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Max Judd
Number of games in database: 175
Years covered: 1870 to 1904
Overall record: +80 -71 =23 (52.6%)*
   * Overall winning percentage = (wins+draws/2) / total games
      Based on games in the database; may be incomplete.
      1 exhibition game, odds game, etc. is excluded from this statistic.

With the White pieces:
 Ruy Lopez (37) 
    C67 C80 C78 C65 C60
 Scotch Game (13) 
 Ruy Lopez, Open (10) 
    C80 C83
 French Defense (10) 
    C01 C00 C11 C15
 French (5) 
    C00 C11
 Giuoco Piano (5) 
With the Black pieces:
 Ruy Lopez (23) 
    C77 C80 C84 C62 C79
 French Defense (11) 
    C11 C13 C01 C14
 French (7) 
    C11 C13
 King's Pawn Game (7) 
    C44 C20
 Ruy Lopez, Open (7) 
 Evans Gambit (5) 
Repertoire Explorer

NOTABLE GAMES: [what is this?]
   M Judd vs J A Congdon, 1874 1-0
   M Judd vs A Roberts, 1876 1-0
   Bird vs M Judd, 1876 0-1
   H Harding vs M Judd, 1871 0-1

NOTABLE TOURNAMENTS: [what is this?]
   Philadelphia (1876)
   7th American Chess Congress (1904)
   3rd American Chess Congress (1874)
   2nd American Chess Congress (1871)
   5th American Chess Congress (1880)

GAME COLLECTIONS: [what is this?]
   New York 1889 by suenteus po 147
   New York 1880 by suenteus po 147
   Cleveland 1871 by crawfb5
   Philadelphia 1876 by suenteus po 147
   Chicago 1874 by suenteus po 147
   St. Louis 1904 by crawfb5
   Showalter - Judd 1890 match by crawfb5
   US Open 1903, Chicago = 4th Western Champ. by Phony Benoni

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(born Dec-27-1851, died May-07-1906, 54 years old) Poland (citizen of United States of America)

[what is this?]
Max Judd (Maximlian Judkiewich) was born in Cracow and emigrated to America in 1862. He was an American cloak manufacturer, consul-general in Vienna, and chess master. In 1881, he lost a chess match with George Henry Mackenzie for the US chess championship (+5-7=3), held in St. Louis. In 1887 Judd defeated Albert Hodges (+5-2=2) in a non-title match, held in St, Louis. In 1888, Judd took last place in the 1st United States Chess Association tournament, held in Cincinnati (won by Jackson Whipps Showalter). In 1890, Judd defeated US chess champion Jackson Whipps Showalter in a match in St. Louis (+7-3=0), but did not claim the title. In 1892, Judd lost to Jackson Whipps Showalter in a match in St, Louis (+4-7=3). In 1899, he lost a match against Harry Nelson Pillsbury in St. Louis (+1-4=0) In 1903 he won the Western Chess Congress (US Open) in Chicago. At one time he was offered to play in Ajeeb, the Automaton in New York, but he did not want to leave St. Louis. The job was then offered to Albert Hodges. Judd had the habit of sucking on a lemon when it was his opponent’s move. He was founder and president of the St. Louis Chess Club. He was appointed by President Cleveland as the U.S. Consul General to Austria. Judd played in six successive American Chess Congress tournaments: 2nd American Chess Congress (1871) - 4th, 3rd American Chess Congress (1874) - 3rd, Philadelphia (1876) - 2nd, 5th American Chess Congress (1880) - 5th, 6th - placed 8th, and the 7th - placed 2nd. In 1904, Judd tried to arrange the Seventh American Chess Congress in St. Louis, with the stipulation that the US title be awarded to the winner. Harry Nelson Pillsbury objected to Judd’s plans, so the stipulation was not accepted. Frank James Marshall won the 7th American Congress in St. Louis in 1904.

Wikipedia article: Max Judd

 page 1 of 7; games 1-25 of 175  PGN Download
Game  ResultMoves Year Event/LocaleOpening
1. H D Smith vs M Judd  1-036 1870 Casual gameC51 Evans Gambit
2. M Judd vs H D Smith  1-021 1870 Casual gameC00 French Defense
3. M Judd vs H D Smith  1-040 1870 MatchC23 Bishop's Opening
4. M Judd vs F H Elder  1-026 1871 2nd American Chess CongressC01 French, Exchange
5. M Judd vs A Johnston  1-074 1871 2nd American Chess CongressC78 Ruy Lopez
6. H Harding vs M Judd 0-119 1871 2nd American Chess CongressA00 Uncommon Opening
7. M Judd vs H Harding  ½-½39 1871 2nd American Chess CongressC70 Ruy Lopez
8. M Judd vs H D Smith  1-053 1871 2nd American Chess CongressC45 Scotch Game
9. M Judd vs H Hosmer 0-139 1871 2nd American Chess CongressB40 Sicilian
10. Mackenzie vs M Judd 1-063 1871 2nd American Chess CongressC77 Ruy Lopez
11. F H Elder vs M Judd  1-028 1871 2nd American Chess CongressC77 Ruy Lopez
12. A Johnston vs M Judd  ½-½39 1871 2nd American Chess CongressA20 English
13. M Judd vs H Harding 1-028 1871 2nd American Chess CongressC70 Ruy Lopez
14. M Judd vs Mackenzie 0-149 1871 2nd American Chess CongressC65 Ruy Lopez, Berlin Defense
15. M Judd vs P Ware  1-047 1871 2nd American Chess CongressC01 French, Exchange
16. H Hosmer vs M Judd  ½-½38 1871 2nd American Chess CongressC77 Ruy Lopez
17. A Johnston vs M Judd  0-124 1871 2nd American Chess CongressB21 Sicilian, 2.f4 and 2.d4
18. M Judd vs H Hosmer  0-172 1871 2nd American Chess CongressB45 Sicilian, Taimanov
19. P Ware vs M Judd 0-166 1871 2nd American Chess CongressD30 Queen's Gambit Declined
20. H D Smith vs M Judd  1-039 1871 2nd American Chess CongressB40 Sicilian
21. J A Congdon vs M Judd  0-150 1874 3rd American Chess CongressC80 Ruy Lopez, Open
22. M Judd vs Mackenzie 0-151 1874 3rd American Chess CongressC50 Giuoco Piano
23. M Judd vs H Hosmer  0-121 1874 3rd American Chess CongressC50 Giuoco Piano
24. F Bock vs M Judd  0-130 1874 3rd American Chess CongressC01 French, Exchange
25. M Judd vs F Perrin 1-026 1874 3rd American Chess CongressC01 French, Exchange
 page 1 of 7; games 1-25 of 175  PGN Download
  REFINE SEARCH:   White wins (1-0) | Black wins (0-1) | Draws (1/2-1/2) | Judd wins | Judd loses  

Kibitzer's Corner
Premium Chessgames Member
  Calli: Another fine Polish master. His original name was Maximilian Judkiewicz before moving to the US.
May-01-05  WTHarvey: Here are some diagrams of critical positions in Max's games:
May-01-05  ksadler: WTHarvey, that is a great page! A good tactical refresher!
May-01-05  WTHarvey: <ksadler> Thx! The folks who produce the 'Informant' publication have a software collection of chess positions that will rate you based on how fast you solve their puzzles.

Max Judd was ranked in the top 10 in the world briefly in the 1880s.

Dec-27-05  aw1988: This player has a longer bio than ..
Jan-05-06  Ludamad: yay he's Polish, isn't Cracov spelt Kracov?
Premium Chessgames Member
  TheAlchemist: <Ludamad> I believe it's Krakow, I'm not sure
Jan-05-06  Ludamad: Yeah it is Krakow.
Oct-08-07  blair45: I moved to St Louis in 1967. I joined the St. Louis Chess Club about a year later. As the Fischer boom progressed, the St. Louis Chess club faded. I believe it folded about 1970. A new club, the Capablanca Club, grew and flourished. In those days, a chess player could go to a used book store down town, Amatin's, and buy many books from the Max Judd library -- I believe they must have been picked up in an estate sale. It must have been a very large library. In many game collections, Judd is on the losing end, but he must have been a formidable player.
Oct-08-07  Petrosianic: <In 1890, Judd defeated US chess champion Jackson W Showalter in a match in St. Louis (+7-3=0), but did not claim the title.>

This statement is iffy. It's based on what Andy Soltis wrote in his book on the US Championship. He couldn't understand how Judd could beat the US Champion and not have won the title, unless he never claimed it at all.

But Soltis didn't know about the 1891/1892 match, which Showalter won. Quite possibly Judd did claim the title in the 1890 match, and lost it back to Showalter in their second match.

Premium Chessgames Member
  Karpova: Jeremy Spinrad in an addendum on page 4 of his May 2008 edition of "New Stories about Old Chessplayers" titled <Animals and Chess>:

Spinrad: <The number of little mysteries like this raised by old newspaper reports is (fortunately for us amateur chess historians) very large. One surprised me, since it refers to possible United States Championship events that are not reported in Soltis & McCormick's supposedly authoritative book "The United States Chess Championship", 1845-1996. The "Chicago Daily Tribune" of May 19, 1890 reports that Max Judd and Jackson Showalter opened their contest for the "American Championship" and a purse of $500. On June 4, 1890, the same paper reports that Judd won the seventh and final game for "the chess championship of the United States." The "Brooklyn Eagle" of the same day also says this is for the championship of the United States. On July 9, the "Eagle" says that Showalter wants to challenge Judd again; it is clear in the context of the article that Judd is considered to be the champion. This match is mentioned briefly by Soltis, but he says that the title was not at stake. A second match between the same players, won by Showalter, was played over late 1891 to early 1892, and is called a championship match in the "New York Times", Jan 7, 1892, but is not mentioned by Soltis and McCormick at all.>

Premium Chessgames Member
  Karpova: Jeremy Spinrad's three articles on Max Judd from February March and April:

Part 1:

Part 2:

Part 3:

An excerpt from Part 1:

<Max Judd, on the other hand, was one of the most serious figures in American chess. Judd was successful in business, did as much as anyone to promote American chess at that time, and as we will see, even figured in international politics of the 19th century. The mockery seems particularly unjust, since I will argue that rather than making dubious claims for championships he was not entitled to, Judd is remarkable for not claiming a championship he 'had' earned!>

Please note, that the article I referred to in my previous post is from May 2008 and therefore more up-to-date regarding the US Championship.

Oct-07-08  Petrosianic: Yeah, the NY Times coverage is very spotty (I could only find one or two articles when I checked it several years back), but given the existence of that second Showalter-Judd match, it seems clear that the title had been on the line in the first one, and therefore that Judd was a US Title holder.
Oct-07-08  Petrosianic: <The mockery seems particularly unjust, since I will argue that rather than making dubious claims for championships he was not entitled to, Judd is remarkable for not claiming a championship he 'had' earned!>

I don't know if it's an Either/Or situation. Although it does seem that Judd beat Showalter for the title at one point, and it's not clear how strongly he pressed his claim (just because it's not remembered now doesn't mean he didn't).

But it's also true that he tried to, more or less hijack the title at least twice, once in 1887, then again in 1904. The (possible) fact that he didn't do something in 1890 doesn't mean that he never did it at any other time in his life.

Dec-27-09  BIDMONFA: Max Judd


Jan-12-11  Dredge Rivers: Any relation to Ashley?
Jan-25-11  ughaibu: I suggest the biography be edited.
Dec-27-12  Kikoman: Rest In Peace Sir Max Judd.
Premium Chessgames Member
  wwall: Newspapers reported that Max Judd died of a heart attack, superinduced by excitement over the chess tournament being held in St. Louis at the time. He had been warned by physicians not to participate.
Mar-25-15  HeMateMe: Hey Judd! Don't make it bad.

Take a sad song and, well, you know...

Mar-25-15  Raisin Death Ray: <HeMateMe> Judd/Jude? You're still not funny. Never will be.
Mar-25-15  HeMateMe: Hi ray. you're not a ray of hope or sunshine. Say hello to your mother for me.
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