Savielly Grigoriewitsch Tartakower was born in Russia and moved to Vienna at age 17. He became a doctor of law in 1909, but he never became a practicing lawyer(1). During World War I, he served in the Austro-Hungarian army. In 1918, after the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the end of World War I, he became a Polish citizen (although he did not speak Polish) and moved to Paris. He became a French citizen after World War II.
He won Vienna (1923), Hastings (1926/27), London (1927) (shared with Aron Nimzowitsch), Hastings (1927/28), Scarborough (1929) (shared with Harold Saunders), Liege (1930), and Hastings (1945/46). He also won the Polish championship twice (1935 and 1937) and the French championship at age 63, in 1950. In the 1930s Tartakower represented Poland in six chess olympiads, and France in 1950, winning three individual medals (gold in 1931 and bronze in 1933 and 1935), as well as five team medals (gold in 1930, two silver in 1931 and 1939, and two bronze in 1935 and 1937).
Tartakower is regarded as one of the founders of the Hypermodern School of Chess, alongside Richard Reti, Nimzowitsch, and the lesser-known Gyula Breyer. He wrote many books, including The Hypermodern Game of Chess, and Modern Chess Strategy. He has made many impressions on modern opening theory; his name is attached to variations in the Caro-Kann Defense, the French Defense, the Dutch Defense, the Scotch Game, the Sicilian Defense, the Queen's Gambit Declined, and the Torre Attack, and he created the Polish Opening, a.k.a. the Orangutan Opening, 1.b4. He is also one of the 27 original grandmasters that were appointed by FIDE in 1950.
During World War II, he served in the Free French Army under General Charles de Gaulle. His French colleagues found his name too difficult to pronounce, so he changed it to Lieutenant Dr. Georges Cartier.
Tartakower was a prolific writer. In addition to chess books, he also wrote a screenplay and a collection of poems. He worked for more than 30 chess magazines in multiple countries and his newspaper correspondence appeared in 11 languages.(1)
Tartakower is also remembered for his sense of humor and his speaking ability. One of his most famous maxims is "The winner of a game is the one who has made the next to last blunder".
Wikipedia article: Savielly Tartakower
(1) "Café Central and the Life and Times of Savielly Tartakower (1887-1956)" by Genna Sosonko. New In Chess 2010, No.6, pp 38-45.