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Lake Hopatcong 1923 (9th American Chess Congress
Compiled by Phony Benoni
--*--

The 9th American Chess Congress was held August 6-21, 1923, in Lake Hopatcong, New Jersey. The time control was 30 moves in 2 hours, followed by 15 moves an hour.

Crosstable

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 1 Marshall X 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10.5 2 Kupchik 0 X 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10.5 3 Janowski 0 X 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10.0 4 Ed. Lasker 0 1 0 X 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 9.0 5 Schapiro 0 X 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 8.5 6 Black 0 0 0 X 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 7.0 7 Tenner 0 0 0 0 1 0 X 1 1 1 0 1 1 6.5 8 Chajes 0 0 0 0 1 0 X 1 1 0 1 1 1 6.5 9 Sournin 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 X 1 1 1 5.5 10 Morrison 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 X 1 1 5.0 11 Hodges 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 X 1 4.0 12 Palmer 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 X 1 0 3.0 13 Santasiere 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 X 2.5 14 Bigelow 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 X 2.5

Since nearly 30 of the games remain missing, this round-by-round summary has been compiled to list pairings and scores. An asterisk (*) indicates a game which is in the collection.

Round 1 (Monday, August 6): Morrison Marshall*; Tenner Sournin; Lasker 1 Bigelow*; Kupchik Black* (game played August 10 due to Kupchik's indisposition); Janowski 1 Palmer*; Schapiro Chajes*; Hodges 1 Santasiere

STANDINGS: 1.0: Hodges, Janowski, Lasker; 0.5: Black, Chajes, Kupchik, Marshall, Morrison, Schapiro, Sournin, Tenner; 0.0: Bigelow, Palmer, Santasiere

Round 2 (Tuesday, August 7): Marshall Santasiere*; Chajes 0 Hodges*; Palmer 0 Schapiro*; Black Janowski*; Bigelow 0 Kupchik*; Sournin 1 Lasker*; Morrison 0 Tenner*

STANDINGS: 2.0: Hodges; 1.5: Janowski, Kupchik, Schapiro, Sournin, Tenner; 1.0: Black, Lasker, Marshall; 0.5: Chajes, Morrison, Santasiere; 0.0: Bigelow, Palmer

Round 3 (Wednesday, August 8): Tenner 0 Marshall*; Lasker 1 Morrison*; Kupchik 1 Sournin*; Janowski 1 Bigelow; Schapiro 1 Black*; Hodges Palmer; Santasiere 0 Chajes*

STANDINGS: 2.5: Hodges, Janowski, Kupchik; Schapiro; 2.0: Lasker, Marshall; 1.5: Chajes, Sournin, Tenner; 1.0: Black; 0.5: Morrison, Palmer, Santasiere; 0.0: Bigelow

Round 4 (Thursday, August 9): Marshall 1 Chajes*; Palmer 1 Santasiere; Black 1 Hodges*; Bigelow 0 Schapiro*; Sournin 0 Janowski*; Morrison 0 Kupchik; Tenner 0 Lasker

STANDINGS: 3.5: Janowski, Kupchik, Schapiro; 3.0: Lasker, Marshall; 2.5: Hodges; 2.0: Black; 1.5: Chajes, Palmer, Sournin, Tenner; 0.5: Morrison, Santasiere; 0.0: Bigelow

Round 5 (Saturday, August 11): Lasker 0 Marshall*; Kupchik 1 Tenner; Janowski 1 Morrison*; Schapiro 1 Sournin*; Hodges Bigelow; Santasiere 0 Black*; Chajes 1 Palmer*

STANDINGS: 4.5: Janowski, Kupchik, Schapiro; 4.0: Marshall; 3.0: Black, Hodges, Lasker; 2.5: Chajes; 1.5: Palmer, Sournin, Tenner; 0.5: Bigelow, Morrison, Santasiere

Round 6 (Sunday, August 12): Marshall 1 Palmer*; Black 0 Chajes; Bigelow Santasiere; Sournin 1 Hodges; Morrison Schapiro; Tenner 0 Janowski; Lasker 1 Kupchik*

STANDINGS: 5.5: Janowski; 5.0: Marshall, Schapiro; 4.5: Kupchik; 4.0: Lasker; 3.5: Chajes; 3.0: Black, Hodges; 2.5: Sournin; 1.5: Palmer, Tenner; 1.0: Bigelow, Morrison, Santasiere

Round 7 (Monday, August 13): Kupchik 0 Marshall*; Janowski 1 Lasker*; Schapiro 0 Tenner; Hodges Morrison; Santasiere Sournin; Chajes 1 Bigelow*; Palmer 0 Black

STANDINGS: 6.5: Janowski; 6.0: Marshall; 5.0: Schapiro; 4.5: Chajes, Kupchik; 4.0: Black, Lasker; 3.5: H odges; 3.0: Sournin; 2.5: Tenner; 1.5: Morrison, Palmer, Santasiere; 1.0: Bigelow

Round 8 (Wednesday, August 15): Marshall 1 Black*; Bigelow 1 Palmer; Sournin 0 Chajes*; Morrison 1 Santasiere*; Tenner 1 Hodges*; Lasker Schapiro; Kupchik 1 Janowski*

STAMDINGS: 7.0: Marshall; 6.5: Janowski; 5.5: Chajes, Kupchik, Schapiro; 4.5: Lasker; 4.0: Black; 3.5: Hodges, Tenner; 3.0: Slurnin; 2.5: Morrison; 2.0: Bigelow; 1.5: Palmer, Santasiere

Round 9 (Thursday, August 16): Janowski Marshall*; Schapiro 0 Kupchik*; Hodges 0 Lasker*; Santasiere 0 Tenner*; Chajes 1 Morrison; Palmer 0 Sournin*; Black 1 Bigelow*

STANDINGS: 7.5: Marshall; 7.0: Janowski; 6.5: Chajes, Kupchik; 5.5: Lasker, Schapiro; 5.0: Black; 4.5: Tenner; 4.0: Sournin; 3.5: Hodges; 2.5: Morrison; 2.0: Bigelow; 1.5: Palmer, Santasiere

Round 10 (Friday, August 17): Marshall 1 Bigelow*; Sournin 0 Black*; Morrison Palmer; Tenner 1 Chajes*; Lasker Santasiere*; Kupchik 1 Hodges; Janowski Schapiro*

STANDINGS: 8.5: Marshall; 7.5: Janowski, Kupchik; 6.5: Chajes; 6.0: Black, Lasker, Schapiro; 5.5: Tenner; 4.0: Sournin; 3.5: Hodges; 3.0: Morrison; 2.0: Bigelow, Palmer, Santasiere

Round 11 (Saturday, August 18): Schapiro Marshall*; Hodges 0 Janowski*; Santasiere 0 Kupchik*; Chajes 0 Lasker*; Palmer 1 Tenner*; Black 0 Morrison*; Bigelow Sournin

STANDINGS: 9.0: Marshall; 8.5: Janowski, Kupchik; 7.0: Lasker; 6.5: Chajes, Schapiro; 6.0: Black; 5.5: Tenner; 4.5: Sournin; 4.0: Morrison; 3.5: Hodges; 3.0: Palmer; 2.5: Bigelow; 2.0: Santasiere

Round 12 (Monday, August 20): Marshall 1 Sournin*; Morrison 1 Bigelow; Tenner 0 Black*; Lasker 1 Palmer*; Kupchik 1 Chajes*; Janowski Santasiere; Schapiro 1 Hodges*

STANDINGS: 10.0: Marshall; 9.5: Kupchik; 9.0: Janowski; 8.0: Lasker; 7.5: Schapiro; 7.0: Black; 6.5: Chajes; 5.5: Tenner; 5.0: Morrison; 4.5: Sournin; 3.5: Hodges;; 3.0: Palmer; 2.5: Bigelow, Santasiere

Round 13 (Tuesday, August 21): Hodges Marshall*; Santasiere 0 Schapiro*; Chajes 0 Janowski*; Palmer 0 Kupchik*; Black 0 Lasker*; Bigelow 0 Tenner; Sournin 1 Morrison

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Although we don't have all the games, a list of the openings utilized was compiled by Hermann Helms. Results are given from White's point of view.

Queen's Gambit Declined 22 +11 -8 =3 Queen's Pawn 13 + 7 -2 =4 Ruy Lopez 13 + 5 -5 =3 Irregular 12 + 2 -9 =1 Sicilian Defense 6 + 2 -0 =4 Caro-Kann Defense 5 + 5 -0 =0 Petroff Defense 4 + 0 -2 =2 Four Knights 4 + 2 -1 =1 Center Counter Gambit 2 + 0 -2 =0 Double Ruy Lopez 2 + 1 -0 =1 French Defense 2 + 2 -0 =0 English 1 + 1 -0 =0 Hollandish 1 + 1 -0 =0 King's Gambit Declined 1 + 0 -1 =0 Philidor's Defense 1 + 0 -1 =0 Queen's Gambit 1 + 0 -0 =1 Vienna 1 + 0 -1 =0

<Providence News>, Sept. 29, 1923.

-----

From an essay by Anthony Santasiere published in <Chess Life>, October 20, 1960, p.3:

"In 1923, at the age of eighteen, I was invited to my first international tournament, and, as expected, finished tied for last place. But amazingly enough (and since that time I have always been able to lose to the "duffers", while fighting like hell against the 'big shots'), I played drawn games with three of the first four prize winners--Marshall, Janowski and Edward Lasker. Janowski--the fierce French champion--was mortally wounded. When he saw that he could not win, he swept the pieces off the board. Thereafter he absolutely refused to eat at the same table with me, and always referred to me as--'That schoolboy!'

"There is another story in connection with that same tournament, this having to do with my first visit to a gambling institution. There was such a place across the road from the hotel where we were playing. And when hostilities were over, and the prizes distributed, Marshall--my good friend--and Janowski wanted to gamble. The former, however, took the precaution of handing over all his money to me, except thirty dollars which he kept in play with; he allowed me five dollars to play. He then warned me that no matter what he did or said, I should give him no more money. At the roulette wheel I soon lost my share. Frank, however, held out for quite some time; but then had nothing. Believe it or not, he got on his knees, and with tears in his eyes begged me for his own money. Of course I refused, and walked out. Janowski lost every penny of his prize of almost two hundred dollars, and had to borrow from friends for his needs."

Round 1 (Monday, August 6)
J S Morrison vs Marshall, 1923 
(D05) Queen's Pawn Game, 28 moves, 1/2-1/2

Round 1 (Monday, August 6)
Ed. Lasker vs H R Bigelow, 1923 
(B14) Caro-Kann, Panov-Botvinnik Attack, 35 moves, 1-0

Round 1 (Friday, August 10) [postponed]
Kupchik vs R T Black, 1923 
(C42) Petrov Defense, 52 moves, 1/2-1/2

Round 1 (Monday, August 6)
Janowski vs M C Palmer, 1923 
(D06) Queen's Gambit Declined, 30 moves, 1-0

Round 1 (Monday, August 6)
M A Schapiro vs O Chajes, 1923
(B73) Sicilian, Dragon, Classical, 63 moves, 1/2-1/2

Round 2 (Tuesday, August 7)
Marshall vs Santasiere, 1923
(D14) Queen's Gambit Declined Slav, Exchange Variation, 23 moves, 1/2-1/2

Round 2 (Tuesday, August 7)
O Chajes vs A Hodges, 1923
(C83) Ruy Lopez, Open, 39 moves, 0-1

Round 2 (Tuesday, August 7)
M C Palmer vs M A Schapiro, 1923
(C66) Ruy Lopez, 31 moves, 0-1

Round 2 (Tuesday, August 7)
R T Black vs Janowski, 1923
(C79) Ruy Lopez, Steinitz Defense Deferred, 30 moves, 1/2-1/2

Round 2 (Tuesday, August 7)
H R Bigelow vs Kupchik, 1923 
(C30) King's Gambit Declined, 41 moves, 0-1

Round 2 (Tuesday, August 7)
V Sournin vs Ed. Lasker, 1923
(D00) Queen's Pawn Game, 61 moves, 1-0

Round 2 (Tuesday, August 7)
J S Morrison vs O Tenner, 1923
(D04) Queen's Pawn Game, 35 moves, 0-1

Round 3 (Wednesday, August 8)
O Tenner vs Marshall, 1923
(D30) Queen's Gambit Declined, 60 moves, 0-1

Round 3 (Wednesday, August 8)
Ed. Lasker vs J S Morrison, 1923
(D40) Queen's Gambit Declined, Semi-Tarrasch, 45 moves, 1-0

Round 3 (Wednesday, August 8)
Kupchik vs V Sournin, 1923 
(C48) Four Knights, 51 moves, 1-0

Round 3 (Wednesday, August 8)
M A Schapiro vs R T Black, 1923
(D67) Queen's Gambit Declined, Orthodox Defense, Bd3 line, 40 moves, 1-0

Round 3 (Wednesday, August 8)
Santasiere vs O Chajes, 1923
(A45) Queen's Pawn Game, 38 moves, 0-1

Round 4 (Thursday, August 9)
Marshall vs O Chajes, 1923
(A46) Queen's Pawn Game, 39 moves, 1-0

Round 4 (Thursday, August 9)
R T Black vs A Hodges, 1923
(B40) Sicilian, 58 moves, 1-0

Round 4 (Thursday, August 9)
H R Bigelow vs M A Schapiro, 1923
(D67) Queen's Gambit Declined, Orthodox Defense, Bd3 line, 30 moves, 0-1

Round 4 (Thursday, August 9)
V Sournin vs Janowski, 1923
(A45) Queen's Pawn Game, 41 moves, 0-1

Round 5 (Saturday, August 11)
Ed. Lasker vs Marshall, 1923 
(C48) Four Knights, 41 moves, 0-1

Round 5 (Saturday, August 11)
Janowski vs J S Morrison, 1923 
(D30) Queen's Gambit Declined, 33 moves, 1-0

Round 5 (Saturday, August 11)
M A Schapiro vs V Sournin, 1923
(C91) Ruy Lopez, Closed, 46 moves, 1-0

Round 5 (Saturday, August 11)
Santasiere vs R T Black, 1923
(A45) Queen's Pawn Game, 50 moves, 0-1

Round 5 (Saturday, August 11)
O Chajes vs M C Palmer, 1923
(D46) Queen's Gambit Declined Semi-Slav, 30 moves, 1-0

Round 6 (Sunday, August 12)
Marshall vs M C Palmer, 1923
(C49) Four Knights, 28 moves, 1-0

Round 6 (Sunday, August 12)
Ed. Lasker vs Kupchik, 1923 
(D30) Queen's Gambit Declined, 25 moves, 1-0

Round 7 (Monday, August 13)
Kupchik vs Marshall, 1923 
(D38) Queen's Gambit Declined, Ragozin Variation, 34 moves, 0-1

Round 7 (Monday, August 13)
Janowski vs Ed. Lasker, 1923 
(D40) Queen's Gambit Declined, Semi-Tarrasch, 41 moves, 1-0

Round 7 (Monday, August 13)
O Chajes vs H R Bigelow, 1923
(B15) Caro-Kann, 33 moves, 1-0

Round 8 (Tuesday, August 14)
Marshall vs R T Black, 1923
(D64) Queen's Gambit Declined, Orthodox, Rubinstein Attack, 24 moves, 1-0

Round 8 (Tuesday, August 14)
V Sournin vs O Chajes, 1923
(A45) Queen's Pawn Game, 47 moves, 0-1

Round 8 (Tuesday, August 14)
J S Morrison vs Santasiere, 1923
(B15) Caro-Kann, 58 moves, 1-0

Round 8 (Tuesday, August 14)
O Tenner vs A Hodges, 1923 
(A96) Dutch, Classical Variation, 24 moves, 1-0

Round 8 (Tuesday, August 14)
Kupchik vs Janowski, 1923 
(C87) Ruy Lopez, 116 moves, 1-0

Round 9 (Thursday, August 16)
Janowski vs Marshall, 1923 
(D03) Torre Attack (Tartakower Variation), 105 moves, 1/2-1/2

Round 9 (Thursday, August 16)
M A Schapiro vs Kupchik, 1923
(A46) Queen's Pawn Game, 48 moves, 0-1

Round 9 (Thursday, August 16)
A Hodges vs Ed. Lasker, 1923
(D30) Queen's Gambit Declined, 41 moves, 0-1

Round 9 (Thursday, August 16)
Santasiere vs O Tenner, 1923
(A45) Queen's Pawn Game, 30 moves, 0-1

Round 9 (Thursday, August 16)
M C Palmer vs V Sournin, 1923
(C61) Ruy Lopez, Bird's Defense, 43 moves, 0-1

Round 9 (Thursday, August 16)
R T Black vs H R Bigelow, 1923 
(B12) Caro-Kann Defense, 12 moves, 1-0

Round 10 (Friday, August 17)
Marshall vs H R Bigelow, 1923
(D63) Queen's Gambit Declined, Orthodox Defense, 57 moves, 1-0

Round 10 (Friday, August 17)
V Sournin vs R T Black, 1923 
(A46) Queen's Pawn Game, 91 moves, 0-1

Round 10 (Friday, August 17)
O Tenner vs O Chajes, 1923
(A41) Queen's Pawn Game (with ...d6), 57 moves, 1-0

Round 10 (Friday, August 17)
Ed. Lasker vs Santasiere, 1923
(C62) Ruy Lopez, Old Steinitz Defense, 50 moves, 1/2-1/2

Round 10 (Friday, August 17)
Janowski vs M A Schapiro, 1923
(D30) Queen's Gambit Declined, 61 moves, 1/2-1/2

Round 11 (Saturday, August 18)
M A Schapiro vs Marshall, 1923
(D38) Queen's Gambit Declined, Ragozin Variation, 59 moves, 1/2-1/2

Round 11 (Saturday, August 18)
A Hodges vs Janowski, 1923
(C73) Ruy Lopez, Modern Steinitz Defense, 48 moves, 0-1

Round 11 (Saturday, August 18)
Santasiere vs Kupchik, 1923 
(C41) Philidor Defense, 82 moves, 0-1

Round 11 (Saturday, August 18)
O Chajes vs Ed. Lasker, 1923
(B01) Scandinavian, 48 moves, 0-1

Round 11 (Saturday, August 18)
M C Palmer vs O Tenner, 1923
(C01) French, Exchange, 57 moves, 1-0

Round 11 (Saturday, August 18)
R T Black vs J S Morrison, 1923
(C66) Ruy Lopez, 30 moves, 0-1

Round 12 (Monday, August 20)
Marshall vs V Sournin, 1923 
(D15) Queen's Gambit Declined Slav, 18 moves, 1-0

Round 12 (Monday, August 20)
O Tenner vs R T Black, 1923 
(D61) Queen's Gambit Declined, Orthodox, Rubinstein Attack, 37 moves, 0-1

Round 12 (Monday, August 20)
Ed. Lasker vs M C Palmer, 1923
(D02) Queen's Pawn Game, 46 moves, 1-0

Round 12 (Monday, August 20)
Kupchik vs O Chajes, 1923
(A33) English, Symmetrical, 29 moves, 1-0

Round 12 (Monday, August 20)
M A Schapiro vs A Hodges, 1923
(D94) Grunfeld, 54 moves, 1-0

Round 13 (Tuesday, August 21)
A Hodges vs Marshall, 1923 
(C49) Four Knights, 72 moves, 1/2-1/2

Round 13 (Tuesday, August 21)
Santasiere vs M A Schapiro, 1923
(C66) Ruy Lopez, 40 moves, 0-1

Round 13 (Tuesday, August 21)
O Chajes vs Janowski, 1923
(C79) Ruy Lopez, Steinitz Defense Deferred, 62 moves, 0-1

Round 13 (Tuesday, August 21)
M C Palmer vs Kupchik, 1923
(B01) Scandinavian, 73 moves, 0-1

Round 13 (Tuesday, August 21)
R T Black vs Ed. Lasker, 1923
(C73) Ruy Lopez, Modern Steinitz Defense, 29 moves, 0-1

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