (49 games)

    ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙

    ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙

    ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙

    ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙

    ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙

    ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙

    ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♖ ♘ ♗ _ ♔ ♗ ♘ ♖ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙

    Other, rare lines

    # <1. d4 d5 2. c4 dxc4 3. e4 e5 4. Nf3 Bb4+ 5. Nc3 exd4 6. Qxd4 Qxd4 7. Nxd4 > (24 games)

    # <1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 g6 3. Nc3 Bg7 4. e4 d6 5. f3 e5 6. dxe5 dxe5 7. Qxd8+ Kxd8 > (23 games)

    # <1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 g6 3. Nc3 Bg7 4. e4 d6 5. f3 O-O 6. Be3 e5 7. dxe5 dxe5 8. Qxd8 Rxd8 > (23 games)

    # <1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 g6 3. Nc3 d5 4. Nf3 Bg7 5. Bg5 Ne4 6. Bh4 c5 7. cxd5 Nxc3 8. bxc3 Qxd5 9. e3 Nc6 10. Be2 cxd4 11. cxd4 e5 12. dxe5 Qa5+ 13. Qd2 Qxd2+ 14. Kxd2 > (18 games)

    # <1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 g6 3. Nc3 Bg7 4. e4 d6 5. Nf3 O-O 6. Be2 Na6 7. O-O e5 8. dxe5 dxe5 9. Qxd8 Rxd8 > (17 games)

    # <1. e4 e6 2. d4 d5 3. Nd2 c5 4. exd5 exd5 5. Bb5+ Nc6 6. Qe2+ Qe7 7. dxc5 Qxe2+ 8. Nxe2 Bxc5 > (17 games)

    # <1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 e6 3. Nf3 d5 4. Nc3 c5 5. cxd5 cxd4 6. Qxd4 exd5 7. e4 Nc6 8. Bb5 dxe4 9. Qxd8 Kxd8> (15 games)

    # <1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 c5 4.cxd5 cxd4 5.Qxd4 Nc6 6.Qd1 exd5 7.Qxd5 Be6 8.Qxd8+ Rxd8> (13 games)

    # <1. e4 d5 2. d3 dxe4 3. dxe4 Qxd1+ 4. Kxd1 > (10 games)

    # <1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 Nc6 3. Nf3 d6 4. Nc3 e5 5. dxe5 Nxe5 6. Nxe5 dxe5 7. Qxd8+ Kxd8 > (7 games)

    # <1. d4 d5 2. c4 Nc6 3. e3 e5 4. dxe5 d4 5. exd4 Qxd4 6. Qxd4 Nxd4 > (6 games)

    # <1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 g6 3. Bg5 Bg7 4. Nc3 d6 5. e4 O-O 6. Be2 c5 7. dxc5 dxc5 8. Qxd8 Rxd8 > (6 games)

    # <1. c4 e5 2. g3 g6 3. d4 d6 4. dxe5 dxe5 5. Qxd8+ Kxd8> (5 games)

    # <1. c4 e5 2. g3 Nf6 3. Bg2 c6 4. d4 d6 5.dxe5 dxe5 6. Qxd8+ Kxd8> (5 games)

    # <1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 g6 3. Nc3 d5 4. cxd5 Nxd5 5. Na4 e5 6. dxe5 Nc6 7. a3 Nxe5 8. e4 Nb6 9. Qxd8+ Kxd8> (3 games)

    # <1. d4 d5 2. c4 Nc6 3. e3 e5 4. dxe5 dxc4 5. Qxd8+ Kxd8 6. Bxc4 Nxe5 > (2 games)

    # <1.c4 g6 2.d4 Nf6 3.Nc3 d5 4.Nf3 Bg7 5.e3 O-O 6.Be2 dxc4 7.Bxc4 c5 8.d5 e6 9.dxe6 Qxd1+ 10.Kxd1> (2 games)

    # <1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. d3 Nf6 4. g3 Be7 5. Bg2 O-O 6. O-O d5 7. Nbd2 Be6 8. Qe2 dxe4 9. dxe4 Qd7 10. c3 Rad8 11. Nc4 Bxc4 12. Qxc4 Qd3 13. Qxd3 Rxd3> (1 game) Keene vs Ray Byrne, 1964

    82 games, 1894-2017

  9. 51a1_IQP on d4
    < "He who fears an Isolated Queen's Pawn should give up Chess." <>> ~ Siegbert Tarrasch

    < "The isolated Pawn casts gloom over the entire chessboard." <>> ~ Aaron Nimzowitsch

    <The essential disadvantage of the isolated pawn ... lies not in the pawn itself, but in the square in front of the pawn. <>> ~ Richard Reti

    This collection shows how to take advantage of the dynamic possibilities of the isolated d pawn. If the isolani manages to advance, look out! On the other hand, if it is firmly blockaded, it tends to become a liability that leads to a lost endgame as pieces are exchanged. I find this strategic struggle utterly fascinating.

    The Isolated Queen's Pawn (or as google translated it from Portugiese <the Pawn Isolated Lady> - (L-O-L) can play a dangerous role in attack, espeically when it advances to disorient the enemy army. Most games in this collection examplify this theme. However, sometimes it can be properly blockaded and eventually captured.

    'Understanding Pawn play in chess' by Drazen Marovic has a nice treatment of the subject of IQP. An equally good treatment is available in 'Pawn structure chess' by Andrew Soltis

    recommended/check:
    Game Collection: IQP / http://www.chessgames.com/perl/ches... / Game Collection: IQP wins / Game Collection: IQP loses / Game Collection: IQP / Game Collection: nexus IQP position / Game Collection: IQP Wins.

    * Game Collection: PANOV BOTVINNIK ATTACK

    These games all reach the same IQP position after 7 complete moves. There are myriad move orders to reach the position, including lines of the following openings: Alapin Sicilian, Panov Caro-Kann, Symmetrical English, Semi-Tarrasch, Scandinavian transfer to Panov. Botvinnik believed that studying certain structures which could arise from numerous openings was a good way to prepare. The main structure which Botvinnik studied was the Panov. I don't know if this exact position was one that he studied, but it seems to be a nexus for many openings which result in IQP positions. Some examples of players who have followed the main line continuation from the nexus position most frequently on the white side are Judit Polgar and Jovan Petronic. On the black side we see the Caro-Kann adherents Anatoly Karpov, Allan Stig Rasmussen, and especially Eduard Meduna. I will cite instances where the nexus position is mentioned in books when I find them. Soltis=the book by Soltis titled Pawn Structure Chess. I don't own a database to search so I am relying on online tools. Andrzej Maciejewski v Marek Vokac, Prague 1990 is the only master game I can find which follows the Alapin Sicilian to a position which could have resulted from the nexus: 1 e4 c5 2 c3 d5 3 exd5 Nf6 4 d4 cxd4 5 cxd4 Nxd5 6 Nc3 e6 7 Nf3 Be7 8 Bd3 0-0 9 0-0 Nc6. George-Gabriel Grigore v Serban Neamtu, Romania 1992 is an example of the move order from the Slav Exchange 1 d4 d5 2 c4 c6 3 cxd5 cxd5 4 Nc3 Nc6 5 e4 Nf6 6 exd5 Nxd5 7 Nf3 e6. Here is another move order: Scandinavian, Kadas Gambit, transfer to Panov 1 e4 d5 2 exd5 Nf6 3 c4 c6 4 d4 cxd5 5 Nc3 Nc6 6 cxd5 Nxd5 7 Nf3 e6. These are the relevant ECO codes: A04, A15, A16, A17, A30, A34, A35, A40, A46, B01, B10, B13, B14, B21, B22, D02, D04, D10, D41, E10.


    click for larger view

    "Imagine the following pawn skeleton: White: pawns on a2, b2, d4, f2, g2, h2: Black: pawns on a7, b7, e6, f7, g7, h7. Despite its static weakness, the isolated pawn on d4 is filled with a certain dynamic power. We must distinguish with absolute accuracy between "static" and "dynamic" because this is the only way to understand completely. A static weakness shows up in the endgame and in two ways: firstly, the d4-pawn needs protection and, secondly, "neighbouring weak squares" show up clearly (e.g. the black king can try to get to c4 or e4 via d5). As far as dynamic strength is concerned, there is the pawn's lust to expand (d4-d5!) and in addition White can plan to leave his isolated pawn where it is and occupy one of the dynamically extremely valuable squares e5 or c5 which have been created by the d4-pawn."

    - Nimzowitsch, The Praxis of My System

    ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙

    Baburin, Winning Pawn Structures leider zur Zeit nicht mehr erhältlich (Juni 2007) 256 S., kart., Batsford 1998/2001, Euro 25,00

    " Zielgruppe: DWZ 1600-2350

    Eine Zeitlang war dieses Buch nicht erhältlich, dann doch wieder nachgedruckt - aber der Autor bat, das Buch nicht zu kaufen, wegen ungeklärter Honorarzahlungen. Im Moment scheint aber wieder alles in Ordnung, und wir dürfen dieses Buch ruhigen Gewissens empfehlen. Der erste Schwachpunkt eines sehr starken Buches ist - der Titel. Dieser sollte heißen Isolanistellungen. Denn Thema ist der klassische isolierte Damenbauer, entstehend aus Tarrasch-Verteidigung, Semi-Tarrasch, Caro-Kann/Panow-Angriff, Nimzowitsch-Indisch mit 4.e3, Sizilianisch 1.e4 c5 2.c3 d5 usw. Kürzer behandelt werden die verwandten Typen "Hängebauern" (z.B. nach Sd5xSc3 b2xc3 bei weißem Isolani d4) und "Widder" (sich gegenüberstehende Einzelbauern d4/d5). Der irisch-russische GM Baburin illustriert in überzeugender Weise alle typischen Angriffs-, Verteidigungs- und Endspielpläne. Und beileibe nicht nur die naheliegenden Pläne,die "jeder kennt" bzw. zu kennen meint! (z.B. die Standardopfer auf f7 und e6). Da kommt auch mal die Isolaniseite auf der c-Linie, bringt den Turm auf der 3. Reihe zum Einsatz (z.B. Ta1-a3-h3 oder Td1-d3-g3) oder spielt einen Angriff mittels h2-h4-h5 - ein weniger bekanntes, aber mitunter effektvolles Motiv. Das Buch ist mithin Pflicht für alle Spieler, bei denen Isolanistellungen eine wesentliche Stelle im Eröffnungsrepertoire einnimmt. Ein kleiner Vorbehalt nichtsdestotrotz: In den (ansonsten hervorragend ausgewählten!) Beispielen gewinnt praktisch immer die Isolaniseite, wenn sie Angriff/Initiative im Mittelspiel hat. Bzw. in typischen Endspielen, wo naturgemäß die gegen den Isolani spielende Seite den Vorteil hat, verdichtet sie diesen Vorteil in praktisch allen Beispielen zum Gewinn. Dies entspricht nicht der Realität! Wie sowohl das Gefühl wie auch ein Spezialrecherche in Datenbanken zeigt, bleibt ein typisches Endspiel - sagen wir mit Läufer und Springer beiderseits - in der Mehrzahl der Fälle remis; nur seltener führt der Vorteil auch zum ganzen Punkt. Umgekehrt führt längst nicht jede Stellung mit starkem Königsangriff der Isolaniseite zum Erfolg; die notorisch komplizierten Opferwendungen führen auch gern mal zum Dauerschach oder zu unklaren Positionen. Zwar zeigt Baburin jedesmal, wo die letztlich unterlegene Seite hätte besser spielen können. Trotzdem - ich habe ein bißchen Angst, daß solchermaßen im Kopf ein statistisch verzerrtes Abbild der Realität entsteht. Trotz dieses kleinen Vorbehaltes ein starkes Buch, einwandfrei produziert und mit umfangreichem Inhalt, so daß der Preis nicht so sehr schmerzt - verglichen mit einigen anderen teuren, dünnen und letztlich billig gemachten Batsford-Produktionen. Zur Zielgruppe: Obwohl die Arbeit an speziellen strategischen Formation (wie hier Isolanistellungen) erst ab ca. DWZ 1800 Sinn macht, scheint mir hier eine Ausnahme gegeben: Baburins Partiekommentare sind sehr eingängig und leichtverständlich. Auch der starke Turnierspieler (um 2200) kann zweifellos profitieren. Für Spieler ab IM-Stärke ist der Inhalt vielleicht doch wieder zu allgemein; wenig tiefe Analyse, wenig "Hyperpräzision", auch in Bezug auf die Eröffnungstheorie (hier würde ich mir z.B. noch präzisere Vergleiche in der Beurteilung verwandter Stellungen, die sich z.B. durch ein Tempo mehr/weniger oder eine andere Nuance unterscheiden, wünschen)." http://www.kaniaverlag.de/htm/tarra...

    238 games, 1877-2019

  10. 51b Middlegames - White's Hanging Pawns
    Like the isolani, the <hanging pawns> are a structural weakness and must not be entered into unless the piece position offers some compensation. The play revolves around Black trying to force one of the pawns to advance. If Black can establish a permanent blockade the game is positionally won. On the other hand, White aims to keep the pawns hanging, trying to generate a kingside attack leveraging off of their superior center control. Other themes for White include tactical possibilities and line opening breaks in the center.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pawn_s...

    ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙

    "A pair of pawns on adjacent files that are separated from all other pawns are known as "Hanging Pawns" (a term coined by Steinitz). Hanging pawns possess strengths and weaknesses.

    The elements of strength include the possibility of opening files through their advance and with this comes an increase in space, and the possibility of controlling key squares that can be used as outposts for Knights and Bishops.

    On the other hand they can also be weak. They can only be defended by pieces. This vulnerability can be exploited by attacking them with pieces, forcing the opponent to protect them with pieces. The defending pieces can then be attacked and exchanged at a suitable moment and this can often result in the win of a pawn or forcing another pawn weakness elsewhere. They can also be weakened by forcing the advance of one of them leaving the other one backward and a hole into which a piece can be placed. A third way of exploiting their weakness is to attack them with a pawn of your own, this can force a pawn exchange that results in an isolated pawn.

    The current view is that hanging pawns are weak if their side is behind in development but strong if their side is ahead in development."

    by User: Benzol , Game Collection: Hanging Pawns

    ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙

    34 games, 1886-2018

  11. 51c Middlegames - Black's Hanging Pawns
    Like the isolani, the <hanging pawns> are a structural weakness and must not be entered into unless the piece position offers some compensation. The play revolves around Black trying to force one of the pawns to advance. If Black can establish a permanent blockade the game is positionally won. On the other hand, White aims to keep the pawns hanging, trying to generate a kingside attack leveraging off of their superior center control. Other themes for White include tactical possibilities and line opening breaks in the center.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pawn_s...

    ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙

    "A pair of pawns on adjacent files that are separated from all other pawns are known as "Hanging Pawns" (a term coined by Steinitz). Hanging pawns possess strengths and weaknesses.

    The elements of strength include the possibility of opening files through their advance and with this comes an increase in space, and the possibility of controlling key squares that can be used as outposts for Knights and Bishops.

    On the other hand they can also be weak. They can only be defended by pieces. This vulnerability can be exploited by attacking them with pieces, forcing the opponent to protect them with pieces. The defending pieces can then be attacked and exchanged at a suitable moment and this can often result in the win of a pawn or forcing another pawn weakness elsewhere. They can also be weakened by forcing the advance of one of them leaving the other one backward and a hole into which a piece can be placed. A third way of exploiting their weakness is to attack them with a pawn of your own, this can force a pawn exchange that results in an isolated pawn.

    >>The current view is that hanging pawns are weak if their side is behind in development but strong if their side is ahead in development."<<

    by User: Benzol , Game Collection: Hanging Pawns

    ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙ - ♙♙

    36 games, 1873-2017

  12. 52c_Middlegames_2 minor pieces for a Queen
    ....

    Our final theme is a striking one: the sacrifice of a queen for two minor pieces, a bit of centralisation and...well, not much else, it seems. Leonid Nikolayevich Yurtaev (RIP) is a major protagonist here; it seems he is only happy once he is a queen down....

    The world has been understandably slow to recognise the merits of these queen sacrifice ideas. [...]

    check out --> Game Collection: pure queen sacrifices

    <The average value of the queen (if the opposing side does not have the bishop pair) is that of a rook, a minor piece and 1½ pawns. The knight is fractionally stronger than the bishop when supporting the rook in its struggle against a queen. The value of a queen and pawn is the same as that of two rooks, when no minor pieces are present. When both sides have 2 or more minor pieces, the queen does not need a pawn to equal the two rooks in value. In the situation of queen against 2 rooks with 5-8 pawns on each side, the advantage of the rooks is a tiny one; when there are at the most 4 pawns per side, the rook has an advantage of approximately ½ a pawn. A queen and half a pawn equals 3 minor pieces.>

    http://www.chessbase.com/newsdetail...

    64 games, 1901-2014

  13. 52e_middlegames - other material for a queen
    10 games, 1953-2016

  14. 53a_Middlegames: Positional Exchange Sacrifices
    Interne Nummerierung:

    1 = Petrosian
    2 = Kasparov
    3 = Kramnik
    4 = Karpov
    5 = Fischer
    6 = Carlsen
    7 = Andersson
    8 = Anand
    9 = Gelfand
    10 = Aronian
    11 = Botvinnik
    12 = Tal
    13 = Korchnoi
    14 = Topalov

    15 = Bronstein
    16 = Smyslov
    17 = Spasski
    18 = Geller
    19 = Alekhine
    20 = Keres
    21 = Tarrasch
    22 = Lasker
    23 = Capablanca
    24 = Shirov
    25 = Mamedyarov
    26 = Ivanchuk
    27 = Svidler
    28 = Portisch

    < No Sacrifice, No Victory! <>> http://www.damnlol.com/i/cf1b08fc97...

    " Petrosian introduced the exchange sacrifice for the sake of 'quality of position', where the time factor, which is so important in the play of Alekhine and Tal, plays hardly any role. Even today, very few players can operate confidently at the board with such abstract concepts. Before Petrosian no one had studied this. By sacrificing the exchange 'just like that', for certain long term advantages, in positions with disrupted material balance, he discovered latent resources that few were capable of seeing and properly evaluating." ~ Kasparov

    ♖ = ♘ = ♗ = ♖♗ = ♖♘ = ♖ = ♗ = ♘ = ♖♗ = ♖♘ = ♖ = ♗ = ♘ = ♖♗ = ♖♘ = ♖ = ♗ = ♘

    Intro: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_ex...

    Related and recommended game collections: Game Collection: The Exchange Sacrifice ; Game Collection: "Learn from the Legends" - Mihail Marin Section 5! ; Game Collection: The Exchange Sacrifice ; Game Collection: Deep Exchange Sacrifices, Part One: Petrosian ; Game Collection: The Exchange Sacrifice: A Practical Guide ; Game Collection: The Exchange Sacrifice: Part 2 ;

    google search on <Exchange sacrifices>: http://www.google.de/#hl=de&sugexp=...

    Series on <the exchange sacrifice> on YOUTUBE by User: cludi:

    <1> http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nBVe...

    <2> http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0N4E...

    <3> http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rDp-...

    <4> http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ndaX...

    <5> http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bW-l...

    <6> http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k9eo...

    <7> http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rfaS...

    <8> http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=__2c...

    ♖ - ♖ - ♖x♗x♘ - ♖ - ♖ - ♖ - ♖ - ♖x♗x♘ - ♖ - ♖ - ♖ - ♖ - ♖x♗x♘ - ♖ - ♖

    Lecture on Exchange Sacrifices with GM Ben Finegold http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=smTv...

    ♖ - ♖ - ♖x♗x♘ - ♖ - ♖ - ♖ - ♖ - ♖x♗x♘ - ♖ - ♖ - ♖ - ♖ - ♖x♗x♘ - ♖ - ♖

    GM Alexander Ipatov shows one of his Exchange Sacrifices: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nj1...

    ♖ - ♖ - ♖x♘x♗ - ♖ - ♖ - ♖ - ♖ - ♖x♘x♗ - ♖ - ♖ - ♖ - ♖ - ♖x♘x♗ - ♖ - ♖ Qualitätsopfer als taktisches wie auch positionelles Kampfmittel werden zu selten angewandt, wahrscheinlich aus Furcht vor der materiellen Einbuße; dies vermutet der ungarische Autor (im Vorwort S. 3), der im dritten Band seiner Reihe "Kombinationen lernen und lehren" eine systematische Übersicht zu diesem Thema präsentiert.

    Ausgehend von drei ausführlich analysierten Partien des verstorbenen Exweltmeisters Tigran Petrosjan, des "größten Qualitätsopferers" (Zitat S. 7), bietet der Autor zunächst jeweils 35 Testpartien leichteren Kalibers ("A") und gehobener positioneller Qualitätsopferkunst ("B") in Bezug auf aktiv durchgeführte Qualitätsopfer an, gefolgt von je 25 Beispielen ("A" und "B") für passiv angebotene Opfer (S. 13-59). Jede Partie, teilweise mit kurzen Anmerkungen im Informatorstil versehen, wird bis zum kritischen Punkt vorgeführt, und nach dem folgenden Stellungsdiagramm soll der Leser die Fortsetzung finden. Lösungen und Partieschlüsse finden sich dann im Anhang (S. 90-109).

    Ganz ähnlich konzipiert sind die beiden abschließenden Kapitel über Qualitätsopfer in der Sizilianischen Verteidigung (meistens sT x wSc3 bzw. wT x sSh5) und in anderen Eröffnungen, wiederum jeweils 35 Partien am Stück (S. 60-89). 43 Schach - Sinnsprüche lockern den Text auf; von diesen z. T. weniger bekannten Zitaten hat mir eines besonders gut gefallen: "Derjenige, der sich nicht so zum Schachspielen hinsetzt, daß er siegen will und siegen muß, sondern lediglich darauf hofft, daß ein Versehen des Gegners ihm später zu einem unerwarteten Punkt verhilft und der, der den Gegner für stärker hält, kann keine Erfolge erringen. Einem feigen Schachspieler bereitet das Wettkampf - Schach kein Vergnügen, sondern unangenehme, seelenquälende Anspannung (Maróczy)" (Zitat S. 51). Zudem findet sich im Anhang ein Register aller 190 aufgeführten Partien (S. 110-115), die aus einem Zeitraum von 150 Jahren bis hin zur Gegenwart ausgewählt wurden.

    Das Konzept des Büchleins erscheint bemerkenswert, liefert es doch in systematisierter Form auf knappem Raum eine Fülle von Material zum bisher in der Schachliteratur etwas stiefmütterlich behandelten Thema des Qualitätsopfers. Hie und da wäre jedoch weniger mehr gewesen, denn manchmal vermißt man schon tiefergehende Erläuterungen zum Spielgeschehen. Gleichwohl bildet der Band natürlich eine wahre Fundgrube an taktischen und positionellen Ideen, die mit dem Qualitätsopfer verbunden sind.

    Rochade Europa 11/99

    Mit diesem Buch legt Imre Pál eine Abhandlung über ein Thema vor, das in den meisten Lehrbüchern ein wenig zu kurz kommt, nämlich das Qualitätsopfer. Als Einstieg zeigen 3 kommentierte Partien Petrosjans, der für diese Spezialität geradezu berüchtigt war, das Qualitätsopfer in Angriff und Verteidigung.

    Dann folgt der Haupteil des Buches: 120 Testpartien, die in zwei Schwierigkeitsstufen und in die Kategorien "aktiv" und "passiv" unterteilt sind. Zu jeder Partie gibt es die Notation (teilweise knapp kommentiert) bis zum Qualitätsopfer sowie das entsprechende Diagramm. Nun ist es Aufgabe des Lesers, sich den Sinn des Qualitätsopfers sowie die weitere Zugfolge zu erarbeiten, die Lösungen mit den wichtigsten Varianten befinden sich im Anhang.

    Im dritten Teil des Buches gibt es 70 weitere Beispielpartien, in denen jeweils das Qualitätsopfer eine wichtige Rolle spielt. Im Unterschied zu Teil 2 gibt es hier die komplette Partienotation, außerdem wurden diese Partien nach der Eröffnung geordnet. Den Abschluß bildet ein Register aller 190 enthaltenen Partien. Für Auflockerung sorgen einige Zitate berühmter Schachspieler.

    Fazit: Das Buch bereitet sein interessantes Thema sowohl inhaltlich als auch in der Gestaltung sehr ansprechend auf, und auch der Preis geht mit 22,80 DM in Ordnung.

    Schach-Markt 1/2000
    http://www.schachversand.de/e/detai...

    ♖ - ♖ - ♖x♗x♘ - ♖ - ♖ - ♖ - ♖ - ♖x♗x♘ - ♖ - ♖ - ♖ - ♖ - ♖x♗x♘ - ♖ - ♖

    [Event "Ho Chi Minh City ch-VIE"]
    [Date "2010.??.??"]
    [White "Bui Vinh, "]
    [Black "Nguyen Huynh Minh Huy, "]
    [Result "1-0"]
    [WhiteElo "2480"]
    [BlackElo "2469"]
    [ECO "A28"]

    1. c4 e5 2. Nc3 Nf6 3. Nf3 Nc6 4. d4 exd4 5. Nxd4 Bb4 6. g3 Ne4 7. Qd3 Nxc3 8. bxc3 Be7 9. Bg2 Ne5 10. Qe4 d6 11. f4 Nd7 12. O-O O-O 13. Ba3 Nb6 14. Qd3 c5 15. Nc2 Be6 16. Ne3 Qc7 17. Rab1 Rad8 18. f5 Bc8 19. f6 Bxf6 20. Rxf6 gxf6 21. Rxb6 Qxb6 22. Nd5 Qa5 23. Bc1 f5 24. Qe3 Kh8 25. Qe7 Rg8 26. Qf6 Rg7 27. h4 Be6 28. h5 h6 29. Bxh6 Rdg8 30. Bxg7 Rxg7 31. h6 1-0

    [Event "URS-ch27"]
    [Site "Leningrad"]
    [Date "1960.??.??"]
    [White "Bronstein, David I"]
    [Black "Petrosian, Tigran V"]
    [Result "0-1"]
    [ECO "B10"]

    1. e4 c6 2. Ne2 d5 3. e5 c5 4. d4 Nc6 5. c3 e6 6. Nd2 Nge7 7. Nf3 cxd4 8. Nexd4 Ng6 9. Nxc6 bxc6 10. Bd3 Qc7 11. Qe2 f6 12. exf6 gxf6 13. Nd4 Kf7 14. f4 c5 15. Qh5 cxd4 16. Bxg6+


    click for larger view

    hxg6 17. Qxh8 dxc3 18. Qh7+ Bg7 19. Be3 cxb2 20. Rd1 Ba6 21. f5 exf5 22. Qh3 Qc2 23. Qf3 Bc4 0-1

    check also the following collections:

    - Game Collection: Exchange sacs - 1

    - Game Collection: Exchange sacs - 2

    - Game Collection: Exchange sacs - 3

    - Game Collection: Exchange sacs - 4

    150 = pre WWI
    160 = 1914-1944
    174-177 = 1945-1979
    180 = 1980-1989
    190 = 1990-1999

    200-209 = 2000-2009
    300-306 = 2010-2016

    = = =

    People in Greenland can differentiate between 36 kinds of snow; the Swedish IM <Ari Ziegler> will teach you to differentiate between <20 kinds of exchange sacrifice>. His systematic approach to exchange sacrifices will rapidly enhance your understanding of one of the most exciting and difficult aspects of chess. Your widened horizon will help you to be able to follow the games of top GMs better and also to see more options in your own positions, which in turn will improve your chess results. https://shop.chessbase.com/en/produ...

    Der schwedische IM <Ari Ziegler> behandelt auf dieser DVD Möglichkeiten, Stellungsbewertungen durch ein Qualitätsopfer plötzlich zu verändern. In den meisten Schachspielern ist die Wertigkeit der Figuren fest verankert, man weiß, dass ein Turm mehr wert ist als eine Leichtfigur, er beträgt ungefähr das Äquivalent zu Leichtfigur und zwei Bauern. Somit kommt es nicht oft vor, dass man in seinen Partien so ein Qualitätsopfer überhaupt andenkt, spielt doch einfach die Angst vor dem Verlust einer Schwerfigur eine zu große Rolle. Zudem erscheinen die Möglichkeiten und Konsequenzen eines solchen Opfers oft nicht überschaubar. Welche Stellungen erlauben eigentlich so ein Qualitätsopfer? Wie kann man die Chance zu solch einer Spielweise in den eigenen Partien überhaupt erst erkennen? Reicht die Kompensation für den Verlust des Turmes aus oder führt der Tausch einfach schnell in ein verlorenes Endspiel? Diese und viele Fragen mehr beantwortet Ziegler auf dieser ausgesprochen gut gelungenen Mittelspiel-DVD.

    Der Autor zeigt nicht nur eine Ansammlung von Beispielen aus der Großmeisterpraxis, sondern er bespricht die Partien systematisch: Wie kann man die Qualität opfern, um eine Festungsstellung zu erlangen? Falls man eine Leichtfigur auf e3/e6 oder d3/d6 etablieren kann, ist dies oft mehr wert als der Verlust der Qualität. Trifft dies immer zu oder gibt es Ausnahmen? Wie kann man mittels eines Turmopfers die gegnerische Königsstellung ins Wanken bringen? Wieso kann Schwarz so oft in der sizilianischen Verteidigung einen Turm für den Springer auf c3 opfern? Warum ist das Läuferpaar + Bauer in der Regel genauso stark wie Turm und Springer des Gegners? Diese und etliche andere Fragen beantwortet Ziegler umfassend. Die gezeigten Beispiele sind meist aggressiver Art, d.h. die Partei, die das Material hergibt, bekommt dafür in der Regel eine sehr aktive Position mit Initiative und Angriffsmöglichkeiten, in der der zweite Turm des Gegners zumeist passiv ist und seine numerische Überlegenheit gegenüber der Leichtfigur des Gegners nicht ausspielen kann.

    Mich hat diese systematische Herangehensweise an dieses komplexe Mittelspielthema sehr angenehm überrascht. Hat man in der Vergangenheit öfter über Qualitätsopfer in Großmeisterpartien gestaunt und sich gefragt, wie man überhaupt auf so einen Gedanken kommt und wie sich der Spieler sicher sein kann, dass diese Spielweise in der Stellung funktioniert, erhält man hier selbst das Rüstzeug, um die Wertigkeit des Turmes neu einzuschätzen. Wenn man die Beispiele auf der DVD gesehen und verstanden hat, wird man sein Verständnis des Mittelspiels nachhaltig verbessern. Gewisse Stellungen werden dann unter einem anderen Blickwinkel gesehen werden, da man die Möglichkeit eines Qualitätsopfers in Betracht zieht, was einem womöglich sonst niemals in den Sinn gekommen wäre. Ziegler gibt dem Zuhörer einige Richtlinien an die Hand, damit dieser die Partie auch nach dem Qualitätsopfer richtig weiterspielen kann. Oft ist es nämlich derart, dass nach so einem unerwarteten Opfer der Gegner völlig aus dem Konzept gebracht wird und es nicht schafft, sich der neuen Situation anzupassen. Das macht Fehler sehr wahrscheinlich. Dieser psychologische Effekt, der ja mit einer zum Teil radikalen Stellungsänderung einhergeht, könnte im Prinzip nur mit einer neuen objektiven Betrachtung der Stellung neutralisiert werden, was aber oft nicht gelingt. Der Autor zeigt ein ums andere Mal Beispiele, die das belegen. Tatsache ist, dass man nicht auf das Material achtet und die scheinbar stärkere Figur opfert, sondern im Prinzip nur die Stellung in eine überlegene Position verwandelt. Wie man dann diese Positionen zum Sieg ausspielen kann, erklärt der Autor natürlich auch ausführlich.

    Ari Ziegler präsentiert die Stellungen meist in angenehm langsamer und ruhiger Art, sodass man den Kern der Sache versteht und dem Gesagten gut folgen kann, auch wenn er manchmal das Tempo anzieht und durch die Partien sprintet, aber dies ist natürlich auch der Menge des Materials geschuldet. Eine ausgezeichnete Darbietung eines schwierigen Mittelspielthemas, welches jedem Schachfreund einen Entwicklungsschub für sein eigenes Spiel geben sollte. Sehr empfehlenswert!

    Schach-Zeitung https://www.schachversand.de/d/deta...

    DrGridlock: In "Secrets of Modery Chess Strategy," John Watson writes, "The increasing frequency of the exchange sacrifice is probably the most widely-acknowledged change in modern chess technique." In some instances, the exchange sacrifice is not only a tactical tool, but what the position demands. Keres did not sac the exchange, and Petrosian was able to develop an overwhelming attack.


    485 games, 1834-2019

  15. 53b_Middlegames: Positional Pawn Sacrifice
    Pawn sacs for initiative, tempo, open up diagonals, enable manoeuvering, free squares

    pattern recognition: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bv93...

    [Event "Golden Sands Europe op 2nd"]
    [Date "2013.06.12"]
    [Round "3"]
    [White "Sagar, Shah"]
    [Black "Sofranov, Velizar"]
    [Result "1-0"]
    [ECO "E69"]
    [WhiteElo "2359"]
    [BlackElo "2154"]
    [PlyCount "53"]

    1. c4 Nf6 2. Nf3 g6 3. g3 Bg7 4. Bg2 O-O 5. O-O d6 6. d4 Nbd7 7. Nc3 e5 8. e4 Re8 9. h3 exd4 10. Nxd4 Nc5 11. Re1 c6 12. Qc2 a5 13. Be3 a4 14. Rad1 Qa5 15. f4 h5 16. Bf2 Nfd7 17. a3 Bh6 18. Nf3 Bf8 19. e5 dxe5 20. f5 Kg7 21. Nh4 g5 22. f6+ Nxf6 23. Nf5+ Kg8 24. Nd6 Bd7 25. Nxe8 Rxe8 26. Qd2 Ne6 27. Ne4 1-0


    click for larger view

    <19.e5!>

    27 games, 1936-2016

  16. 57_Middlegames with opposite castling
    <Opposite Side Castling Attack.<>>

    Often in the game opponents castle their Kings in different directions. Playing with opposite castling is fundamentally different from one-side castling. When we castle on the same flank, we mainly develop our attack with the help of pieces: pawns are rarely involved in this case. It is quite different when we castle opposite way: here the attacker could push his pawns forward. Such a pawn storm with the opposite castling is the typical strategy: the pawns are "cheap" chess material, and is most advantageous to use them in order to destroy the enemy's position; even when we have to sacrifice pawns, that is done to achieve open files for our heavy pieces.

    < Here a few simple principles to remember :

    < Attack will be successful when your storming pawns help you get the initiative, and force your opponent into following the defending strategy instead of counterattacking.

    < Planning your pawn storm, you must take into account two important factors :control over the center and pieces development. The attack won't be successful without our pieces fast mobilization.

    < Try to open files against your opponent's King rapidly, using the weak spots in your opponent's position.

    < If your pieces are far away from attacking the opponent's king, then try to bring them as close as possible to the position of the enemy king's, so that they can effectively use the results of the assault and the breakout. >>>>

    These are, of course, the main and general principles to follow. Each position has its own specific characteristics, but these considerations may help with solving problems arising during the struggle.

    other collections:

    Game Collection: Holiday Present Hunt Solutions: 2014 Game Collection: Cross-checks Game Collection: Best of the Best

    5 games, 1887-1996

  17. 70d_middlegame SACS on g7 (of g2)
    The sacrifice at g7 or g2 is intended to demolish the opponent's King-side pawn structure, setting up possible mating attacks, decisive win of material or won endgame positions.

    Sacrifice Explorer (Bxg7)

    Sacrifice Explorer (Bxg2)

    check also Game Collection: Demolition of Pawn Structure: Sac on g7 (g2)

    F Urkedal vs I Sokolov, 2017 <18.Rxg7+!!> is like a bold out of the blue that breaks up the pawn shield in front of the ♔.


    click for larger view

    If 18...Kxg7 19.Qg2+ Kh8 20.Qg5! Rg8 21.Bxf6+ Qxf6 22.Qxf6+ Rg7 23.f5


    click for larger view


    77 games, 1899-2019

  18. 87a_ D O N ' T _ C A S T L E !!!
    <Real men don't castle.<>>

    ♔ - ♖ - ♙ ♙ ♙ - ♖ - ♔ - ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ - ♔ - ♖ - ♙ ♙ ♙ - ♖ - ♔ - ♙ ♙ ♙

    < Winning < Without Castling>> by Nickolai Gurtovoi

    Here is how Nickolai Gurtovoi introduced the first series in 1995:

    Once Steinitz spoke of his special attitude to the King: <"I play the King all over the board! I make him battle! With his help, I have a superfluous piece. What about Morphy? He castles; he hides his King in a safe place...">

    120 years later, these bold thoughts by the first world champion are highly topical in our day.

    Many outstanding chess players, Capablanca, Alexander Alekhine, Botvinnik, Mikhail Tal, Bobby Fischer, Tigran Petrosian, Anatoly Karpov, Garry Kasparov, have played very well without castling. Their uncastled play has inspired my correspondence chess!

    Castling has several defects:

    1- it is a waste of tempo
    2- the King is outside the play
    3- pieces are in disharmony (that is why the King is in danger)

    ♔ - ♖ - ♙ ♙ ♙ - ♖ - ♔

    And his preface to the second series in 1997:

    I do not support uncastling play completely; it may be necessary depending on the situation on the chessboard. The king can be weak and vulnerable, or it may be a strong and comanding piece. It is because of these extreme qualities that, paradoxically, it features in most interesting positions on the chessboard.

    The strong Italian chess player of the 16th/17th century, Pietro Carrera, wrote: <"Castling is a two-headed monster, the embodiment of cowardice and indecision."> The German chess player, Karl-Wilgeim von Königstadt in his book Brief Manual of Chess Play (Stockholm 1784) recorded: <"Strong players never castle...">

    However, subsequent theoreticians over the last 200 years, to put it mildly, have bamboozled millions of chess players on the necessity of castling.

    Unfortunately now castling has assumed epidemic proportions, even amongst famous chess players, and for that reason they quite often lose. The following games are some examples where the merest faith in castling as a panacea for all troubles has led to destruction.

    Source: http://www.scottishcca.co.uk/wwc/ww... Scroll down for annotated corr.games --> http://www.scottishcca.co.uk/downlo...

    ♔ - ♖ - ♙ ♙ ♙ - ♖ - ♔ - ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ ♙ - ♔ - ♖ - ♙ ♙ ♙ - ♖ - ♔ - ♙ ♙ ♙

    Lombardy writes his interestingly unconventional views on castling on pages 22-23 of his book Understanding Chess. My System, My Games, My Life (New York, 2011):

    <‘The problems posed by the decision to castle are much misunderstood and thereby underrated.

    <... So, my new advice on castling: it is castling is to be considered a waste of time wrongly expended when there is almost always something more important to achieve. Thus castling is a passive move that nurtures the hope of king safety. I believe that a player who learns how and when to delay castling will certainly improve his/her play. Very often that cherished hope of safety is ill founded. I therefore believe that the maneuver of castling is the most dangerous of all moves and the decision thus requires more attention to delicate judgment.

    <Not only should one not rush to castle, but should delay that passive maneuver for as long as good judgment relates that there are more urgent, if only slightly better, tasks to accomplish.’>>>

    <Here are some cautionary tales: Game Collection: 87b_Attack the UNCASTLED KING>

    32 games, 1874-2018

  19. 87a_ Sometimes it is better not to castle
    9 games, 1922-2002

  20. Art of Sacrifice in Chess, R. Spielmann
    Spielmann, Rudolf. The Art of Sacrifice in Chess, New York: Dover, 1995. ISBN 0-486-28449-2.
    37 games, 1903-1934

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