Paul (Pavel) List was born in Memel, today's Klaipeda, Lithuania into a Jewish family. (1) He had a separate chess career in the Russian Empire, Germany and England. He also played in two matches for the Lithuanian team, and one match for Great Britain. Paul List was raised in Lithuania and spoke some Lithuanian. (2)
In the early 1900's, Pavel was living in Wilna, Russian Empire (today's Vilnius, Lithuania). (3) In 1908, the Wilna University was closed down, so List moved to Odessa, Ukraine to study at the Odessa University. The same year, he took first place in the Odessa championship with 10.5/18, qualifying for the All-Russian Amateurs tournament. (4) In January 1910, he shared 3-4th place with Stefan Izbinsky from Kiev in the first South Russian championship in Odessa. First was Boris Verlinsky, second - Efim Bogoljubov (Kiev). (5)
Paul List contributed to the revival of chess life in Odessa. He participated in local tournaments, and was an editor of the chess column of the newspaper Южная Мысль (South thought). (6) List was one of the organizers of the first South Russian championship. He persuaded the managers of the Odessa commercial chambers of the prestige of this event, and convinced them to provide 500 rubles, and a separate prize for the most beautiful game. At the summer vacation of 1910, List returned to Wilna. The Wilna Chess Club manager, Abram Isaakovich Rabinovich, invited Grigory Levenfish to play a match with List. The match between the two young talented players stopped after nine games (+4 -4 =1) because of the end of the summer vacation. (7)
List's real family name was Odes. Because the address on the letters he was receiving (to Odes in Odessa) was confusing, he changed his family name to List. (7) In 1911, he played in the All-Russian Haupturnier in St. Petersburg, where he tied for 15-16th (9/21). The winner was Stefan Levitsky (16.5/21). (8) In 1912, he tied for 4th with Ilya Leontievich Rabinovich in the 7th All-Russian Masters' Tournament (Hauptturnier) at Wilna, with 12/18. First was Karel Hromadka (15/18), 2nd was Bogoljubov (14.5/18), and 3rd was Baron K M Rausch von Traubenberg (14/18). (9) In 1918, List was an organizer and member of the tournament committee in the Odessa championship, but didn't play in it. At this time, in the period of the Russian Civil War, Odessa was a part of the Ukraine Republic, but by 1920 the Soviet Red Army managed to overpower both Ukrainian and Russian White Armies and secure the city. (10) In the 1920's, people of Odessa suffered from political unrest, and many of them fled abroad. For a native of Memel, where German was one of the two main languages, Germany was the obvious destination. In Germany, with the help of his organizing skills and the many friends he made, he built up a chess center in Berlin which became famous. In one very interesting event there, he scored a dual success as organizer and participant. This was a simultaneous display he held, together with Emanuel Lasker. Each made alternate moves without consultation. Two against 42. He gave lectures, took part in tournaments, and published a weekly chess column, until the Nazi Regime put an end to it. (11)
In 1926, List played in the first Freie Schachvereinigung Berlin tournament (Berlin (1926)), where he shared 7-9th place with Paul F Johner and Friedrich Saemisch. The winner of this strong tournament was Efim Bogoljubov, one point ahead of Akiba Rubinstein. (12) The second Freie Schachvereinigung Berlin tournament was held in June 1927 in Café Equitable Palast. List shared 6-7th place with David Enoch (4.5/9). First was Alfred Brinckmann (6.5/9), 2nd-4th were Bogoljubov, Aron Nimzowitsch and Saemisch (6/9). (13) In July 1927, List participated in the masters tournament of the 25th German Chess Congress in Magdeburg. He tied for 3rd place with Walther von Holzhausen (8.5/13), after Rudolf Spielmann (11/13) and Bogoljubov (10.5/13). (14) The Ehrenpreis der Stadt Berlin tournament was held from September 22nd to October 6th, 1928 in Café Koenig. List tied for 5th place with Carl Ahues, Kurt Paul Otto Joseph Richter and Paul Johner, with 5.5/11. First was Bogoljubov, with 8.5/11. (15) In 1929, List was employed as a chess room manager in Café Wien (in Kurfürstendamm, a main street of Berlin), where the display with Lasker took place (+34 -2 =8). (16) At the international Anderssen Chess Club Jubilee Tournament in Frankfurt, September 1930 (Frankfurt (1930)), List tied for 3rd place with Carl Ahues (7/11). First was Aaron Nimzowitsch (9.5/11), 2nd Isaac Kashdan (9/11). (17) In the Swinemünde tournament, June 9-26th, 1932, List tied for 8-9th with Willi Schlage (3.5/9). First was Gosta Stoltz (7.5/9). (18) List worked in 1932 as a director of the chess room in Café Trumpf on Kurfürstendamm. At the opening of the chess room on November 14th, List and Saemisch (together) played 38 simultaneous games, with the result +31 -2 =5. (19)
In the end of July 1936 Paul List was invited to play in International Olympic Training tournament in Riga (July 27, 1936 - Aug 3, 1936). This 8 player round robin tournament was organized for preparation of Latvian team to the unofficial Munich Olympiad 1936. Paul List shared 1-3 place with Latvian masters Movsa Feigin
and Edgars Krumins (5/7). (20)
At the beginning of August 1936, List continued from Riga to Kaunas, Lithuania. He contributed to the preparation of the Lithuanian team for the unofficial Olympiad in Munich, playing two games with each of eight team members (two games per day). His visit also included a simultaneous exhibition. (21)
From Kaunas, List went to England to participate in the 1936 Nottingham Chess Congress. He played in the Major A (second to the famous international masters tournament, Nottingham (1936))), and tied for 3rd place with William Ritson-Morry (6.5/11). First was Salo Landau (7.5/11), 2nd was Ernst Ludwig Klein (7/11). (22) In April 1937, he played in the strong international tournament in Ostend, Belgium. He tied with Salo Landau for 4th place with 5/9, one point behind Reuben Fine, Paul Keres and Henri Grob. (23) In October 17th-23rd, 1937, List played in a 4 player double round tournament in Riga, Latvia: 1. List (4/6), 2. Movsa Feigin (3.5/6), 3. Fricis Apsenieks (2.5/6), 4. Teodors Bergs (2/6). (24) In October 1937, he restored his Lithuanian citizenship and held a Lithuanian passport. (25) On 27-28 November, a match was held in Riga between Latvia and Lithuania (9.5-6.5). He played on the second board for Lithuania against Apsenieks (+0 -1 =1). (26) From Riga he went with the Lithuanian team to Tallinn, Estonia to play in the first match (except olympiads) between Estonia and Lithuania. The two-day match started on 30 November. Estonia won with 8.5-7.5. List on 2nd board played Paul Felix Schmidt (+0 -1 =1). (27) In December 1937, he participated in the Masters Reserve B tournament of Hastings (1937/38). He was 2nd with 7/9, half a point behind Landau. Paul List settled in London, England, but kept his Lithuanian citizenship. (28) In England he became an art dealer, but chess was one of his foremost activities. (1)
On 20-29 April 1938, in the Premier Reserves Section A of Margate (1938), Paul List (Lithuania) took 5th place with 4.5/9. First was Ernst Ludwig Klein (Austria) (7/9), ahead of Miguel Najdorf (Poland) (6.5/9). (29) On 8-19 August, in the Major Open A section of the 31st British Championship, held at Brighton, List tied for 1st with Klein (9/11), ahead of Baruch Harold Wood (7.5/11). (30) On 5-10 September 1938, in the Plymouth tournament (50th anniversary of the Plymouth Chess Club), Alexander Alekhine tied for 1st with George Alan Thomas (6/7). List tied with Philip Stuart Milner-Barry (3.5/7), half a point ahead of Vera Menchik. (31) In the game with Alekhine, List had an advantage and Alekhine was lucky to escape with a draw. The game appeared in 175 Chess Brilliancies by Francis Percival Wenman (Pitman, London 1947) (Game 22). In the Premier Reserves A section of Hastings (1938/39), Paul List was 7th with 4/9. The winner was Imre Koenig (6/9), ahead of Marcos Luckis and Jacques Mieses (5.5/9). (32) In 1939, List tied for 2nd at the Birmingham Chess Club International tournament with Hubert Ernest Price. The winner was Lodewijk Prins. (33) At the Hampstead Chess Club tournament, December 1939, he was 4th with 6.5/11. In this tournament, which was staged by the newly opened National Chess Center in London, Koenig and Milner-Barry tied for 1st with 7.5/11. Sir G. A. Thomas was 3rd (7/11). (34) In March 1940, List tied for first with Harry Golombek (7.5/9) at the London Easter International chess tournament, also organized by the National Chess Center. Third was Vera Menchik (6/9). (35)
In January 1946, the Victory Tournament in Farringdon-Street Memorial Hall (London A (1946)) was organized to celebrate the end of World War II. The 59 years old List tied with Reginald Joseph Broadbent for 8th place (4.5/11). The winner was Herman Steiner (9/11). (36) In June 1946, the Zaanstreek (1946) international chess tournament was held to celebrate the 20th anniversary of Chess Club Zaandam. Paul List took 5th place with 5.5/11. The winner of this tournament was Max Euwe with 9.5/11. (37) The Zaanstreek tournament ended on June 14. Five days later, List was already playing in London in a radio match between Great Britain and USSR. Ten men and two women played in two rounds. The USSR won 14-6 on the men's boards and 4-0 on the women's boards. List was invited to play for Great Britain's team, even though he didn't have English citizenship, since he was considered a strong defensive player. He played on the 6th board against Alexander Kotov, but lost both games. (38) In 1948, List participated in the London Chess Championship. The winner was David Vincent Hooper (6/7), List was 2nd (5/7), and 3rd were Elaine Saunders Pritchard, Otto Friedmann and Richard Hilary Newman (4/7). (39) List was London vice champion also in 1950 (with 5/7), behind James Macrae Aitken (6/7). (40)
On 2-9 May 1953, in the 1st Bognor Regis International Chess Congress, Harry Golombek and William Winter tied for 1st with 5/7. Paul List was 6th with 3/7. (41) On 22-25 May 1953, 65 years old and already ill, Paul List finished 1st in the British Lightning Chess Championship (10 seconds per move) with 15.5/18. He was not awarded the champion title, since he was not a naturalized Briton. (42)
1) "The Anglo-Soviet Radio Chess Match", by E. Klein and W. Winter, London, Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons LTD, 1947, page 19.
2) "Žydai Lietuvos šachmatų istorijoje" ("Jews in Lithuania chess history"), Eugenijus Paleckis, Boris Rositsan, Vilnius, 2015, page 123. The meeting with Paul List in 1936 was described by Vladas Mikenas in his book "35 metai prie šachmatų lentos" ("35 years at the chessboard"), State political and scientific literature publishing house, Vilnius, 1961, page 91.
3) "Wiener Schachzeitung", November-December, 21/24, 1911, page 348.
4) "Chess Results 1901-1920", by Gino Di Felice, page 108 and "Wiener Schachzeitung", November-December, 21/24, 1911, p.348.
5) "Chess Results 1901-1920", by Gino Di Felice, page 142 and "Wiener Schachzeitung", November-December, 21/24, 1911, pp.347-348.
6) "Словарь шахматиста" ("Glossary of chess player"), Алекса́ндр Смирнов (Aleksandr Smirnov), Шахматный листок (Chess leaflet publishing house), Leningrad, 1929, page 264.
7) "Избранные партии и воспоминания" ("Selected games and memories"), Levenfish G. Y., Physical education and sport, Moscow, 1967, page 19.
8) "Chess Results 1901-1920", by Gino Di Felice, page 164.
9) "Wiener Schachzeitung", September-October, 17/20, 1912, page 281.
10) "Спаситель Алехина" ("Savior of Alekhine"), Tkachenko, Andrei Elkov publishing house, 2016, pages 30-35.
11) "Dr Paul List; In Memoriam", by Mrs Stephanie List, on pages 156-157 of CHESS, 24 December 1954. A large article about the simultaneous display by List and Dr Em. Lasker was published in the weekly newspaper "Denken und Raten", Nr. 19, 12 May 1929.
12) "Wiener Schachzeitung", November-December 1926, 22/23, page 337.
13) "Wiener Schachzeitung", June 1927, number 12, page 169.
14)"Der funfundzwanzigste Kongress des Deutschen Schachbundes", W. Frhrn. von Holzhausen, Schachverlag Bernhard Kagan, Berlin, 1927, page 11.
16) "Deutsche Schachzeitung", March 1929, page 68, and "Berliner Tageblatt", 12 May 1929, page 2, http://www.chesshistory.com/winter/...
19) "Deutsche Schachzeitung", December 1932, page 362.
20) "Rigasche Rundschau", July 28, p. 7; "Rigasche Rundschau", July 31, p. 8;
"Rigasche Rundschau", August 1, p. 11; "Rīts", August 3, p. 8; August 4, p. 10.
21) "Meisteris Listas Kaune" ("Master List in Kaunas"), in the newspaper "Vakarai" ("Evenings"), Klaipeda, 12 August 1936, page 1. In this article it is mentioned that in his past, List was living in the town of Plunge, 50 km from Klaipeda, and that he speaks some Lithuanian language.
22) "Šachmatų kronika" ("Chess chronicle"), in the newspaper "Vakarai" ("Evenings"), Klaipeda, 2 December 1936, page 6. In this article, it is mentioned that List is Lithuanian, and that at one time efforts were made to add him to the Lithuanian team.
24) The Latvian chess magazine "Šacha maksla" ("Art of chess"), 25 October 1937, number 14, page 217.
25) The article "RIIAS NELJA MEISTRI TURNIIR" ("Riga four masters tournament"), in the Estonian newspaper "Waba Maa", 26 October 1937, page 5.
26) The Latvian chess magazine "Šacha maksla" ("Art of chess"), 10 December 1937, number 17, pages 259-260.
27) The Lithuanian newspaper "Lietuvos Aidas", Nr. 551, 3 December 1937, page 4.
28) "Lietuvos Aidas", 15 January 1938, page 12.
29) The Estonian newspaper "Päewaleht", 4 May 1938, page 5; "The British Chess Magazine", June 1938, page 277. In "Hamburger Nachrichten", 22 April 1938, page 4, in the article "Schachkongres in Margata", a list was published of participants in all four tournaments. Paul List was presented as a resident of Lithuania.
30) "Chess Results 1936-1940", by Gino Di Felice, page 166, and "The Times", 20 August 1938, page 8.
31) "The British Chess Magazine", October 1938, number 10, page 467, and http://www.keverelchess.com/bruce-r...
32) "Hamburger Nachrichten", 10 January 1939, page 3, and "Chess Results 1936-1940", by Gino Di Felice, page 219.
33) Wikipedia article: 1939 in chess
34) "Chess Review", March 1940, page 31.
35) "Revista Romana de Sah", 1940-5, page 99.
37) Zaanstreek (1946)
38) ICCF AMICI Issue 07, http://amici.iccf.com/issues/Issue_...
39) "The Times", 8 November 1948, page 2.
40) "The Times", 30 October 1950, page 6.
41) "Chess Results 1951-1955", by Gino Di Felice, page 215, and http://www.bognorandarunchessclub.c...
42) "Staffordshire Advertiser", 13 March 1953, page 4, "The Times", 26 May 1953, page 3, Baruch Harold Wood in "Illustrated London News", 20 June 1953, page 1050, and C.N. 7774