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Frank James Marshall
Number of games in database: 1,317
Years covered: 1893 to 1944
Overall record: +520 -329 =412 (57.6%)*
   * Overall winning percentage = (wins+draws/2) / total games
      Based on games in the database; may be incomplete.
      56 exhibition games, odds games, etc. are excluded from this statistic.

With the White pieces:
 Orthodox Defense (133) 
    D53 D51 D63 D60 D61
 Queen's Pawn Game (70) 
    D00 A46 D02 A45 A40
 Tarrasch Defense (64) 
    D32 D33 D34
 Queen's Gambit Declined (41) 
    D31 D37 D30 D06 D38
 French Defense (28) 
    C01 C10 C12 C11 C13
 Center Game (23) 
    C21 C22
With the Black pieces:
 Petrov (90) 
    C42 C43
 Ruy Lopez (76) 
    C63 C62 C89 C77 C90
 Queen's Pawn Game (63) 
    D02 D00 D05 A46 E10
 Four Knights (52) 
    C49 C48 C47
 French Defense (45) 
    C12 C11 C00 C10 C01
 Queen's Gambit Declined (35) 
    D30 D38 D06 D37 D31
Repertoire Explorer

NOTABLE GAMES: [what is this?]
   S Levitsky vs Marshall, 1912 0-1
   Marshall vs G Marco, 1904 1-0
   Marshall vs Burn, 1900 1-0
   Janowski vs Marshall, 1912 0-1
   Marshall vs Stodie, 1920 1-0
   E M Jackson vs Marshall, 1899 0-1
   Marshall vs H Rogosin, 1940 1-0
   Marshall vs Von Scheve, 1904 1-0
   Marshall vs Capablanca, 1909 1-0
   Marshall vs Chigorin, 1905 1-0

WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS: [what is this?]
   Lasker - Marshall World Championship Match (1907)

NOTABLE TOURNAMENTS: [what is this?]
   Scheveningen (1905)
   Monte Carlo (1904)
   7th American Chess Congress (1904)
   Cambridge Springs (1904)
   15th DSB Kongress (Nuremberg) (1906)
   New York Masters (1911)
   Vienna (1903)
   New York Masters (1915)
   Barmen Meisterturnier A (1905)
   Paris (1900)
   Moscow (1925)
   Karlsbad (1911)
   Monte Carlo (1902)
   Vienna (1908)
   Monte Carlo (1903)

GAME COLLECTIONS: [what is this?]
   Janowski vs. Marshall Matches by Phony Benoni
   Marshall Martials by chocobonbon
   99_Ostende A 1907 (Champion Tourn. to play Laske by whiteshark
   Monte Carlo 1904 by suenteus po 147

   Marshall vs Burn, 1900
   Marshall vs R Short, 1894
   Marshall vs D Gladstone, 1932
   Kevitz vs Marshall, 1937
   Marshall vs P Gotay, 1936

Search Sacrifice Explorer for Frank James Marshall
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(born Aug-10-1877, died Nov-09-1944, 67 years old) United States of America

[what is this?]
Frank James Marshall, born in New York City on August 10, 1877, was United States champion from 1909-1936 and a respected international competitor for the first quarter of the 20th century.

He began international play by winning the Minor tournament at London 1899. In his major tournament debut at Paris 1900, Marshall finished =3rd with Geza Maroczy, defeating World Champion Emanuel Lasker in their individual game.

Known for an aggressive style and an ability to get out of trouble that earned him the nickname "The Great Swindler", Marshall recorded both high finishes and disappointing results in elite tournaments. For example, his best result came at Cambridge Springs 1904 where he finished 2.0 points ahead of Lasker and David Janowski. On the other hand, he finished in mid-field at Ostend 1905. His other successes at this time, which included 1st at Schevenigen 1905, 3rd at Barmen 1905 (1/2-point behind Janowski and Maroczy), and first at Nuremberg 1906 helped him find backing for the Lasker-Marshall World Championship Match (1907). However, he lost this match heavily by a score of +0 -8 =7. He suffered another disaster in Capablanca - Marshall (1909) (+1 -8 =14), but continued to be a dangerous and respected opponent in international play for many years. One of his best results came when he won the Havana tournament of 1913, edging out Capablanca by half a point.

Marshall won the US Championship by defeating Jackson Whipps Showalter in a 1909 match (+7 -2 =3). He defended the title once, against Edward Lasker in 1923 (+5 -4 =9), finally relinquishing it voluntarily in 1936 to allow the championship to be decided by tournament play.

Several opening variations are named after him, notably Ruy Lopez, Marshall (C89). Though his original use of it in Capablanca vs Marshall, 1918 resulted in a loss, the gambit is still studied today and played occasionally at the highest levels.

notes: Frank played consultation chess on the teams of Lasker/Chigorin/Marshall/Teichmann & Marshall / Allies.

 page 1 of 53; games 1-25 of 1,317  PGN Download
Game  ResultMoves Year Event/LocaleOpening
1. Steinitz vs Marshall 1-026 1893 SimulC03 French, Tarrasch
2. Marshall vs R Short 1-018 1894 ch Montreal CCC51 Evans Gambit
3. Pillsbury vs Marshall 0-134 1894 blind-simulD06 Queen's Gambit Declined
4. Pillsbury vs Marshall 0-129 1894 BFX MontrealC31 King's Gambit Declined, Falkbeer Counter Gambit
5. R Short vs Marshall 0-122 1895 freeC51 Evans Gambit
6. W Napier vs Marshall 1-068 1896 Napier - MarshallC00 French Defense
7. Marshall vs W Napier 0-177 1896 Napier - MarshallC55 Two Knights Defense
8. V Sournin vs Marshall 0-134 1896 New YorkA80 Dutch
9. Marshall vs W Napier 0-134 1896 Napier - MarshallC45 Scotch Game
10. W Napier vs Marshall 1-047 1896 Napier - MarshallB01 Scandinavian
11. Marshall vs W Napier 0-138 1896 Napier - MarshallA84 Dutch
12. W Napier vs Marshall 1-035 1896 Napier - MarshallB06 Robatsch
13. Marshall vs W Napier 0-123 1896 Napier - MarshallC29 Vienna Gambit
14. W Napier vs Marshall ½-½75 1896 Napier - MarshallC00 French Defense
15. Marshall vs W Napier ½-½72 1896 Napier - MarshallC50 Giuoco Piano
16. Marshall vs W Napier 1-027 1896 Napier - MarshallD31 Queen's Gambit Declined
17. W Napier vs Marshall ½-½75 1896 Napier - MarshallC02 French, Advance
18. H Helms vs Marshall 1-019 1897 Ch CityA80 Dutch
19. Marshall vs H Hansen  0-135 1897 freeC44 King's Pawn Game
20. Marshall vs S G Ruth 0-136 1897 Ch CityD63 Queen's Gambit Declined, Orthodox Defense
21. H Helms vs Marshall 1-034 1897 SimulD00 Queen's Pawn Game
22. Marshall vs W Napier 1-054 1897 Ch CityD01 Richter-Veresov Attack
23. W Napier vs Marshall 1-065 1897 Ch CityC02 French, Advance
24. Marshall vs W Napier 1-046 1897 Ch CityA80 Dutch
25. Pillsbury vs Marshall 1-039 1897 blindfold exhibitionC13 French
 page 1 of 53; games 1-25 of 1,317  PGN Download
  REFINE SEARCH:   White wins (1-0) | Black wins (0-1) | Draws (1/2-1/2) | Marshall wins | Marshall loses  

Kibitzer's Corner
< Earlier Kibitzing  · PAGE 12 OF 12 ·  Later Kibitzing>
Aug-12-14  ljfyffe: Charles and Benjamin were two of Frank Marshall's brothers(Hilbert), but contemporary supporting evidence of some sort or another is surely needed to make it more than mere speculation that he's the namesake of an American outlaw.
Aug-13-14  ljfyffe: On the othet hand, few would argue that the notorious outlaw John Wesley Hardin wasn't named after the famous Methodist preacher John Wesley , but then the situation is quite reversed, as that concerning Marshall's name. None other than Bob Dylan transformed the outlaw Hardin into a preacher of a kind whom, he wrote, robbed the rich to give to the poor while holding a gun "in every hand".
Aug-13-14  ljfyffe: That of course should be "of whom, he wrote..." in the immediate above. By the way, is "anal retentive" spelt with a hyphen?
Aug-13-14  ljfyffe: And there is evidence that collaborates from whence Hardin got his first and second names: his father was a Methodist preacher. ("Yes, it is", referring to the question above.)
Aug-14-14  ljfyffe: Charles Harding, Saint John, NB, 1891 chess champion, is no relation to the outlaw. Dylan (Zimmerman) added a "g" to the outlaw's name in a ballad.
Aug-15-14  ljfyffe: Bob Dylan states that he took his name from the famous poet Dylan Thomas, not TV's Marshall Dillon, who got his name from the famous chessplayer Frank Marshall (just kidding about the last part!)
Aug-15-14  Granny O Doul: Don't know about "named for", but I remember Dmitry Gurevich reporting in Chess Life that Larry Christiansen was related to John Dillinger, and that one could see the fact reflected in his chess.
Aug-15-14  ljfyffe: Kept escaping from tight situations? Or he carried a submachine gun?
Aug-16-14  ljfyffe: And as far as the poet Robert Lee Frost's name goes, well, that's a road I'm not going to take.
Aug-30-14  ljfyffe: Spelling error:that should be Marshal Dillon.
Oct-30-14  ljfyffe: Interesting quote in reference to F.J. Marshall
at 1896 NYSCA tournament:<Among the contestants in the general tourney was the young
Canadian player, F.(J.) Marshall, formally of Montreal, but now a resident of Brooklyn.>
St. John Globe, Feb. 28, 1896.
Oct-30-14  diceman: <ljfyffe:

By the way, is "anal retentive" spelt with a hyphen?>

...a colon.

Oct-31-14  ljfyffe: Or to be half-ass about the whole thing: semi-colon.
Dec-06-14  ljfyffe: <"After the Christmas holidays in 1893, the first event of consequence that captured Marshall's
interest was the Twenty-first Canadian Chess Association Congress, conveniently held that year at his home club. The Congress opened on Tuesday 16, 1894, with entry remaining open for the championship of Canada until noon the next day. Eight competitors, six from Montreal along with the well-respected James E. Narraway of Ottawa and A.T. Davison of Toronto, entered the
lists of the double-round affair. The out-of-town
players had great success. Davison won the championship with a scoreof 9.5-4.5 with Narraway in second a full point behind. D.C. Robertson and Robrert Short tied for third and fourth at 7.5-6.5, with Marshall, fifth at 7-7. The three remaining players, including J.P. Cooke, the 1893 Montreal Chess Champion, Joseph N.
Babson, and William H. Hicks, were badly outclassed, with Cooke finishing sixth withwith a 4-10 score. As the crosstable for the event reveals, Marshall, though finishingwith an even score, managed to defeat the champion, Davison, 2-0, while splitting his games with Narraway, thus finishing with an excellennt 3-1 record against the two top finishers.">
Young Marshall by John S. Hilbert, Moravian Press, 2002.
Dec-19-14  1d410: Just discovered this player. What great games!
Dec-20-14  ljfyffe: <1d410>Marshall, of course, did not have all the resources that the great players of today to make such comparisons is really a mug's game..I researched quite a bit for "Young Marshall" during the time when Frank was a "Canadian" lad.
Dec-20-14  Sally Simpson: Hi 1d410,

"Just discovered this player. What great games!"

One of my all time heroes. There is no doubt at all his play and attitude to the game inspired me.

I Did a whole piece on him which went down well....and I did not show or use the 'gold coins game.'

Premium Chessgames Member
  MissScarlett: <C.N. 598>:

<F.J. Marshall was, apparently, a champion of the world. The following comes from <Who Was Who in America 1943-1950>, page 347:

<Champion of the world in game of War, invented by Hudson Maxim; and the same of Saltar.>

Information on these achievements will be gratefully received.>

<In the photograph collection is an undated autographed picture of Hudson Maxim playing his “Game of War” with noted American chess player Frank Marshall. (There is no identification of a third gentleman who is observing, nor is there any indication of who eventually won the match.) Maxim’s changes to traditional chess included enlarging the board to be 10 squares x 10 squares, increasing the number of pieces on each side to 20, and making some of those pieces different. In ”The Game of War” there were Kings, Generals (instead of Queens), Cannon (instead of Bishops), Horse or Cavalry (Knights), Mortars (instead of Rooks), Rear and Van Troops (instead of Pawns) and, most modern of all, “Flying Machines!” (A manual for the game may be found online at Maxim remained friends with Marshall for the rest of his life, often visiting Marshall’s chess club in Manhattan to continue to promote ”The Game of War.”

Hudson Maxim, like his Game of War, is little remembered today, despite being an outstanding prototype of the late Victorian inventor, entrepreneur, and bon vivant.>

<Even Frank J. Marshall volunteered for his country through a direct address to Woodrow Wilson. According to page 112 of the same Bulletin issue, Hudson Maxim wrote the following to Marshall: "In regard to what you can do to help the country, I do not believe that you can do any better than just what you are doing. Don't go to the front and get yourself shot up. You must remember this, than when the war is over a large number of war cripples will have to find their mind solace and comfort in the war game and the games of chess and checkers. You cannot do any better than to stick to your present work.">

Frank Percival Beynon

Dec-21-14  ljfyffe: " But those who were familiar with Marshall's earlier chess career, well before he regularly appeared on the European scene, would not have been surprised by the man's irrepressible belief in his own abilities at the chessboard, nor his steadfast perseverance despite disappointments. By the time Marshall reached Monte Carlo 1901, he was long familiar with the ups and downs of chess, and hardened to the need to look forward, not backward, when engaged in battle. The lessons he learned when young, considered here, held fast for life." John Hilbert--Young Marshall Moravian Press 2002.
Dec-25-14  TheFocus: In Mechanics' Institute Chess Club newsletter #691 (12-5-14) is an unknown game of Marshall's:

Eduardo Bauzá Mercére writes:

The following game seems to have escaped scrutiny.

It is one of the two Frank Marshall played at the 1941/42 Marshall CC championship (first round). The other one was a loss to Edward Lasker, which can be found in Chess Secrets I Learned From The Masters and the American Chess Bulletin. Marshall withdrew from the tournament because of illness.

Grunfeld Exchange D85
Frank Marshall–Joseph Richman
New York (1941/42 Marshall C.C. Ch.) November 30, 1941

1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 g6 3. Nc3 d5 4. Nf3 Bg7 5. cxd5 Nxd5 6. e4 Nxc3 7. bxc3 c5 8. Bb5+ Bd7 9. Bxd7+ Nxd7 10. O-O O-O 11. Rb1 b6 12. Bf4 cxd4 13. cxd4 Nf6 14. Qe2 Qd7 15. Rfd1 Rac8 16. Be5 Qc6 17. Bxf6 Bxf6 18. e5 Bg7 19. d5 Qc2 20. Qa6 Rc7 21. Qa3 Rd8 22. Rbc1 Rxd5 23. Rf1 Qe2 24. Rxc7 Rd1 25. Nd2 Qxd2 26. g3 Bxe5 27. Rxa7 Rxf1+ 28. Kxf1 Qd1+ 29. Kg2 Qd5+ 30. Qf3 Qxf3+ 31. Kxf3 Bd6 32. Ke4 Kg7 33. Kd5 f5 34. a4 1-0.

Source: NY Sun, 17 Jan 1942, p. 16.

Premium Chessgames Member
  offramp: Wikipedia has this encomium:

"<The Marshall Gambit may refer to a number of chess openings named after the American chess master Frank Marshall.

The Marshall Gambit in the Scandinavian Defense. 1.e4 d5 2.exd5 Nf6

The Marshall Gambit in the Tarrasch Defense: 1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 c5 4.cxd5 exd5 5.e4

The Marshall Gambit in the Semi-Slav Defense: 1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 c6 4.e4 dxe4 5.Nxe4 Bb4+ 6.Bd2

Marshall Gambit in the Paulsen Variation of the French Defense, 1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 c5.

In addition there is the Marshall Attack in the Ruy Lopez which also sacrifices a pawn, and can therefore be called a "gambit".>"

May-10-15  TheFocus: <Why are not more King's Gambits played nowadays? Well, in the first place, if you offered the King's Gambit to a master, eight times out of ten he would decline it, either with 2. … d5 or 2. … Bc5> - Frank Marshall.
May-10-15  TheFocus: <The attack and defence emanating from this classical opening produce some of the most beautiful chess it is possible to obtain. The Queen's Gambit possesses the merit of being the soundest of all the openings> - Frank Marshall.
May-15-15  TheFocus: <A bad plan is better than none at all.> - Frank Marshall.
May-15-15  john barleycorn: <I like it when a bad plan works> Hannibal Smith.
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