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Manchester 1890
Compiled by Tabanus
--*--

The Manchester (England) Chess Club had been a prominent foundation throughout the 1800's and was the meeting place in 1890 for the formation of a larger chess organization that consisted of 24 Cheshire and Lancashire chess clubs. In the early part of 1890, the recently reformed British Chess Association was reportedly speculating on having their Sixth Chess Congress in conjunction with the Manchester Chess Club. Debates ensued over each entity putting up half of whatever prize money was to be awarded.

On July 27th a meeting of the British Chess Association council was held at the British Chess Club. At this meeting, it was officially decided (under the presidency of Sir George Newnes) to have the tournament at the halls of the Manchester Athenaeum. The total prize money was to be 300 (pounds), with each organization contributing half of the sum. Manchester Chess Club president J. B. Reyner would host the event and would also chair the Executive Committee for the tournament. The tournament was slated to take place Monday, August 25th through Monday, September 8th and to consist of eighteen players. In the weeks leading up to the tournament, several names were rumored to have committed to playing in Manchester, but did not make the trip for various reasons. This list of known masters included Jackson Whipps Showalter, Mikhail Chigorin, Jacques Mieses, Emanuel Lasker, Amos Burn, Curt von Bardeleben, Max Harmonist, Johann Hermann Bauer, Max Weiss, and Alphonse Goetz.

World champion Wilhelm Steinitz was retired from tournament play in 1890, so he would not be making an appearance. Joseph Henry Blackburne had been ill with bronchitis, but still committed to play. Henry Edward Bird was fighting old age and a serious case of gout, yet was still rumored to attend. The American champion, Captain George Henry Mackenzie, had been ill with cancer for quite some time and had not played competitively since taking second at Bradford in 1888. He even missed the Sixth American Chess Congress in his hometown of New York the previous year. Word was getting around that Mackenzie was feeling better and that he would be leaving New York for Manchester at the end of July. The overwhelming responses of players wanting to compete at Manchester forced the Tournament Executive Committee to eventually expand the field to twenty players. The final roster of competitors was as follows:

Semion Alapin (St. Petersburg), Isidor Gunsberg (London), William Hewison Gunston (Cambridge), Francis Joseph Lee (London), Charles Dealtry Locock (London), James Mason (London), James Mortimer (London), Oscar Conrad Mueller (London), John Owen (Liverpool), Emil Schallopp (Berlin), Theodor von Scheve (Berlin), Jean Taubenhaus (Paris), Siegbert Tarrasch (Nuremberg), Edmund Thorold (Bath), Samuel Tinsley (London), Louis van Vliet (London), George Hatfeild Gossip (London), plus the aforementioned Joseph Henry Blackburne (Manchester), George Henry Mackenzie (New York), and Henry Edward Bird (London).

The prize money was to be divided accordingly: 1st Place (80), 2nd Place (60), 3rd Place (50), 4th Place (40), 5th Place (30), 6th Place (20), and 7th Place (10). The Manchester Examiner & Times offered up 10 for the "best game played" and Mr. Edward Nathan Frankenstein (a well-known British player and chess problem composer) contributed 5 for the "most brilliant game" of the tournament. The format for the tournament was not for the weak of heart. Daily game times would be 12:00 pm 4:00 pm and 6:00 pm 10:00 pm, with Sundays being an off day. Three games would be played every two days, with the evening session of the second day being reserved for the completion of adjourned games. Each player would play everyone once, for a total of nineteen games in thirteen days of play.

The Manchester Athenaeum was an impressive building, housing several different types of organizations and managed by a board of directors. Chess contests previously held there included the 1882 Counties Chess Congress and the matches between Yorkshire & Lancashire in both 1884 and 1889. The opening ceremony of the tournament took place on the same day as Round 1 was to begin, Monday, August 25th. Nearly all of the players were present at an early hour in the concert room of the Manchester Athenaeum, as well as several spectators. The drawing of numbers commenced at 11:30 am and subsequent pairings were announced. Shortly after this, Mr. Bird arrived at the room to a thunderous applause. Bird was the well-known veteran and a definite crowd favorite. Opening play would begin later than planned (at approximately 12:30 pm), due to lengthy speeches and the drawing of numbers.

After the first four rounds, Mason and Bird were the leaders at 3 points and scheduled to face each other in Round 5. Tarrasch, Mackenzie, and Blackburne were all close behind with 3 points each. Mason would eventually prevail over Bird in their Round 5 matchup against his opponent's Sicilian Defence, leaving him in sole possession of first place. The loss was the start of a three game losing streak for the elderly Bird, who quickly fell off the lead. Mason would not suffer his first defeat until Round 8, at the hands of the also unbeaten Tarrasch. At the halfway point of the tournament, Tarrasch and Mackenzie would have a memorable showdown of tournament leaders that ultimately led to an 80-move draw. This allowed Mason, with his Round 10 win over Mortimer, to sneak back into a tie with the leaders. Blackburne would suffer a loss at the hands of Bird to drop back into fourth place by himself. The tournament standings (notwithstanding the timing of adjourned games and their completions) after Round 10 were as follows:

1 Mason, Mackenzie, Tarrasch 8 4 Blackburne 7 5 Bird, Gunsberg 6 7 Schallopp, Von Scheve 5 9 Taubenhaus, Tinsley 5 11 Alapin, Mortimer, Mueller 4 14 Owen 4 15 Gunston, Lee, Locock, Thorold 3 19 Gossip 2 20 Van Vliet 2

Just past the midway mark, Tarrasch quickly took sole possession of the lead with victories in four of the next five rounds and started to distance himself from the field. Mason losses to Von Scheve (Round 13) and Gunsberg (Round 15), coupled with a Blackburne loss to Taubenhaus (Round 14) would contribute to the German having a full two and half point lead after 15 rounds. In addition to all of this, the strain of the tournament schedule seemed to finally catch up with the ailing Mackenzie. After being amongst the leaders for the first half of the tournament, he would suffer uncharacteristic losses to Lee (Round 11), Tinsley (Round 13) and the cellar dwelling Van Vliet (Round 14). A Tarrasch win over Blackburne (Round 16), combined with a Mason loss to Owen (Round 17), clinched the tournament victory for Tarrasch, giving him a three point lead over the field with two rounds remaining. The final tournament standings played out as follows:

Manchester, England, 25 August - 8 September 1890

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 01 Tarrasch * 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 15 02 Blackburne 0 * 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 12 =03 Mackenzie 1 * 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 12 =03 Bird 1 0 * 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 12 =05 Mason 0 1 1 * 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 11 =05 Gunsberg 0 0 1 * 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 11 =07 Von Scheve 0 0 1 1 0 * 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 11 =07 Tinsley 0 1 1 0 * 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 11 =07 Alapin 0 0 0 1 1 1 * 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 11 10 Taubenhaus 0 1 0 1 1 * 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 10 11 Schallopp 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 * 0 1 1 1 1 1 10 =12 Lee 0 1 0 1 * 0 0 1 0 1 9 =12 Gunston 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 * 1 1 1 1 1 9 14 Mortimer 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 * 1 1 1 1 8 15 Owen 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 * 0 0 1 1 0 7 16 Mueller 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 * 1 1 7 17 Thorold 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 * 0 6 18 Locock 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 * 0 1 5 19 Van Vliet 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 * 1 5 20 Gossip 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 * 4

A special prize for brilliancy, presented by Mr. Frankenstein, was awarded to Gunston for Gunsberg vs W Gunston, 1890 (Round 18). Another special prize, offered by the Manchester Evening News, for the best game in the tournament, was awarded to Owen for Owen vs Gunsberg, 1890 (Round 13).

After the conclusion of the tournament, Steinitz wrote an article in the October 1890 issue of The International Chess Magazine called Ground Swell from the Manchester Congress. He wrote of the conditions of the playing hall at the Manchester Athenaeum:

"For one thing, many of the players complain of the unfavorable climatic conditions of Cottonopolis* and the bad ventilation and awkward situation of the place of play."

"It is true that Manchester is too often covered with a black pall of clouds and a drizzly rain falls, and it is certain that seventy-five weary steps had to be climbed in order to reach the tournament room, and that when it was reached, the atmosphere was hot and too often stifling."

It is entirely possible that these playing conditions affected the aforementioned players with certain illnesses (Bird, Blackburne, Mackenzie).

*The term "Cottonopolis" is often used for the city of Manchester, England in reference to its metropolis of cotton and cotton mills.

Summary sources

Morgan's Shilling Chess Library. Book 7. A Selection of Games from the International Tournament Played at Manchester (25th August to 8th September 1890)
British Chess Magazine (1890, 1891, 1892)
The Chess Player's Chronicle (1890, 1891)
The International Chess Magazine (September, October 1890)
Deutsches Wochenschach (1890)

Games & Notes (too many individual dates to list)

Manchester Guardian Observer / The Daily News / Hamshire Telegraph & Sussex Chronicle / Evening News and Post / Bristol Times / Bristol Mercury and Daily Post / Manchester Times / Leeds Mercury / Modern Chess Brilliancies / Knowledge 1890, 1891 (Gunsberg chess columns) / The (London) Times / The Belfast New Letter / The Scotsman / The Field / Baltimore Sunday News / Chicago Times / Cincinnati Commercial Gazette / The (New Orleans) Times-Democrat / Daily (New Orleans) Picayune / The (Philadelphia) Times / Baltimore Sunday News / Chicago Times / New York Sun / New York Times / New York Daily Tribune.

This text and collection of games by User: rookhouse. Crosstable added by User: Tabanus and User: zanzibar.

Round 1 August 25
Gunsberg vs Bird, 1890 
(B25) Sicilian, Closed, 39 moves, 0-1

Alapin vs Mackenzie, 1890 
(C20) King's Pawn Game, 35 moves, 0-1

J Mason vs E Schallopp, 1890 
(D10) Queen's Gambit Declined Slav, 56 moves, 1/2-1/2

L Van Vliet vs Tarrasch, 1890 
(C46) Three Knights, 31 moves, 1/2-1/2

Round 2 August 25
Tarrasch vs Von Scheve, 1890 
(C03) French, Tarrasch, 40 moves, 1/2-1/2

Gossip vs Gunsberg, 1890
(C28) Vienna Game, 39 moves, 0-1

Round 3 August 26
E Schallopp vs Mackenzie, 1890
(C29) Vienna Gambit, 35 moves, 0-1

O C Mueller vs Tarrasch, 1890 
(D35) Queen's Gambit Declined, 75 moves, 0-1

Alapin vs E Thorold, 1890
(C14) French, Classical, 32 moves, 1/2-1/2

J Mason vs W Gunston, 1890
(C77) Ruy Lopez, 44 moves, 1-0

Von Scheve vs F J Lee, 1890 
(D15) Queen's Gambit Declined Slav, 63 moves, 1/2-1/2

Gunsberg vs Taubenhaus, 1890
(C58) Two Knights, 30 moves, 1/2-1/2

Blackburne vs Tinsley, 1890
(C14) French, Classical, 35 moves, 1-0

Round 4 August 27
Taubenhaus vs C D Locock, 1890 
(C29) Vienna Gambit, 18 moves, 1-0

Tarrasch vs Gunsberg, 1890 
(C83) Ruy Lopez, Open, 13 moves, 1-0

J Mortimer vs Von Scheve, 1890 
(C14) French, Classical, 27 moves, 0-1

Mackenzie vs Blackburne, 1890 
(C13) French, 44 moves, 1-0

W Gunston vs E Schallopp, 1890
(C77) Ruy Lopez, 37 moves, 1/2-1/2

F J Lee vs O C Mueller, 1890
(C46) Three Knights, 41 moves, 1/2-1/2

E Thorold vs J Mason, 1890
(D05) Queen's Pawn Game, 32 moves, 0-1

Tinsley vs L Van Vliet, 1890
(A80) Dutch, 59 moves, 1-0

Round 5 August 27
Mackenzie vs W Gunston, 1890
(C25) Vienna, 55 moves, 1-0

C D Locock vs Tarrasch, 1890
(C70) Ruy Lopez, 32 moves, 0-1

E Schallopp vs E Thorold, 1890
(C22) Center Game, 30 moves, 1-0

L Van Vliet vs Blackburne, 1890 
(C53) Giuoco Piano, 37 moves, 0-1

O C Mueller vs J Mortimer, 1890
(D35) Queen's Gambit Declined, 24 moves, 1/2-1/2

Round 6 August 28
Tarrasch vs Owen, 1890 
(D37) Queen's Gambit Declined, 31 moves, 1-0

Bird vs E Schallopp, 1890
(C58) Two Knights, 48 moves, 0-1

Gossip vs J Mason, 1890
(C29) Vienna Gambit, 44 moves, 0-1

F J Lee vs C D Locock, 1890
(D02) Queen's Pawn Game, 22 moves, 0-1

J Mortimer vs Gunsberg, 1890
(C67) Ruy Lopez, 41 moves, 0-1

E Thorold vs Mackenzie, 1890
(C53) Giuoco Piano, 41 moves, 0-1

Tinsley vs O C Mueller, 1890
(D30) Queen's Gambit Declined, 43 moves, 1-0

Taubenhaus vs Alapin, 1890
(C66) Ruy Lopez, 50 moves, 1-0

Round 7 August 29
E Schallopp vs Gossip, 1890 
(C29) Vienna Gambit, 19 moves, 1-0

Alapin vs Tarrasch, 1890
(C01) French, Exchange, 52 moves, 1/2-1/2

Blackburne vs Von Scheve, 1890 
(C14) French, Classical, 28 moves, 1-0

O C Mueller vs L Van Vliet, 1890 
(A10) English, 38 moves, 1-0

Gunsberg vs Tinsley, 1890
(C14) French, Classical, 39 moves, 0-1

C D Locock vs J Mortimer, 1890
(C42) Petrov Defense, 34 moves, 0-1

Round 8 August 29
E Thorold vs Blackburne, 1890 
(C50) Giuoco Piano, 42 moves, 1-0

Taubenhaus vs E Schallopp, 1890 
(C55) Two Knights Defense, 21 moves, 0-1

Tarrasch vs J Mason, 1890 
(C42) Petrov Defense, 38 moves, 1-0

Von Scheve vs O C Mueller, 1890
(C62) Ruy Lopez, Old Steinitz Defense, 32 moves, 0-1

Round 9 August 30
E Schallopp vs Tarrasch, 1890 
(C11) French, 45 moves, 0-1

Mackenzie vs Taubenhaus, 1890
(C65) Ruy Lopez, Berlin Defense, 29 moves, 1/2-1/2

Gunsberg vs Von Scheve, 1890 
(C50) Giuoco Piano, 21 moves, 1-0

J Mason vs F J Lee, 1890 
(C14) French, Classical, 81 moves, 1-0

O C Mueller vs Blackburne, 1890
(D20) Queen's Gambit Accepted, 18 moves, 0-1

Round 10 September 1
Taubenhaus vs W Gunston, 1890
(C25) Vienna, 29 moves, 1-0

Tarrasch vs Mackenzie, 1890 
(C77) Ruy Lopez, 40 moves, 1/2-1/2

Blackburne vs Bird, 1890 
(A81) Dutch, 46 moves, 0-1

O C Mueller vs Gunsberg, 1890
(E14) Queen's Indian, 41 moves, 0-1

Von Scheve vs C D Locock, 1890
(C60) Ruy Lopez, 48 moves, 1-0

L Van Vliet vs Owen, 1890
(A00) Uncommon Opening, 56 moves, 0-1

F J Lee vs E Schallopp, 1890 
(D02) Queen's Pawn Game, 39 moves, 1/2-1/2

Tinsley vs Alapin, 1890
(D30) Queen's Gambit Declined, 25 moves, 0-1

Round 11 September 1
W Gunston vs Tarrasch, 1890 
(D04) Queen's Pawn Game, 29 moves, 0-1

Blackburne vs Gunsberg, 1890
(C67) Ruy Lopez, 20 moves, 1/2-1/2

C D Locock vs O C Mueller, 1890
(B25) Sicilian, Closed, 32 moves, 1/2-1/2

J Mason vs Tinsley, 1890 
(A00) Uncommon Opening, 27 moves, 1/2-1/2

Round 12 September 2
Gossip vs Blackburne, 1890  
(C63) Ruy Lopez, Schliemann Defense, 22 moves, 0-1

Tarrasch vs E Thorold, 1890 
(C07) French, Tarrasch, 56 moves, 1-0

Gunsberg vs C D Locock, 1890 
(C58) Two Knights, 41 moves, 1-0

Tinsley vs E Schallopp, 1890
(A80) Dutch, 32 moves, 1-0

F J Lee vs W Gunston, 1890
(C46) Three Knights, 57 moves, 1/2-1/2

O C Mueller vs Owen, 1890
(D02) Queen's Pawn Game, 35 moves, 1-0

Round 13 September 2
Bird vs Tarrasch, 1890 
(A03) Bird's Opening, 39 moves, 1/2-1/2

J Mason vs Von Scheve, 1890
(C67) Ruy Lopez, 37 moves, 0-1

Owen vs Gunsberg, 1890
(A46) Queen's Pawn Game, 37 moves, 1-0

Mackenzie vs Tinsley, 1890
(C02) French, Advance, 37 moves, 0-1

Round 14 September 3
Blackburne vs Taubenhaus, 1890
(C28) Vienna Game, 50 moves, 0-1

Tarrasch vs Gossip, 1890 
(C77) Ruy Lopez, 41 moves, 1-0

O C Mueller vs J Mason, 1890
(D35) Queen's Gambit Declined, 21 moves, 0-1

L Van Vliet vs Mackenzie, 1890
(C46) Three Knights, 34 moves, 1-0

Tinsley vs W Gunston, 1890
(D35) Queen's Gambit Declined, 42 moves, 1-0

Round 15 September 4
Blackburne vs Owen, 1890  
(B00) Uncommon King's Pawn Opening, 21 moves, 1-0

Taubenhaus vs Tarrasch, 1890 
(C45) Scotch Game, 39 moves, 0-1

J Mason vs Gunsberg, 1890
(C65) Ruy Lopez, Berlin Defense, 71 moves, 0-1

Mackenzie vs Von Scheve, 1890
(C13) French, 32 moves, 1-0

E Thorold vs Tinsley, 1890 
(C00) French Defense, 38 moves, 0-1

Round 16 September 4
Tarrasch vs Blackburne, 1890 
(C62) Ruy Lopez, Old Steinitz Defense, 55 moves, 1-0

Von Scheve vs W Gunston, 1890 
(C80) Ruy Lopez, Open, 28 moves, 1-0

C D Locock vs J Mason, 1890
(C67) Ruy Lopez, 30 moves, 0-1

Round 17 September 5
E Thorold vs Von Scheve, 1890 
(C13) French, 33 moves, 0-1

W Gunston vs O C Mueller, 1890 
(C67) Ruy Lopez, 38 moves, 1-0

E Schallopp vs C D Locock, 1890
(C29) Vienna Gambit, 27 moves, 1-0

Mackenzie vs Gunsberg, 1890 
(C13) French, 52 moves, 1/2-1/2

Round 18 September 6
O C Mueller vs E Thorold, 1890
(C42) Petrov Defense, 34 moves, 1-0

C D Locock vs Mackenzie, 1890
(B45) Sicilian, Taimanov, 32 moves, 1-0

Tinsley vs Taubenhaus, 1890
(D20) Queen's Gambit Accepted, 28 moves, 0-1

Gunsberg vs W Gunston, 1890 
(C46) Three Knights, 33 moves, 0-1

Blackburne vs F J Lee, 1890
(D37) Queen's Gambit Declined, 52 moves, 1-0

J Mortimer vs Tarrasch, 1890
(C13) French, 39 moves, 0-1

Round 19 September 8
Mackenzie vs Owen, 1890
(B00) Uncommon King's Pawn Opening, 30 moves, 1-0

W Gunston vs C D Locock, 1890
(C45) Scotch Game, 24 moves, 1-0

E Schallopp vs Alapin, 1890 
(C69) Ruy Lopez, Exchange, Gligoric Variation, 24 moves, 1-0

Tarrasch vs Tinsley, 1890
(D35) Queen's Gambit Declined, 28 moves, 1/2-1/2

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