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Photo courtesy of Eric Schiller.  
David Bronstein
Number of games in database: 2,179
Years covered: 1938 to 1997
Last FIDE rating: 2432
Highest rating achieved in database: 2590
Overall record: +819 -311 =1002 (61.9%)*
   * Overall winning percentage = (wins+draws/2) / total games
      Based on games in the database; may be incomplete.
      47 exhibition games, odds games, etc. are excluded from this statistic.

With the White pieces:
 Sicilian (211) 
    B40 B31 B20 B50 B90
 Ruy Lopez (131) 
    C77 C97 C78 C91 C92
 Nimzo Indian (75) 
    E41 E21 E55 E59 E32
 French Defense (63) 
    C07 C18 C15 C05 C02
 Ruy Lopez, Closed (57) 
    C97 C91 C92 C99 C98
 King's Indian (54) 
    E90 E67 E80 E71 E60
With the Black pieces:
 French Defense (121) 
    C16 C07 C15 C09 C08
 King's Indian (96) 
    E67 E60 E80 E92 E69
 Ruy Lopez (88) 
    C76 C63 C69 C92 C99
 Sicilian (85) 
    B92 B32 B51 B90 B40
 Caro-Kann (83) 
    B16 B10 B14 B15 B13
 Queen's Pawn Game (53) 
    A45 A40 D02 E10 E00
Repertoire Explorer

NOTABLE GAMES: [what is this?]
   Bronstein vs Ljubojevic, 1973 1-0
   Bronstein vs Geller, 1961 1-0
   Bronstein vs Keres, 1955 1-0
   Bronstein vs M20, 1963 1-0
   J Kaplan vs Bronstein, 1975 0-1
   N Bakulin vs Bronstein, 1965 0-1
   Efimov vs Bronstein, 1941 0-1
   Pachman vs Bronstein, 1946 0-1
   Bronstein vs Korchnoi, 1962 1-0
   V Mikenas vs Bronstein, 1965 0-1

WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS: [what is this?]
   Botvinnik - Bronstein World Championship Match (1951)

NOTABLE TOURNAMENTS: [what is this?]
   Saltsjöbaden Interzonal (1948)
   Gothenburg Interzonal (1955)
   Budapest Candidates (1950)
   USSR Championship (1949)
   USSR Championship (1948)
   USSR Championship (1958)
   USSR Championship 1964/65 (1964)
   USSR Championship (1957)
   Mar del Plata (1960)
   USSR Championship (1945)
   Zurich Candidates (1953)
   USSR Championship (1963)
   Amsterdam Interzonal (1964)
   Petropolis Interzonal (1973)
   USSR Championship (1971)

GAME COLLECTIONS: [what is this?]
   Challenger Bronstein by Gottschalk
   Match Bronstein! by amadeus
   200 open games by David Bronstein (part 1) by tak gambit
   Bronstein's Run by suenteus po 147
   200 Open Games by David Bronstein (part 2) by tak gambit
   Guess-the-Move Chess: 1940-1959 (Part 2) by Anatoly21
   Bronstein's Odyssey by Everett
   Bronstein's Picturesque Games by Brown
   Guess-the-Move Chess: 1940-1959 (Part 1) by Anatoly21
   Bronstein Sorcerer's Apprentice 40 Combinations by hms123
   Bronstein vs Computers. by lostemperor
   David Bronstein's Best Games by KingG
   Sorcerer's Apprentice Bronstein by tak gambit
   King's Indian pioneers by keywiz84

Search Sacrifice Explorer for David Bronstein
Search Google for David Bronstein

(born Feb-19-1924, died Dec-05-2006, 82 years old) Ukraine
[what is this?]
David Ionovich Bronstein was born February 19, 1924 in Bila Tserkva, Ukraine.1

Chess and Checkers Club

When Bronstein was six, his grandfather taught him how to play chess. Later, when his family moved to Kiev, he joined the city "Chess and Checkers Club" and soon won the Kiev "Schoolboy's Championship."1 At age fifteen he was invited to play in the 11th Ukrainian Championship in Dnepropetrovsk, where he finished 8th.2 On the strength of this result he was invited back for the 12th Ukrainian Championship in Kiev. He placed 2nd to Isaac Boleslavsky, 3 which garnered him both the Soviet national master title and a place in the USSR Championship Semifinal in Rostov-on-Don.1,4 The semifinal was never finished due to the German invasion of Russia on June 22, 1941, and Bronstein did not play any serious chess for the next three years.1

Two Grandmaster Titles

By February 1944 the Germans had been driven back to the Dneiper River, and Bronstein joined the USSR Championship Semifinal in Baku.1 His 4th place finish qualified him for the final and drew the interest of Boris Vainstein, who quickly became an avid promoter of Bronstein's chess career. Vainstein was an influential member of the Communist Party, and he managed to have Bronstein relocated to Moscow from his job rebuilding a steel factory in the ruins of Stalingrad.1 Bronstein managed only 15th place at the USSR Championship (1944), but he was hardly disgraced, since he won his game against the incumbent "Absolute Soviet champion": Bronstein vs Botvinnik, 1944. 5 Bronstein's 3rd place in the USSR Championship (1945) earned him a spot on the Soviet team in international matches, where he posted good results. Though he was not yet a grandmaster, FIDE invited him to the Saltsjöbaden Interzonal (1948), which he won.6 He was immediately made a Soviet grandmaster,7 and in July 1949 FIDE awarded him the international grandmaster title.8

The World Championship

Bronstein wasted no time proving that if someone wanted to unseat world champion Mikhail Botvinnik, they'd have to go through him. He shared 1st in both the USSR Championship (1948) and the USSR Championship (1949). He went on to tie Boleslavsky for 1st in the Budapest Candidates (1950), and won the subsequent playoff match. Bronstein now had the right to face Botvinnik in a championship match. Botvinnik had played no chess in public since he'd won the FIDE World Championship Tournament (1948), which Bronstein thought was a deliberate ploy to hide his opening preparation.9 Bronstein opened game one with the Dutch Defence, one of the champion's favorite systems. Botvinnik later characterized this strategem as "naive."10 The match was closely fought, and by game 22 Bronstein led by a point and needed only win once more, or draw twice in the last two games, to become world champion. The stage was set for a climactic final game in which Bronstein needed a victory, since the champion would retain his title in the event of a drawn match. This game proved somewhat controversial because Bronstein accepted Botvinnik's draw offer after only 22 moves: Bronstein vs Botvinnik, 1951. This engendered speculation that the Soviet government had ordered him not to beat Botvinnik. In a 1993 interview Bronstein explained that "There was no direct pressure (to lose deliberately)... But... there was the psychological pressure of the environment..." in part caused by his father's "several years in prison" and what he labeled "the marked preference for the institutional Botvinnik." Bronstein concluded that "it seemed to me that winning could seriously harm me, which does not mean that I deliberately lost."11

Cold Warrior

The NKVD12 had arrested Bronstein's father in 1935 because he had "tried to defend peasants... who were put under pressure by corrupt officials."13 His father was released after serving seven years in a gulag, and only pardoned for any wrongdoing in 1955. Bronstein never joined the Communist Party, nor any organisations associated with it, such as the Communist Youth Party, the USSR Writer's Union, or the USSR Journalist's Union.13 Nevertheless, for decades Bronstein remained a prominent member of the Soviet chess team. He played in four successive chess olympiads, winning the bronze medal on 3rd board in Helsinki 1952, the silver medal on 3rd board in Amsterdam 1954, and the gold medal on 4th board in both Moscow 1956 and Munich 1958.14 In the USSR - USA Radio Match (1945) Bronstein faced Anthony Santasiere on 10th board, scoring +2 -0 =0 in a 15½ - 4½ Soviet rout of the Americans. In a 1946 USSR-USA match in Moscow, the Soviets won again, with Bronstein splitting a pair of games against Olaf Ulvestad on 10th board. He again helped defeat the USA in two ideologically charged matches in 1954 and 1955. The first was slated for New York in 1953, but Cold War politics got in the way. The Soviet team were on the verge of boarding a ship from Cherbourg when a jittery US State Department abruptly tightened their visa restrictions. Moscow declared this a "violation of all the rules of international hospitality and civility," but the Soviets did manage to play the Americans the following year in New York, and again in Moscow 1955.15 In New York Bronstein played 2nd board and beat Arthur William Dake in one game, and then proceeded to win three straight from Dake's replacement, Arnold Denker. In Moscow he faced Larry Melvyn Evans on 3rd board, scoring +1 -0 =3. The USSR won both events.16

Golden Age

Although Bronstein never again played a world championship match, he enjoyed a long period of success in strong chess events.1 He came close to a title rematch with Botvinnik when he finished shared 2nd at the Zurich Candidates (1953), two points behind Vasily Smyslov. Bronstein wrote a book about the event, which has become a classic in chess literature: Zurich International Chess Tournament, 1953. He won the Gothenburg Interzonal (1955) in fine style, but finished behind Smyslov and Paul Keres in the Amsterdam Candidates (1956). He would never compete in another candidates event, though he did play in the Portoroz Interzonal (1958), Amsterdam Interzonal (1964), and the Petropolis Interzonal (1973). After 1949 he appeared in fifteen more USSR Championships, with his best results coming in 1957 (2nd to Mikhail Tal); 1958 (3rd to Tal); Nov-Dec 1961 (3rd to Boris Spassky); and 1964/1965 (2nd to Viktor Korchnoi). He won or shared 1st in the Moscow Championship in 1946, 1947, 1953, 1957, 1961, and 1968.17 Bronstein also won or shared 1st in a series of international tournaments, including Hastings (1953/54), Belgrade 1954, Gotha 1957, Moscow 1959, Szombathely 1966, East Germany 1968, Sarajevo 1971, Hastings 1975/76, and Jurmala 1978.18

Chess Theory

Bronstein made many contributions to theory in openings such as the Ruy Lopez, King's Indian, and Caro-Kann (e.g. the Bronstein-Larsen variation 1.e4 c6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 dxe4 4.Nxe4 Nf6 5.Nxf6 gxf6). He helped revive the King's gambit,1 and also wrote a popular book on one of his favorite weapons: Bronstein On the King's Indian. Although Bronstein preferred some systems over others, the following recollection from biographer Tom Fürstenberg is worth keeping in mind: "David explained many times that he doesn't play openings - he just starts to create an attack... from the first move! ...That is why he does not have a specific opening repertoire. He just plays everything!"1


Bronstein, known affectionately as "Devik" by his friends, married three times, but it was his third marriage to Isaac Boleslavsky's daughter Tatiana in 1984 that seems to have given him the most lasting and satisfying partnership.19 In her memoir, she recalls meeting him several times as a young girl, noting his humour, generosity and, "above all, his gentle smile."19 She also ruefully explains that although Bronstein's patron Boris Vainstein was indeed a powerful man, he could do nothing to prevent the Soviet Chess Federation from banning him from almost all foreign tournaments for thirteen years.19 Bronstein was banned after Viktor Korchnoi defected in 1976, and Bronstein refused to sign a group letter condemning him. Despite the fact that Boris Gulko, Spassky, and Botvinnik also refused to sign this letter, it was only Bronstein who received this draconian punishment. Foreign tournaments were prized by Soviet masters as a crucial source of income, because they generally paid out prizes in "hard currency." Bronstein had to support himself during this period by writing for "Isvestiya."1 He believed his punishment was so severe because he had helped Korchnoi during the Karpov - Korchnoi Candidates Match (1974). 20 In 1990, after the Soviet Union collapsed and the borders opened, Bronstein contracted cancer, but an operation proved successful, and he lived another sixteen years. He spent much of this remaining time touring Europe, glorying in his new freedom by traveling from tournament to tournament, meeting old friends and making new friends. In his typically light hearted manner, Bronstein explained that "...amazed that I was still alive, chess clubs began showering me with invitations"21 He died on December 5, 2006.22

A Magical Fire

"The art of a chess player consists in his ability to ignite a magical fire from the dull and senseless initial position."23

--David Ionovich Bronstein


1 David Bronstein and Tom Fürstenberg, "The Sorcerer's Apprentice" (Cadogan 1995), p.263-271

2 Rusbase [rusbase-1]

3 Rusbase [rusbase-2]

4 Rusbase [rusbase-3]

5 Though Cafferty and Taimanov do not recognize the USSR Absolute Championship (1941) as a bona fide USSR Championship, the winner Botvinnik was nonetheless considered the Soviet champion at the time. Bernard Caffety and Mark Taimanov, "The Soviet Championships" (Cadogen 1998), pp.48-51

6 Kotov and Yudovich, "Soviet Chess School" (Raduga Publishers 1982), pp.77-78

7 "Tidskrift för Schack" nr.8-9 (Aug-Sept 1948), pp.180-181. Translation by User: Tabanus

8"Tidskrift för Schack" nr.7-8 (July-Aug 1949), p.159. Translation by User: Tabanus

9 Bronstein and Fürstenberg, pp.16-17

10 Mikhail Botvinnik "Match for the World Championship- Botvinnik Bronstein Moscow 1951" Igor Botvinnik ed. Ken Neat transl. (Edition Olms 2004), p.16

11 "Revista Internacional de Ajedrez" (Mar 1993), pp.38-42. In Edward Winter, Chess Note 4753:

12 The NKVD (Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs) was a predecessor of the KGB.

13 Bronstein and Fürstenberg, p.269

14 "Men's Olympiads"

15 Andrew Soltis, "Soviet Chess 1917-1991" (McFarland 1997), pp.221-227

16 Gino Di Felice, "Chess Results 1951-1955" (McFarland 2010) pp.422, 522-23

17 1946 [rusbase-4]; 1947 [rusbase-5]; 1953 [rusbase-6]; 1957 [rusbase-7]; 1961 [rusbase-8]; 1968 [rusbase-9]

18 <Hastings 1953-1954> (Di Felice, "Chess Results 1951-1955," p.317); <Belgrade 1954> (Di Felice, "Chess Results 1951-1955," p.333); <Gotha 1957> (Di Felice, "Chess Results 1956-1960," p.129); <Moscow 1959> (Di Felice, "Chess Results 1956-1960," p.342); <Szombathely 1966> (Di Felice, "Chess Results 1964-1967," p.429); <East Germany 1968> (Di Felice, "Chess Results 1968-1970," p.12 <Sarajevo 1971> ( <Hastings 1975/76> -<Jurmala 1978> (

19 Bronstein and Fürstenberg, pp.19-24

20 David Bronstein and Sergey Voronkov, "Secret Notes" Ken Neat, transl. (Edition Olms 2007), pp. 14-15

21 Bronstein and Voronkov, pp.12-13

22 Leonard Barden, David Bronstein obituary in "The Guardian" (7 Dec 2006)

23 Bronstein and Voronkov, p.34

 page 1 of 88; games 1-25 of 2,179  PGN Download
Game  ResultMoves Year Event/LocaleOpening
1. E Poliak vs Bronstein 0-136 1938 KievD10 Queen's Gambit Declined Slav
2. Bronstein vs I Zaslavsky 1-025 1938 KievC43 Petrov, Modern Attack
3. Bronstein vs V Gaiwevsky  1-048 1939 DniepropetrovskC66 Ruy Lopez
4. Y Lembersky vs Bronstein 0-137 1939 Kiev-tm USSR/YUGC25 Vienna
5. Bronstein vs Y Kaem 1-028 1939 DniepropetrovskC71 Ruy Lopez
6. L Kanevsky vs Bronstein  0-134 1939 Soviet UnionC46 Three Knights
7. Bronstein vs B Ratner 1-035 1939 Soviet UnionB20 Sicilian
8. Bronstein vs L Morgulis 1-034 1940 Kiev-tm USSR/YUGC25 Vienna
9. Bronstein vs S Zhukhovitsky 1-032 1940 Kiev jrC98 Ruy Lopez, Closed, Chigorin
10. Bronstein vs R Piatnitsky 1-015 1940 Kiev jrC41 Philidor Defense
11. Bronstein vs Gorenstein ½-½15 1940 KievC29 Vienna Gambit
12. Bronstein vs V Mikenas 1-025 1941 URSC40 King's Knight Opening
13. S Belavenets vs Bronstein 0-124 1941 URSA54 Old Indian, Ukrainian Variation, 4.Nf3
14. Bronstein vs E Kuzminykh  0-141 1941 Rostov on Don (Russia)C79 Ruy Lopez, Steinitz Defense Deferred
15. Efimov vs Bronstein 0-112 1941 Kiev URSC34 King's Gambit Accepted
16. Bronstein vs B Goldenov 1-024 1944 KievC12 French, McCutcheon
17. Smyslov vs Bronstein ½-½30 1944 USSR ChampionshipC61 Ruy Lopez, Bird's Defense
18. Bronstein vs Flohr  ½-½53 1944 KievB10 Caro-Kann
19. Veresov vs Bronstein 1-0105 1944 USSR ChampionshipD63 Queen's Gambit Declined, Orthodox Defense
20. Ravinsky vs Bronstein ½-½41 1944 USSR ChampionshipC76 Ruy Lopez, Modern Steinitz Defense, Fianchetto Variation
21. Bronstein vs Boleslavsky  ½-½34 1944 USSR ChampionshipB56 Sicilian
22. V Mikenas vs Bronstein 1-064 1944 USSR ChampionshipE46 Nimzo-Indian
23. Bronstein vs V Makogonov ½-½43 1944 USSR ChampionshipC83 Ruy Lopez, Open
24. Bronstein vs Ragozin  1-041 1944 USSR ChampionshipB72 Sicilian, Dragon
25. Sokolsky vs Bronstein 1-027 1944 Kiev (Ukraine)C52 Evans Gambit
 page 1 of 88; games 1-25 of 2,179  PGN Download
  REFINE SEARCH:   White wins (1-0) | Black wins (0-1) | Draws (1/2-1/2) | Bronstein wins | Bronstein loses  

Kibitzer's Corner
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Premium Chessgames Member
  Gypsy: Less well known, but brilliant little books about chess and strategic thinking.

<The Modern Chess Self-Tutor>

<Bronstein on King's Indian>

Feb-23-14  Everett: ?Gypsy>
Any cheap copies of Bronstein on the KID around?
Premium Chessgames Member
  Gypsy: <Everett> It seems that one can purchase 'BoKI' used at on-line sellers for about $30 + shipping and so on. That is probably roughly what that book cost me new a few years back, but I can not find my copy right now, so I can not check.

(The cost of a newly printed version of the book seems a bit too steep.)


One of the reasons I find the book quite interesting is as follows: Bronstein's book tend to be pedagogical experiments (thought trips, really) as much as treatises on chess; and practically each of his books is written differently. Many Bronstein's works show, by discourse or example, how one can take seemingly simple, dry position (and, by extension, life- or scientific situation), pause, dive in, and discover endless complexity and riches of possibilities. In turn, BoKI is a methodical example of work in the opposite direction. The most bewildering and complex of openings is laid out for our examination with the utmost simplicity and clarity.

Mar-23-14  Mendrys: I didn't pick up chess until my late teens when I met some new friends who enjoyed playing. At first they routinely crushed me as they had been playing for years. Rummaging thru the closet I found an old chess book of my Dads, "World Championship Chess" published in the 60's. It didn't really give me a better understanding but I did find it enjoyable playing thru the games. Soon after I bought a copy of Fine's book, "The Ideas Behind the Chess Openings" and borrowed a book by Ludek Pachman, "Modern Chess Strategy". Soon after, with their over aggressive openings and weaknesses in the middle game, my friends stopped being able to beat me.

Now, when I read a chess book it is for the pleasure of the games themselves and the commentary. As far as readability goes Bronstein is my favorite. I find his commentary full of insight and enjoy the way he explains his thought processes as to why he played a particular move.

Apr-03-14  Conrad93: The Sorcerer's Apprentice is more of a biography.

I was misled by thinking it was a heavily annotated game collection.

In reality there is more story-telling than actual chess games.

The copy of Zurich 1953 I saw had no commentary at all. It was mostly notation with occasional snippets about the position, but nothing really deeply analyzed.

Apr-03-14  Conrad93: I guess people praise his prose, not exactly his analysis.

In that regard, he is very good.

Jul-07-14  Everett: The creator, the explorer, the trickster; Bronstein remains my favorite player, ever testing boundaries and showing the world what is possible on the chess board.
Sep-26-14  tranquilsimplicity: <Everett> You have put it beautifully for both you and I; in short, same here!#
Sep-30-14  tranquilsimplicity: <Conrad93> I hate to suggest this but I do not mean to come across in a patronising fashion. In my view, Chess is not really about variations but about ideas. It is best to have an idea, a plan, and then set about to accomplish it, than it is to calculate dry moves. I know this but still forget and play in my "patzerish" manner. However when I employ a plan, an idea, I play better, purposefully, and beautiful combinations arise by themselves. I suspect that you are more of a positional-scientific-mathematical player more than you are a creative-artistic player. With me, and like Bronstein, I am more of an artist and then a positional-scientific-mathematical player. All players have varying degrees of both aspects; the artistic and the scientific. But ultimately Chess is about ideas, even though many players including GMs with a very developed mathematical aspect prefer to make dry calculations based upon their ideas.#
Sep-30-14  TheFocus: A man. A plan. Panama!
Premium Chessgames Member
  thegoodanarchist: Able was I, ere I saw elba
Premium Chessgames Member
  whiteshark: Quote of the Day

< To play a game of chess is really just one way of carrying on an argument.>

-- Bronstein

Premium Chessgames Member
  offramp: He lost the match fair & square but when he realised that Westerners would believe any mongoloid conspiracy theory he cashed in! Kramnik has said that Bronstein played badly in the 1951 match. He did. Botvinnik also didn't play well...but he managed to win, or draw, the match.
Feb-12-15  1d410: <offramp> Bronstein drew the infamous WC match against Botvinnik.
Premium Chessgames Member
  plang: <1d410: <offramp> Bronstein drew the infamous WC match against Botvinnik.>

Obviously, since the goal was to be World Champion a draw in the match was equivalent to a loss.

Feb-12-15  Estoc: <<offramp>he realized that Westerners would believe any mongoloid conspiracy theory he cashed in!>

I find this really offensive.

The correct term is, "downs syndrome conspiracy".

Mar-13-15  TheFocus: <Chess is imagination> - Bronstein.
Mar-13-15  TheFocus: <The most powerful weapon in chess is to have the next move> - Bronstein.
Mar-13-15  TheFocus: <The essence of Chess is thinking about what Chess is> - Bronstein.
Mar-13-15  TheFocus: <Far from all of the obvious moves that go without saying are correct> - Bronstein.
Mar-13-15  TheFocus: <Losing your objectivity almost always means losing the game> - Bronstein.
Mar-13-15  TheFocus: <Sometimes at lectures I am asked: how would the champions of the last century play today? I think that, after making a hurried study of modern openings, and watching one or two tournaments, the champions of the last century, and indeed the century before that, would very quickly occupy the same place that they occupied when they were alive> - Bronstein.
Mar-13-15  TheFocus: <You want to play the King's Gambit? Well, Black can draw after 3. Nf3. Play 3. Bc4 if you want to win ! > - Bronstein.
Mar-13-15  TheFocus: <In chess, as in life, opportunity strikes but once> - Bronstein.
Mar-13-15  TheFocus: <A strong player requires only a few minutes of thought to get to the heart of the conflict. You see a solution immediately, and half an hour later merely convince yourself that your intuition has not deceived you> - Bronstein.
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