< Earlier Kibitzing · PAGE 2 OF 2 ·
|Apr-21-05|| ||acirce: continued
In parallel with the maturing of the positional school, in the 1920s and 1930s a new school of thought developed. They called themselves 'hypermoderns' and their ideas had a dramatic impact on the problem of the pawn-centre. Their spiritual leaders, Aron Nimzowitsch and Richard Réti, published their revolutionary works in the 1920s. Réti's New Ideas in Chess came out in 1922, while Nimzowitsch's editions of My System started in Berlin in 1925. These two books left an indelible trace in the decades to come. They felt that the fixed centre limited the scope for imaginative play, directing plans towards well-trodden paths. They also rejected the emphasis placed on 'rules' in previous teachings. Striving to do so, they introduced some utterly new concepts. Especially significant was their view of the centre. Considering it a principle of opening strategy, they supported the view that the centre should neither be occupied by pawns nor left to disintegrate. The centre, they proclaimed, should be controlled by pieces. It meant completely new pawn-structures in the centre, flexible use of pawns in the early phase of the game and maximum cooperation of pawns and pieces. Whole new openings were born on that basis: the Nimzo-Indian and the Queen's Indian Defence in the first place, but also the Réti Opening, the Alekhine Defence and some minor things as well.>
Selected games: Reti vs A Pokorny, 1923, Nimzowitsch vs Spielmann, 1927
<…These games by Réti and Nimzowitsch convincingly demonstrate the advantages of the new theoretical outlook on the pawn-centre. In the early phase of the game they use pawns sparingly. This saves time for the development of pieces, which exercise their power on some of the central squares. As a rule, a fianchettoed bishop, whose diagonal cuts across the centre, and a knight focus their efforts on one of these squares. The control of the centre is often enhanced by the pin of an enemy piece that might otherwise exert influence on the relevant central square. The game is characterized by the clever use of bishops on the diagonals and the coordinated activity of knights. In Réti’s game it is his fianchettoed light-squared bishop on the long diagonal, and in Nimzowitsch’s game his dark-squared bishop and king’s knight which focus their activity on e5. The other bishop pins the knight at c6, thereby achieving total domination of the e5-square. When the stage has been set, the pawns can be engaged to open the position and seize the initiative.
The consequence of such reasoning is visible in the pawn-formations. We move from the classical, symmetrical structures to new, restricted central set-ups, more flexible and increasingly distant from the traditional ideal.
The Post-War Soviets
In the 1940s and 1950s two young Soviet grandmasters and candidates for the crown, David Bronstein and Isaak Boleslavsky, evolved a new concept of the centre. They recommended that Black should cede the centre to White. Occupying it with pawns or controlling it with pieces takes time, and time should be invested differently. Black should finish his basic development as quickly as possible, allow White to build a full pawn-centre and then undermine that centre, trying to bring about a blockade. When the centre is blocked and its dynamic strength diminished, Black should rely on sideblows to seize the initiative on the wings. The King’s Indian and the related systems were outlined.>
|Apr-21-05|| ||acirce: continued
<It is a curiosity sui generic that in the atrocious years of the Second World War chess life in the Soviet Union did not die. On the contrary, many important events were organized and a tremendous amount of work was invested in chess theory. Once the war was over, the outside world had to face a new generation of remarkable players, playing some new, unknown ideas.>
Selected games: Szabo vs Boleslavsky, 1950, F Zita vs Bronstein, 1946
<The games we have just analyzed remain the cornerstones of the King’s Indian Defence and of the new concept of the centre in general. With Boleslavsky and Bronstein we cross a new frontier.
The movement away from the classical ideals and towards newer forms, more dynamic and more flexible, started with Nimzowitsch. This led to the rise of openings with asymmetrical pawn-formations, a tendency that grew stronger in the decades after the Second World War and found its full expression in the Benoni and numerous systems of the Sicilian Defence.
Together with these new concepts we recognize in the games of the Post-War generations one more fundamental element of modern chess – its dynamic character.
This trend was already clear in the 1930s, most notably in the games of Alexander Alekhine, who belonged to a school of thought that knew no prejudices. He came to the conclusion that while action is being taken on the board all the static values lose their significance, so that the assessment of the position depends exclusively on the value of the action itself. The 1950s and 1960s saw continued investigations in the field of bold play based on mobile, aggressive pawn-structures. Players were prepared to seize the initiative by all possible means, including positional sacrifices and taking into account psychological considerations. This aggressive modern style launched to the chess summit Mikhail Tal, who possessed one of the keenest chess minds ever. …Fearless, of penetrating mind and stunningly quick calculation, Tal was ready to take every risk imaginable. He was an idol of the crowd, but also the leader of an audacious generation of great explorers whose domain consisted of dynamic new systems built on asymmetrical pawn-structures and whose weapon was the initiative.>
Selected games: Tal vs Tolush, 1956, Averbakh vs Tal, 1958
<Neither this nor the previous one were flawless games, but they are characteristic of the period in terms of the pawn-structure, the aggressive mood and the psychological subtleties – a true testimony of the time!
.. (Tal) imposed the frantic pace of investigation and defined the basic boundaries to be explored: the Benoni and various other Indian defences and above all the Sicilian. These openings were characterized by a dynamic, undefined centre and wing actions. The thorough analysis started with the Dragon, the Paulsen and the Richter-Rauzer, and soon spread to the Najdorf and Sozin. It intensified in the 1960s, with Fischer, Polugaevsky and Geller, among others, in the forefront.>
|Apr-21-05|| ||acirce: continued
<In later decades the Scheveningen and Pelikan came under particular scrutiny, now with the world champion himself, Garry Kasparov, in the lead. In the last decades of the 20th century the field of exploration broadened impressively and the depth of it even more so. The boundaries between opening and middlegame, invisible but felt clearly by an experienced player, show a tendency of disappearing to such an extent that many a time only at reaching the endgame does a player become aware that he is out of the opening. These two phases of the game tend to melt one into the other. The subtle relation of marching pawns on different wings, the undefined centre offering both sides numerous options, the variety of pawn advances and tactical blows make assessments increasingly difficult. Each position, as if evading general principles, must be assessed on its own more than ever.
Today, while the process is still in progress, considering the pawn-centre in the light of a century and a half of intense activity, we are prone to believe that these periods on which we have focused our attention laid the corner-stones of modern opening theory. The pawn-centre remains the key to its understanding.>
|Apr-21-05|| ||bumpmobile: acirce- Thanks for the book review! But I feel I should warn you, you can only copy one third of a book before it is considered copyright infringement :-) |
|Apr-21-05|| ||PekpekAdik: this author has another brilliant book added to his other brilliant books, "secrets of chess transformations" (Gambit publishing, 2004, 208 pages). |
|Apr-21-05|| ||acirce: <you can only copy one third of a book> Great, that means I can type in a few chapters more. What did you mean by "only"?! |
|Apr-22-05|| ||Where is my mind: Big effort <Acirce>! much appreciated.|
just realized why all my recent games look similar...
<It is that disintegrating, open centre >...been playing too many of those lately.
|Jul-04-05|| ||Benzol: Is his 'An Opening Repertoire for Black' written with Bruno Parma still available?|
|Jan-14-07|| ||Deceptor: Today's Player of the day is one of my favorite chess authors.|
|Jan-14-07|| ||keypusher: Amazon has one copy of <An Opening Repertoire for Black>, my favorite book on openings.|
|Jan-14-07|| ||BIDMONFA: Drazen Marovic|
|Aug-10-07|| ||fromoort: Any opinions on the quality of his "Understanding Pawn Play in Chess"?|
|Mar-26-08|| ||brankat: <fromoort> I have not read the book, but I would expect it to be a good quality one. |
Drazen Marovic has been one of the leading Yugoslav chess theoreticians and analysts since 1970s. A regular contributor to various chess newspapers and periodicals. Also worked as TV chess commentator and analyst. A man of wide variety of interests and education. I he had devoted less time to these pursuits, and more to active tournament practice, he would have certainly accomplished more as a practical player.
|Jan-14-09|| ||Abdooss: happy 81st birthday, marovic! may you lived until 2038 or beyond!|
|Jan-14-09|| ||DarthStapler: Don't you mean 71st birthday?|
|Jan-14-09|| ||WhiteRook48: 2009 - 1938 = 71. It's his 71st birthday!|
|Jan-14-10|| ||Abdooss: <DarthStapler> & <WhiteRook48> I stand corrected.. Today is his 72nd Birthday.. Happy Birthday, Gran Maestro!|
|Jan-16-10|| ||brankat: Happy Birthday GM Marovic!|
|Mar-16-11|| ||Sneaky: He's got a book on Queen's Gambit openings that is a really great way to learn the overriding concepts of the opening family. He advocates that you shouldn't try to set out learning the orthodox defense, tarrasch defense, slav defense, QGA, etc. as if they are entirely different openings--you need to understand the core ideas of the queen's gambit and that will help you navigate your way through any single subvariations. I really liked it. Not 100% sure of the title but my guess would be something like "The Queen's Gambit" by Marovic.|
|May-12-11|| ||JuliusDS: Can anyone comment on how his books about pawn structure/play compare to Pawn Structure Chess by Andrew Soltis? |
It seems from the small excerpts I've seen that Soltis' book concentrates more on the typical structures seen from various openings, while Marovic's books seem to be more concerned with various aspects of pawn structures eg. doubled pawns/isolated pawns etc. Is this at all correct?
|Jan-14-12|| ||brankat: Happy Birthday GM Marovic!|
|Jan-14-12|| ||Penguincw: Happy Birthday!|
|Jan-14-13|| ||newzild: I have his book on the King's Indian. It is very logically laid out, easy to read and annotated very clearly.|
|Jan-14-13|| ||Kikoman: Happy 75th Birthday GM Drazen Marovic. ^^|
|Jan-14-13|| ||jovack: I haven't heard of the city of ZaBreb... perhaps they mean the capital of Croatia.|
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