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Kaissa (Computer)
Number of games in database: 13
Years covered: 1972 to 1980
Overall record: +7 -4 =2 (61.5%)*
   * Overall winning percentage = (wins+draws/2) / total games.

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B01 Scandinavian (4 games)
E75 King's Indian, Averbakh, Main line (2 games)

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(born 1967) Russia

[what is this?]

Kaissa was a chess program developed at the Institute of Control Sciences in the Soviet Union in the early 1970s. The wave of hardware configurations of the preceding decade saw the Komsomolskaya Pravda (Newspaper) arrange matches for her in their newspaper, who suggested her modernized name - as she now had refined, merged and bug-checked algorithms to test on the international stage.

The program pioneered many techniques which soon became standard in computer chess programs, including the use of bitboards and several sophisticated algorithms. She won the first world computer chess championship in 1974 with a perfect 4/4, and tied for second in the second such event in 1977. She sometimes was run on an English ICL 4/70 computer, and could evaluate ~200 whole positions each second. The last Computer World Championship in which the program participated was the 1980 event, where she tied for fourth. After this, Soviet authorities made the decision to halt new development of the program and devote the programmers' time to more practical work. The chief programmers on the project were Mikhail Donsky, Vladimir Arlazarov and Anatoly Uskov, with assistance from Georgy Adelson-Velsky, Alexander R Bitman, Alexander Brudno, Sasha Resnitsky, Mikhail Botvinnik and Boris Stilman.

Last updated: 2019-06-10 02:38:44

 page 1 of 1; 13 games  PGN Download 
Game  ResultMoves YearEvent/LocaleOpening
1. Kaissa vs Pravda  ½-½351972Pravda corrB25 Sicilian, Closed
2. Pravda vs Kaissa 1-0341972Pravda corrA01 Nimzovich-Larsen Attack
3. Kaissa vs Frantz 1-0341974World Computer ChampionshipC62 Ruy Lopez, Old Steinitz Defense
4. Tech 2 vs Kaissa 0-1331974World Computer ChampionshipB01 Scandinavian
5. Kaissa vs Chaos 1-0361974World Computer ChampionshipB30 Sicilian
6. Ostrich vs Kaissa 0-1671974World Computer ChampionshipA46 Queen's Pawn Game
7. Chess vs Kaissa ½-½651974World Computer ChampionshipB01 Scandinavian
8. Duchess vs Kaissa 1-0481977World Computer ChampionshipB01 Scandinavian
9. Kaissa vs Tell 1-0161977World Computer ChampionshipC67 Ruy Lopez
10. Chaos vs Kaissa 0-1431977World Computer ChampionshipE75 King's Indian, Averbakh, Main line
11. Black Knight vs Kaissa 0-1571977World Computer ChampionshipB01 Scandinavian
12. Kaissa vs Chess 0-1441977World Computer ChampionshipB00 Uncommon King's Pawn Opening
13. Chaos vs Kaissa  1-05119803rd World Computer Chess ChampionshipE75 King's Indian, Averbakh, Main line
  REFINE SEARCH:   White wins (1-0) | Black wins (0-1) | Draws (1/2-1/2) | Kaissa wins | Kaissa loses  

Kibitzer's Corner
Jul-17-04  uponthehill: It was the first Soviet chess program. I recommend Bill Wall's article:

Jul-18-04  nikolaas: I was also the first computer worldchampion.
Jul-18-04  Lawrence: <nikolaas>, is that really you or is it <Ferby>?
Jul-18-04  nikolaas: <lawrence> ???
Premium Chessgames Member
  tpstar: <nikolaas> Change your sentence from "I was" to "It was" and prevent confusion. ;>)
Jul-18-04  nikolaas: Oww Sorry, didn't see that. But can I change it?
Feb-28-06  Karpova: <nikolaas>
no, you can't change it
Feb-04-08  popski: Mikhail Botvinnik was one of the authors of Kaissa, afaik...
Jan-16-09  Karpova: <Mikhail Vladimirovich Donskoy, (1948 - January 13, 2009) was a Russian computer scientist and chess programmer. In 1971 he joined with Vladimir Arlazarov and Anatoly Uskov to program the successor of the ITEP Chess Program on an ICL System 4/70 at the Institute of Control Sciences, called Kaissa, which became the first World Computer Chess Champion in 1974 in Stockholm. The development of Kaissa was accompanied by Georgy Adelson-Velsky, Alexander Bitman, Alexander Brudno, Sasha Resnitsky, Boris Stilman and Mikhail Botvinnik.

From 1982 Mikhail Donskoy was the chief system programmer for the INES DBMS, the INES archive system original programmer. Since 1989 he was leader of the programmers group later growing into DISCo (Donskoy's Interactive Software Company). Mikhail Donskoy died of cancer at age 60.

Misha Donskoy kept his illness a secret even from his best friends, who were shocked to learn about his death. We contacted two of them who sent us the following brief messages.>


May-12-09  myschkin: . . .


Premium Chessgames Member
  Benzol: Caissa the muse of chess was a nymph who first appeared in a poem composed in 1763 by Sir William Jones.

Part of it runs

"A lovely Dryad rang'd the Thracian wild,
Her air enchanting, and her aspect mild:
To chase the bounding hart was all her joy,
Adverse from Hymen and the Cyprian boy:
O'er hills and valleys was her beauty fam'd,
And fair Caissa was the damsel nam'd."

Jun-10-13  Caissanist: Kaissa is not the first Soviet chess program with a game in the database, that would be M20 (Computer) .
Apr-17-20  Chesgambit:

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