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Deep Blue (Computer)
Deep Blue 
Photograph © copyright 1997 IBM.  
Number of games in database: 42
Years covered: 1993 to 1997
Overall record: +16 -10 =16 (57.1%)*
   * Overall winning percentage = (wins+draws/2) / total games.

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B22 Sicilian, Alapin (4 games)
A04 Reti Opening (3 games)
C45 Scotch Game (2 games)
D30 Queen's Gambit Declined (2 games)
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A00 Uncommon Opening (2 games)
B47 Sicilian, Taimanov (Bastrikov) Variation (2 games)
A07 King's Indian Attack (2 games)

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(born 1993) United States of America

[what is this?]

Deep Blue is a chess computer designed and produced by the computer company IBM. Deep Blue's programming code is written in C and runs under the AIX operating system. Its hardware architecture is somewhat based off of that of Chiptest (Computer). It won a game against Garry Kasparov on February 10, 1996, marking the first time a chess computer has ever beaten a reigning world champion under regular time controls. It was then upgraded and played a six-game match against Garry Kasparov in May of 1997. It won 3.5-2.5, marking the first time a chess computer has ever beaten a reigning world champion in a match under standard tournament rules and time controls. Garry Kasparov demanded a rematch which IBM did not accept and IBM retired Deep Blue. Its knowledge was fine-tuned by the Grandmaster Joel Benjamin, its opening book was supplied by Miguel Illescas Cordoba, John Fedorowicz and Nick de Firmian, and Jerry Brodie and Murray Campbell were also part of the IBM team. Randy Moulic and C J Tan managed the team.

Wikipedia article: Deep Blue (chess computer)

Last updated: 2018-12-03 09:46:49

 page 1 of 2; games 1-25 of 42  PGN Download
Game  ResultMoves YearEvent/LocaleOpening
1. Deep Blue vs S L Armentrout ½-½371993New YorkB84 Sicilian, Scheveningen
2. L B Hansen vs Deep Blue 0-1521993CopenhagenD37 Queen's Gambit Declined
3. B Barth Sahl vs Deep Blue ½-½381993CopenhagenC45 Scotch Game
4. Deep Blue vs B Barth Sahl 0-1241993CopenhagenC45 Scotch Game
5. Deep Blue vs C Hoi ½-½441993CopenhagenB09 Pirc, Austrian Attack
6. L Schandorff vs Deep Blue ½-½431993CopenhagenE11 Bogo-Indian Defense
7. Larsen vs Deep Blue 0-1341993MatchB01 Scandinavian
8. Deep Blue vs S Hamann 0-1481993CopenhagenB93 Sicilian, Najdorf, 6.f4
9. Deep Blue vs Larsen ½-½521993MatchB90 Sicilian, Najdorf
10. Larsen vs Deep Blue ½-½621993MatchB01 Scandinavian
11. Deep Blue vs Larsen ½-½591993MatchB27 Sicilian
12. Larsen vs Deep Blue 1-0431993MatchC49 Four Knights
13. J Kristiansen vs Deep Blue 1-0401993CopenhagenC28 Vienna Game
14. H Danielsen vs Deep Blue 0-1361993CopenhagenA04 Reti Opening
15. Deep Blue vs J Kristiansen 1-0301993CopenhagenB81 Sicilian, Scheveningen, Keres Attack
16. Deep Blue vs M Rohde 1-0511993The Deep Blue ChallengeB47 Sicilian, Taimanov (Bastrikov) Variation
17. Deep Blue vs Polgar 1-0731993Rapid MatchB47 Sicilian, Taimanov (Bastrikov) Variation
18. Polgar vs Deep Blue ½-½611993Rapid MatchA07 King's Indian Attack
19. Deep Blue vs Wchess 1-091199424th NACCCA04 Reti Opening
20. Socrates vs Deep Blue 0-161199424th NACCCB62 Sicilian, Richter-Rauzer
21. M-Chess vs Deep Blue 0-135199424th NACCCB32 Sicilian
22. Deep Blue vs Fritz 0-1391995Hong Kong WCCCB33 Sicilian
23. Deep Blue vs Socrates 1-0511995Hong Kong WCCCD05 Queen's Pawn Game
24. Hitech vs Deep Blue 0-1401995Hong Kong WCCCB22 Sicilian, Alapin
25. Deep Blue vs Cheiron 1-0201995Hong Kong WCCCA04 Reti Opening
 page 1 of 2; games 1-25 of 42  PGN Download
  REFINE SEARCH:   White wins (1-0) | Black wins (0-1) | Draws (1/2-1/2) | Deep Blue wins | Deep Blue loses  

Kibitzer's Corner
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Aug-23-11  bigatin:

Aug-23-11  bigatin:
Aug-24-11  JoergWalter: In 1997 the chairman of PSV Turm Duisburg (german chess bundesliga) announced Deep Blue to play on board one of the team. (true!!!). It did not work out because Deep Blue did not have a valid passport
Sep-15-11  sfm: Danish cartoon about Kasparov's loss to Deep Blue.

Kasparov says "Look, it can't even swim! Now it has to learn it! Stupid computer!"

and in the explaning box it says

"After the defeat, Kasparov wanted to test if the computer also was better at other things"

Oct-04-11  JoergWalter: <Kasparov comments on chess computers in an interview with Thierry Paunin on pages 4-5 of issue 55 of Jeux & Stratégie:

‘Question: ... Two top grandmasters have gone down to chess computers: Portisch against “Leonardo” and Larsen against “Deep Thought”. It is well known that you have strong views on this subject. Will a computer be world champion, one day ...?

Kasparov: Ridiculous! A machine will always remain a machine, that is to say a tool to help the player work and prepare. Never shall I be beaten by a machine! Never will a program be invented which surpasses human intelligence. And when I say intelligence, I also mean intuition and imagination. Can you see a machine writing a novel or poetry? Better still, can you imagine a machine conducting this interview instead of you? With me replying to its questions?’>

Jan-26-12  whiteshark: Quote of the Day

"A few months after all the work I did on the <Deep Blue project>, at the US Championship, I thought <"miserable Earthlings, you have no chance against me!" <>>

-- Joel Benjamin

miserable Earthlings :D

Mar-11-12  whiteshark: Quote of the Day

"In certain situations, <Deep Blue> plays like a God.

-- Kasparov

Yet again Garry that doesn't make sense. Fact is that Deep Blue plays according to its output of binary codes lines and you sometimes play like ... [whatever].

Mar-11-12  kurtrichards: <...and you sometimes play like...[whatever].> ...miserable Earthling.


Mar-15-12  whiteshark: Quote of the Day

I just think we should look at this as a chess match between the world's greatest chess player, and Garry Kasparov.

~ Lou Gerstner (IBM Chairman)

Once again I am pleasantly jiggererd by this quote! :D

Mar-15-12  Nemesistic: <whiteshark> It tickled me too that quote..

And im sure Kasparov once said Deep Blue's attention to king safety was "lousy".. Strange thing to say!

Sep-26-12  Shams: I like Nate Silver but the chess-related nugget in his new book, "The Signal and the Noise," seems a bit silly.

<Toward the end of my interview with him, [Murray] Campbell somewhat mischievously referred to an incident that had occurred toward the end of the first game in their 1997 match with Kasparov.

“A bug occurred in the game and it may have made Kasparov misunderstand the capabilities of Deep Blue,” Campbell told me. “He didn’t come up with the theory that the move it played was a bug.”

The bug had arisen on the forty-fourth move of their first game against Kasparov; unable to select a move, the program had defaulted to a last-resort fail-safe in which it picked a play completely at random. The bug had been inconsequential, coming late in the game in a position that had already been lost; Campbell and team repaired it the next day. “We had seen it once before, in a test game played earlier in 1997, and thought that it was fixed,” he told me. “Unfortunately there was one case that we had missed.”

In fact, the bug was anything but unfortunate for Deep Blue: it was likely what allowed the computer to beat Kasparov. In the popular recounting of Kasparov’s match against Deep Blue, it was the second game in which his problems originated—when he had made the almost unprecedented error of forfeiting a position that he could probably have drawn.

But what had inspired Kasparov to commit this mistake? His anxiety over Deep Blue’s forty-fourth move in the first game—the move in which the computer had moved its rook for no apparent purpose. Kasparov had concluded that the counterintuitive play must be a sign of superior intelligence. He had never considered that it was simply a bug.>


Sep-26-12  galdur: And nothing more has been heard of this project since back then. Seems kind of strange. But of course chess would be extremely insignificant as corporate interests are concerned.
Sep-26-12  Shams: <galdur> The 1997 match was a PR boon for IBM, who declined to offer Garry a rematch (frustratingly, since the match score was tied 1-1) and sold Deep Blue off within the year.
Sep-26-12  galdur: <Shams> Yeah, I guess DB has been trading stocks and maybe managing drones on the side.
Sep-26-12  Shams: <galdur> Or, given Moore's law, it's running a mobile phone OS somewhere.
Premium Chessgames Member
  offramp: When will computers be able to read lips, like HAL in <2001>?
Feb-23-15  whiteshark: Quote of the Day

"Saying <Deep Blue> doesn't really think about chess is like saying an airplane doesn't really fly because it doesn't flap its wings. "

-- Drew McDermott

Feb-23-15  BishopofBlunder: I remember watching "Game Over" and thinking it made Joel Benjamin seem to be a bitter little man with a great hatred for Kasparov.

Not that anyone could blame him...

Premium Chessgames Member
  BishopBerkeley: Jeff Bezos: "Humans are VERY efficient. If AlphaGo was limited to 50 watts like us, it would have been crushed." (Jeff Bezos, founder of, as quoted by Silicon Valley legend Bill Gross).

The Human vs Machine: AlphaGo (Google DeepMind) vs Lee Sedol match received much press coverage:

The ancient game of Go is significant (in part) because, by important metrics, it has a greater game complexity than Chess:

Jeff Bezos' remark raises an interesting possibility: what if we were to limit Chess computers by POWER, limiting them (as he suggests) to 50 watts (or whatever the human limit is).

It would be an interesting equalization!

I hope you are all well & in good spirits....

(: ♗ Bishop Berkeley ♗ :)

Premium Chessgames Member
  AylerKupp: <BishopBerkeley> If the criteria for equalizing humans and computers in chess playing is based on power and if that limit is around 50 watts, then we are already there. Modern laptops have peak power utilization of about 60 watts and in energy efficient mode probably less. And in a match between a 50-watt consuming laptop running a modern engine and Carlsen, I wouldn't bet on Carlsen.

I have previously suggested that perhaps a good way to handicap computers to bring them down to the level of humans is by time handicapping. After all, if the computer's main advantage over humans is their speed and capacity of calculation, then a logical way to make the odds more even is to limit the amount of calculation they can do by giving the human a time handicap.

The issue is then to determine how much of a handicap does the human need to be given in order to equalize the odds. I have suggested an approach that will not require too much human time to determine this handicap, most recently here: Stockfish (Computer) (kibitz #117). But I doubt that there would be much interest in trying it.

And thanks for the good wishes.

Apr-16-17  epistle: This belongs here--

Jun-21-17  technical win: off topic: <IBM to declare bankuptcy>???

I had a meeting with a buddy of mine. He is a high level guy at <IBM. >

It has been my opinion for sometime that <IBM will be filing for bankruptcy soon.> This could be within a year or so, maybe more. The timing is something I can't be totally accurate on. So let me paint a picture.

- We have opened up 10 new office sites, each being multi-million dollar sites.
Five of these are shut down do to loss of revenue. This is massive.

They spent MILLIONS building these sites and their projects to deploy them and poof!

- In the last few weeks, whole teams of skilled, seasoned professionals have been fired on the spot, to cut cost, even when their position is vital to success of projects we are working on.

- Not long ago, a set of hardware failures happened at a given site. The replacement had to be put on hold for a $200 part because nobody could sign or had enough funds allocated to them for sign off.

- More than 100 projects have been canceled or delayed due to financial issues. I estimate these projects to be budgeted at at least 100+ million dollars. Big projects...

- People are being asked to change the hours they work on their time cards to lower employment costs <(illegal BTW).>

- Third parties used to have a mechanism to sign for very urgent projects before receiving payment. For example, if IBM sent out a project support request to a third party, but IBM did not yet receive the funds from their client, there was a contractual promise to pay.

From what I know, <IBM> always honored this. However, 3rd parties stopped allowing this due to the amount of requests like this they were receiving.

If you work at <IBM> or have friends who work at IBM. Tell them to make alternative plans ASAP. I don't care what position they are in. It is better to be safe than sorry.

Premium Chessgames Member
  WannaBe: <technical win> Well, earlier in the year, Berkshire Hathaway dumped 1/3 of their IBM holdings.
Apr-24-18  breakbad: I don't doubt that IBM made adjustments to Deep Blue as the match with Kasparov was going on.
Oct-29-20  login:

When Deep Blue Defeated Kasparov, a Young Girl Was Watching

U of G prof switched careers from chess to quantum computing

'.. In 1997, IBM created and programmed a computer named “Deep Blue” that was able to beat Garry Kasparov, then the reigning world chess champion. The outcome of that tournament made headlines around the world. It also changed the life of a 17-year-old girl in Chengdu, China.


When Kasparov faced off against Deep Blue, Zeng Bei [曾蓓] was five years into her career as a professional chess player. She’d been named China’s national chess master when she was only 14 and won an international bronze medal the same year.

Bei grew up as part of a chess-playing family. Her father, Zeng Zilin, was the head coach of China’s national team and had begun coaching her ─ at her request ─ when she was eight years old. Her aunt, Shilan Liu, was the first female All-Asia Chess Grandmaster.

“My dream had been to continue as a professional chess player,” says Bei. “But after the computer beat Kasparov, I saw the limitations of that career. I decided to go to university.”

Despite not having the prerequisites, Zeng Bei was accepted into the physics and mathematics program at China’s Tsinghua University.


And does she still play chess? Not often. “I love chess so much, but I play it with intense concentration and focus. I don’t play for fun. Now I put that focus and time into my research instead,” she says. On the other hand, she has no doubts that she could beat pretty much anyone brave enough to take her on. “You never forget,” she says. ..'

by University of Guelph, 2010

In 2019, she joined the Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, as a Professor.

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