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Mackenzie 
 
George Henry Mackenzie
Number of games in database: 307
Years covered: 1857 to 1893
Overall record: +161 -66 =71 (65.9%)*
   * Overall winning percentage = (wins+draws/2) / total games
      Based on games in the database; may be incomplete.
      9 exhibition games, odds games, etc. are excluded from this statistic.

MOST PLAYED OPENINGS
With the White pieces:
 Ruy Lopez (42) 
    C77 C70 C67 C84 C65
 French Defense (29) 
    C01 C02 C11 C00 C13
 French (12) 
    C11 C00 C13 C10
 Vienna Opening (10) 
    C29 C25 C26 C28
 English (9) 
    A13 A10
 Sicilian (9) 
    B27 B23 B45 B34 B73
With the Black pieces:
 Ruy Lopez (33) 
    C77 C65 C80 C67 C69
 Giuoco Piano (13) 
    C50 C53 C54
 Sicilian (11) 
    B45 B46 B23 B72 B34
 Scotch Game (10) 
    C45
 Four Knights (8) 
    C49 C48
 Evans Gambit (8) 
    C51 C52
Repertoire Explorer

NOTABLE GAMES: [what is this?]
   Blackburne vs Mackenzie, 1882 0-1
   D S Thompson vs Mackenzie, 1868 0-1
   Mackenzie vs J Mason, 1878 1-0
   Mackenzie vs F Perrin, 1868 1-0
   Mackenzie vs J Mason, 1882 1/2-1/2
   Mackenzie vs Tarrasch, 1885 1-0
   Mackenzie vs Steinitz, 1883 1-0
   Bird vs Mackenzie, 1883 1/2-1/2
   Mackenzie vs G Hammond, 1857 1-0
   Mackenzie vs Paulsen, 1862 1-0

NOTABLE TOURNAMENTS: [what is this?]
   MacDonnell - Mackenzie 1862/63 (1862)
   2nd American Chess Congress (1871)
   3rd American Chess Congress (1874)
   Paris (1878)
   5th American Chess Congress (1880)
   Vienna (1882)
   London (1883)
   Hamburg (1885)

GAME COLLECTIONS: [what is this?]
   London 1883 by suenteus po 147
   Vienna 1882 by suenteus po 147
   Paris 1878 by suenteus po 147
   New York 1880 by suenteus po 147
   Cleveland 1871 by crawfb5
   Hey, Mackenzie!! by Knight13
   1886 Mackenzie - Lipschutz Match by TheFocus
   MacDonnell - Mackenzie 1862/63 (1862) by Chessical
   Chicago 1874 by suenteus po 147
   1886 Burn - Mackenzie Match by TheFocus

GAMES ANNOTATED BY MACKENZIE: [what is this?]
   D Starbuck vs M Judd, 1881

Search Sacrifice Explorer for George Henry Mackenzie
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GEORGE HENRY MACKENZIE
(born Mar-24-1837, died Apr-14-1891) United Kingdom (citizen of United States of America)

[what is this?]
George Henry Mackenzie was born in North Kessock, Scotland. He won the 1st place prize of every American tournament he entered (13 tournaments and 7 matches).

In 1861, Mackenzie resigned his army commission in the British King's Royal Rifle Corps in 1861 to become a professional chess player. In 1862, he won a handicap tournament in London, defeating Adolf Anderssen. In 1862, he defeated George Alcock MacDonnell in a match in Dublin, Ireland (+6-3=1). In 1863 he emigrated to the United States and enlisted in the Union Army. After 15 weeks as a private, he earned the rank of Captain in charge of a Black regiment. Mackenzie later deserted and was discharged from the Union Army. In 1864 he rejoined the Army and fought with distinction in three battles. However, he was arrested again on the previous desertion charges and imprisoned. He was released in May, 1865 where he moved to New York and started playing chess, a true symbol of disarmament.

In 1866, Mackenzie defeated Gustavus Charles Reichhelm in New York in a match (+5-0=1) http://www.chessarch.com/archive/18.... By April, he was reporting news about Washington Square and the NYU chess activity to the New York Albion. The year following, Mackenzie again defeated Reichhelm in Philadelphia (+7-0=2) for the title of U.S. Chess Champion. He and Charles Henry Stanley (the founding columnist of the New York Albion until 1856, when Mackenzie revived it) met for a match in 1868. In 1869 at New York he won 82 games and lost 8 in the longest master tournament ever held (48 players and double round robin), winning the event.

The New York Turf, Field & Farm approached him in 1870 to edit a chess column for 8 years. In 1871, he won the 2nd American Chess Congress http://graeme.50webs.com/chesschamp..., held in Cleveland, Ohio, scoring 14 points and earning $100 for 1st prize. In 1874, he won the 3rd American Chess Congress http://graeme.50webs.com/chesschamp..., held in Chicago (+8-1=1). In August 1876, he won the Café International Tournament in New York (+23-5=2). In 1878, he took 4th place at the Paris International Tournament.

The next decade saw him take 1st place at the 5th American Chess Congress http://graeme.50webs.com/chesschamp... in New York (+11-2=5) defeating James Glover Grundy in the decisive match of 1880. In 1881, he defeated Max Judd in a match in St. Louis (+7-5=1). In 1882, he took 4th-5th at Vienna. At Vienna, he drew with Wilhelm Steinitz, breaking Steinitz's 25 game winning streak. In 1882, he lost a match against James Mason in London (+0-1=2), then won a match against Joseph Henry Blackburne (+2-1=0). In 1883, he took 3rd in the 5th Manhattan Chess Club Championship, won by Gustave Simonson. In 1883, he lost a match to Wilhelm Steinitz in New York (+1-3=2). In 1885, he took 4th in the 20th British Counties Chess Association Congress in Hereford, England. In 1885, he took 4th in the 7th Manhattan Chess Club Championship. In 1886, he defeated Samuel Lipschutz in a match http://graeme.50webs.com/chesschamp... in New York (+5-3=5). In 1886, he tied for 2nd-3rd in the 9th Manhattan Chess Club Championship. In 1886, he drew a match with Amos Burn (+4-4=2). In 1887 he won the 5th German Chess Championship in Frankfurt (+13-3=4) http://xoomer.virgilio.it/cserica/s.... He, thus, became the first American chess player to win an international event. In 1888 he won the 5th Scottish Chess Championship in Glasgow (+4-0=2)http://www.thechesslibrary.com/file.... In 1888, he took 2nd in the 4th British Chess Federation Championship, held in Bradford, England. The event was won by Isidor Gunsberg. In 1888, he defeated Celso Golmayo Zupide in a match (7.5-4.5) in Havana. In 1890, he took 3rd-4th in the 6th British Chess Federation Congress, held in Manchester England (Siegbert Tarrasch won).

Tactical bright as his contemporaries, he had a high positional understanding that approached Steinitz, but more dynamic. When Mackenzie was beginning to get first prizes outside the U.S.A., the disease forced him to move away the games (can not compete in New York, 1889) and did not take long to kill him. He died of tuberculosis in a New York hotel on April 14, 1891 at the age of 54. He was inducted in the U.S. Hall of Fame in 1992.

Wikipedia article: George Henry Mackenzie


 page 1 of 13; games 1-25 of 307  PGN Download
Game  ResultMoves Year Event/LocaleOpening
1. Mackenzie vs G Hammond 1-022 1857 USAC42 Petrov Defense
2. Mackenzie vs Mohishunder 1-024 1857 InformalC51 Evans Gambit
3. S Boden vs Mackenzie 1-023 1860 Albion 66C55 Two Knights Defense
4. Paulsen vs Mackenzie  1-025 1861 London Blindfold SimC51 Evans Gambit
5. Mackenzie vs Paulsen 0-120 1862 London m/1C39 King's Gambit Accepted
6. Mackenzie vs G MacDonnell 1-047 1862 MacDonnell - Mackenzie 1862/63C41 Philidor Defense
7. Cole vs Mackenzie  0-149 1862 LondonC84 Ruy Lopez, Closed
8. G MacDonnell vs Mackenzie 1-049 1862 MacDonnell - Mackenzie 1862/63C50 Giuoco Piano
9. Mackenzie vs G Medley 0-142 1862 LondonC01 French, Exchange
10. G MacDonnell vs Mackenzie 1-047 1862 MacDonnell - Mackenzie 1862/63C50 Giuoco Piano
11. Cole vs Mackenzie  0-127 1862 LondonC42 Petrov Defense
12. G MacDonnell vs Mackenzie ½-½37 1862 MacDonnell - Mackenzie 1862/63A10 English
13. Mackenzie vs G Medley  1-031 1862 LondonC42 Petrov Defense
14. Mackenzie vs F Deacon  ½-½48 1862 LondonB27 Sicilian
15. Mackenzie vs G MacDonnell 0-164 1862 MacDonnell - Mackenzie 1862/63C41 Philidor Defense
16. Mackenzie vs G MacDonnell 1-048 1862 MacDonnell - Mackenzie 1862/63B06 Robatsch
17. Mackenzie vs G Medley 1-031 1862 LondonB06 Robatsch
18. Paulsen vs Mackenzie 1-025 1862 London (England)C51 Evans Gambit
19. G MacDonnell vs Mackenzie 0-128 1862 MacDonnell - Mackenzie 1862/63C42 Petrov Defense
20. S Solomons vs Mackenzie  0-133 1862 LondonA10 English
21. G MacDonnell vs Mackenzie 0-127 1862 MacDonnell - Mackenzie 1862/63C01 French, Exchange
22. Mackenzie vs F Deacon  1-044 1862 LondonB27 Sicilian
23. Mackenzie vs Paulsen 1-023 1862 London (England)C51 Evans Gambit
24. Mackenzie vs G MacDonnell 1-047 1862 MacDonnell - Mackenzie 1862/63C41 Philidor Defense
25. S Solomons vs Mackenzie  1-029 1862 LondonA13 English
 page 1 of 13; games 1-25 of 307  PGN Download
  REFINE SEARCH:   White wins (1-0) | Black wins (0-1) | Draws (1/2-1/2) | Mackenzie wins | Mackenzie loses  
 

Kibitzer's Corner
< Earlier Kibitzing  · PAGE 3 OF 3 ·  Later Kibitzing>
May-09-13  Graham1973: The correct date is 1879.04.15. I've also taken the step of submitting an updated pgn file via the correction process. I left out the annotations as no author is given.
May-09-13
Premium Chessgames Member
  Phony Benoni: <Graham1973> I've changed the date, but I did a little further checking trying to track down the annotations and found some conflicts in the date. The Newark Sunday Call for April 20, 1879, puts the exhibition on Wednesday, April 16:

http://www.chessarch.com/excavation...

The New York Sun for Sunday, April 13, also puts the performance on Wednesday.

http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/l...

(Under the headline "Footlight Flashes".)

May-09-13  Graham1973: I think you may be right, I just used a calendar program and the 15th of April is a Tuesday. I based my date on the Globe-Herald article which gave the date as "...Wednesday evening, 15th ultimo...".

Apparently the game was also covered by the New York Herald, but the issues on the Chess Archeology site only go as far back as 1889.

May-09-13  Graham1973: <Phony Benoni>When the fully updated version is uploaded, it might be best to change the date to 1879.04.16.
May-09-13
Premium Chessgames Member
  Phony Benoni: <Graham1973> I've made the date change. The Gametype should be changed to "Exhibition" as well.

Another site for searching the old New York papers is http://fultonhistory.com/Fulton.html

The searching interface is hard to get used to, but at least there is one. Here's the relevant pages from New York Herald for April 15 and April 16 (PDF files):

http://fultonhistory.com/Newspaper%...

http://fultonhistory.com/Newspaper%...

And here is the problem mentioned, "Atalanta, the fleet-footed queen" by Eugene B. Cook:


click for larger view

White mates in 11: <1.Bd4+ Kxd4 2.Qg7+ Qe5 3.Qxa7+ Ke4 4.Qe3+ Kf5 5.Qg5+ Ke4 6.f3+ Kd4 7.Qg1+ Qe3 8.Qg7+ Kc5 9.Qc7+ Kd4 10.Qb6+ Ke5 11.Qf6#>

May-09-13  Graham1973: <Phony Benoni> Thanks.
May-10-13  Graham1973: <Phony Benoni>I've added a better summary of the event to the Mackenzie-Delmar 1879 page.

Mackenzie vs E Delmar, 1879

May-12-13  Graham1973: I've found another Mackenzie-Delmar exhibition match with living chess pieces (Drawn) in the Hartford Weekly Times of 15/03/1883.

http://www.chessarch.com/excavation...

Not sure whether to upload or not although the score was also given in the St Louis Globe-Democrat in the edition of the 25/03/1883.

May-12-13  Graham1973: Thought I'd try transcribing the results from the 1883 Mackenzie-Delamar Exhibition match and found a discrepancy in the scores between the two accounts I've uncovered so far.

The discrepancy in the endgame moves is as follows.

(St Louis Globe-Democrat)
http://www.chessarch.com/excavation...

1. P-K4 P-K4
2. P-Q4 PxP
3. QxP QKt-B3
4. Q-K3 B-Kt5
5. B-Q2 Q-B3
6. QKt-B3 Kt-Q5
7. O-O Kt-K2
8. Qkt-Q5 KtxKt
9. P-Kt B-K2
10. B-B3 Kt-B4
11. Q-K Q-Kt4
12. K-Kt O-O
13. Kt-KB3 Q-R4
14. P-KKt4 QxP
15. R-Kt QxKt
16. B-Kt2 Q-R
17. B-B3 QxB
18. R-Q3 Q-B5
19. QxB KtxQ
20. RxP K-R
21. RxBP K-Kt
22. R-Kt7 K-R
23. R-R3 P-KR3
24. R-Kt6 K-R2
25. R-Kt7 K-R
26. R-Kt6 Drawn.

(Hartford Weekly Times)

http://www.chessarch.com/excavation...

18. ...
19. QxB KtxQ
20. RxP K-R
21. R-Kt7 K-Kt
22. R-KR3 P-KR3
23. R-KKt6 K-K2
24. R-KKt7 K-Kt

...and drawn in two moves.

May-13-13  Graham1973: Several games by Mackenzie from the 1860s can be found in this online article.

http://www.chessarch.com/archive/00...

May-17-13  thomastonk: From his cg biography: "In 1883, he lost a match to Wilhelm Steinitz in New York (+1-3=2)."

From the BCM, 1883, p. 105: "The program included a series of six game (not to be called a match) with Captain Mackenzie - score at finish, Steinitz 3 ; Mackenzie 1 ; drawn 2 - (the prizes being 15 dols. per game to the winner, 5 dols. to the loser),...".

May-17-13
Premium Chessgames Member
  TheFocus: <thomastonk> Here is that match.

Game Collection: 1883 Steinitz - Mackenzie Match

May-17-13  thomastonk: <TheFocus> Thanks. Maybe I have to learn something here.

My intention was to emphasize that in 1883 there has been a distinction between a match and a series of games. That's the way I interpret "(not to be called a match)". If I am wrong here, I would like to know that, of course.

Regarding this 6 games, I found also American newspapers that spoke only about a series of games. The program, to which the BCM refers, was that of Steinitz' engagement at the Manhattan Chess Club, which lasted 10 days and included blindfold and simultaneous exhibitions as well as other individual games. The general description of the conditions of such an engagement were described in the "Cleveland Herald", March 25, 1883: "The terms demanded by Herr Steinitz, the chess champion, are $200 for an engagement, and, in addition, the winner of each game the champion plays shall receive $15 and the loser $5. The St.Louis Chess Club voted a visit from Mr Steinitz too expensive a luxury, and his offer has been declined." That is the complete text there.

May-17-13
Premium Chessgames Member
  TheFocus: <thomas> Not having seen your sources, I took it to be a match from Steinit's bio. That is how it was listed. Forgot who the compiler was. That bio is at home.

I would list it as a series. I will add your sources to my collection.

May-17-13
Premium Chessgames Member
  TheFocus: <thomastonk> Thank you for that clarification. I added the following to my collection:

<thomastonk> pointed out that these games may not be considered a match: From the BCM, 1883, p. 105: <"The program included a series of six game (not to be called a match) with Captain Mackenzie - score at finish, Steinitz 3 ; Mackenzie 1 ; drawn 2 - (the prizes being 15 dols. per game to the winner, 5 dols. to the loser).>

<thomastonk> adds: Regarding this 6 games, I found also American newspapers that spoke only about a series of games. The program, to which the BCM refers, was that of Steinitz' engagement at the Manhattan Chess Club, which lasted 10 days and included blindfold and simultaneous exhibitions as well as other individual games. The general description of the conditions of such an engagement were described in the "Cleveland Herald", March 25, 1883: "The terms demanded by Herr Steinitz, the chess champion, are $200 for an engagement, and, in addition, the winner of each game the champion plays shall receive $15 and the loser $5. The St.Louis Chess Club voted a visit from Mr Steinitz too expensive a luxury, and his offer has been declined."

May-18-13  Graham1973: I've found an 1878 game between Mackenzie and Ware with extensive notations by Steinitz at the Jack O'Keefe project.

http://www.chessarch.com/excavation...

Does anyone think this one might be worthy of inclusion?

May-08-14  ljfyffe: MONTREAL SIMUL 1879 Mackenzie-Hicks, Msckenzie-Shaw, Shaw-Mackenzie: Mackenzie visitait Montreal par Larry Fyffe, AU NOM DU ROI Pp. 267-268. (Toronto Globe du fevrier 1879).
May-14-14  ljfyffe: Mackenzie-Hicks Montreal 1879 1e4 e5 2d4 d5 3Nc3 Bb4 4Bd3 Ne7 5Nf3 0-0 6e5 Ng6 70-0 Bxc3 8bxc3 b6 9Bg5 Qd8 10h4 Nh8 11Bf6 g6 12Ng5 Nd7 13Qh5 Nxf6 14exf6 1-0
Jun-10-14  ljfyffe: Also, played: Mackenzie-John Barry of Montreal, 1879, not to be confused with the more famous John F. Barry.
Jul-13-14
Premium Chessgames Member
  wwall: Did Mackenzie die of TB or from something else? The Scranton Republican, April 28, 1891, reported that Dr. S.B. Minden expressed the opinion that Captain Mackenzie died of morphine taken accidentally or with suicidal threats.
Jul-13-14
Premium Chessgames Member
  zanzibar: A nice, large, 600dpi photograph of him:

http://cplorg.cdmhost.com/cdm/singl...

Jul-13-14
Premium Chessgames Member
  zanzibar: <wwall> Winter discusses this, CN #7772

http://www.chesshistory.com/winter/...

(Scroll down two items)

Jul-13-14
Premium Chessgames Member
  zanzibar: So, the suggestion of suicide is unclear.

I would suggest it not be made here, but a link to Winter's discussion certainly could be added.

Jul-13-14
Premium Chessgames Member
  zanzibar: By the way, BCM vol 11 May, 1891 (p225, 244-248) gives this:

<The news of poor Capt. Mackenzie's death caused a very painful impression in chess circles here, not that it was altogether unexpected, but as recent news spoke of him as being considerably improved in health, people had begun to think he might be spared for some few years. What a fine genial fellow he was, and how everyone admired and respected him.

[...]

Mackenzie was found dead in his room at a New York hotel on the 14th of April, the immediate cause of death being <heart disease>[ed-!]>

So, much as we like to put store in contemporaneous sources, they too can be misleading (maybe even more so, in some cases).

Jul-25-14  ljfyffe: <zanzibar> As a researcher in chess history, l can attest to the accuracy of your comment on "contemporaneous sources".
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