Frank James Marshall
Number of games in database: 1,305
Years covered: 1893 to 1944
Overall record: +516 -327 =412 (57.5%)*
   * Overall winning percentage = (wins+draws/2) / total games
      Based on games in the database; may be incomplete.
      50 exhibition games, odds games, etc. are excluded from this statistic.

With the White pieces:
 Orthodox Defense (130) 
    D53 D51 D63 D60 D61
 Queen's Pawn Game (71) 
    D00 A46 D02 A45 A40
 Tarrasch Defense (63) 
    D32 D33 D34
 Queen's Gambit Declined (41) 
    D31 D37 D30 D06 D38
 French Defense (29) 
    C01 C10 C12 C11 C13
 Center Game (23) 
    C21 C22
With the Black pieces:
 Petrov (90) 
    C42 C43
 Ruy Lopez (74) 
    C63 C62 C89 C77 C90
 Queen's Pawn Game (62) 
    D02 D00 D05 A46 E10
 Four Knights (51) 
    C49 C48 C47
 French Defense (44) 
    C12 C11 C00 C10 C01
 Queen's Gambit Declined (35) 
    D30 D38 D06 D37 D31
Repertoire Explorer

NOTABLE GAMES: [what is this?]
   S Levitsky vs Marshall, 1912 0-1
   Marshall vs G Marco, 1904 1-0
   Marshall vs Burn, 1900 1-0
   Janowski vs Marshall, 1912 0-1
   Marshall vs Stodie, 1920 1-0
   Marshall vs H Rogosin, 1940 1-0
   E M Jackson vs Marshall, 1899 0-1
   Marshall vs Von Scheve, 1904 1-0
   Marshall vs Capablanca, 1909 1-0
   Marshall vs Chigorin, 1905 1-0

WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS: [what is this?]
   Lasker-Marshall World Championship Match (1907)

NOTABLE TOURNAMENTS: [what is this?]
   Paris (1900)
   Monte Carlo (1902)
   Vienna (1903)
   Monte Carlo (1903)
   Monte Carlo (1904)
   Cambridge Springs (1904)
   Scheveningen (1905)
   15th DSB Kongress (Nuremberg) (1906)
   16th DSB Kongress, Duesseldorf (1908)
   Karlsbad (1911)
   New York Masters (1915)
   Moscow (1925)

GAME COLLECTIONS: [what is this?]
   My 50 Years of Chess - Marshall, Frank by TheFocus
   Janowski vs. Marshall Matches by Phony Benoni
   Marshall Martials by chocobonbon
   99_Ostende A 1907 (Champion Tourn. to play Laske by whiteshark
   Monte Carlo 1904 by suenteus po 147
   New York 1924 by Benzol

   Marshall vs Burn, 1900
   Marshall vs R Short, 1894
   Marshall vs D Gladstone, 1932
   Marshall vs P Gotay, 1936
   Kevitz vs Marshall, 1937

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(born Aug-10-1877, died Nov-09-1944) United States of America

[what is this?]
Frank James Marshall, born in New York City on August 10, 1877, was United States champion from 1909-1936 and a respected international competitor for the first quarter of the 20th century.

He began international play by winning the Minor tournament at London 1899. In his major tournament debut at Paris 1900, Marshall finished =3rd with Geza Maroczy, defeating World Champion Emanuel Lasker in their individual game.

Known for an aggressive style and an ability to get out of trouble that earned him the nickname "The Great Swindler", Marshall recorded both high finishes and disappointing results in elite tournaments. For example, his best result came at Cambridge Springs 1904 where he finished 2.0 points ahead of Lasker and David Janowski. On the other hand, he finished in mid-field at Ostend 1905. His other successes at this time, which included 1st at Schevenigen 1905, 3rd at Barmen 1905 (1/2-point behind Janowski and Maroczy), and first at Nuremberg 1906 helped him find backing for the Lasker-Marshall World Championship Match (1907). However, he lost this match heavily by a score of +0 -8 =7. He suffered another disaster in Capablanca - Marshall (1909) (+1 -8 =14), but continued to be a dangerous and respected opponent in international play for many years. One of his best results came when he won the Havana tournament of 1913, edging out Capablanca by half a point.

Marshall won the US Championship by defeating Jackson Whipps Showalter in a 1909 match (+7 -2 =3). He defended the title once, against Edward Lasker in 1923 (+5 -4 =9), finally relinquishing it voluntarily in 1936 to allow the championship to be decided by tournament play.

Several opening variations are named after him, notably Ruy Lopez, Marshall (C89). Though his original use of it in Capablanca vs Marshall, 1918 resulted in a loss, the gambit is still studied today and played occasionally at the highest levels.

notes: Frank played consultation chess on the teams of Lasker/Chigorin/Marshall/Teichmann & Marshall / Allies.

 page 1 of 53; games 1-25 of 1,305  PGN Download
Game  ResultMoves Year Event/LocaleOpening
1. Steinitz vs Marshall 1-026 1893 SimulC03 French, Tarrasch
2. Pillsbury vs Marshall 0-134 1894 blind-simulD06 Queen's Gambit Declined
3. Pillsbury vs Marshall 0-129 1894 BFX MontrealC31 King's Gambit Declined, Falkbeer Counter Gambit
4. Marshall vs R Short 1-018 1894 ch Montreal CCC51 Evans Gambit
5. R Short vs Marshall 0-122 1895 freeC51 Evans Gambit
6. V Sournin vs Marshall  0-134 1896 New YorkA80 Dutch
7. Marshall vs W Napier 0-134 1896 Napier - Marshall 1896C45 Scotch Game
8. W Napier vs Marshall 1-047 1896 Napier - Marshall 1896B01 Scandinavian
9. Marshall vs W Napier  0-138 1896 Napier - Marshall 1896A84 Dutch
10. W Napier vs Marshall 1-035 1896 Napier - Marshall 1896B06 Robatsch
11. Marshall vs W Napier 0-123 1896 Napier - Marshall 1896C29 Vienna Gambit
12. W Napier vs Marshall ½-½75 1896 Napier - Marshall 1896C00 French Defense
13. Marshall vs W Napier  ½-½72 1896 Napier - Marshall 1896C50 Giuoco Piano
14. Marshall vs W Napier 1-027 1896 Napier - Marshall 1896D31 Queen's Gambit Declined
15. W Napier vs Marshall ½-½75 1896 Napier - Marshall 1896C02 French, Advance
16. W Napier vs Marshall 1-068 1896 Napier - Marshall 1896C00 French Defense
17. Marshall vs W Napier 0-177 1896 Napier - Marshall 1896C55 Two Knights Defense
18. H Helms vs Marshall  1-034 1897 SimulD00 Queen's Pawn Game
19. Marshall vs W Napier  1-054 1897 Ch CityD01 Richter-Veresov Attack
20. W Napier vs Marshall 1-065 1897 Ch CityC02 French, Advance
21. Marshall vs W Napier 1-046 1897 Ch CityA80 Dutch
22. Pillsbury vs Marshall 1-039 1897 blindfold exhibitionC13 French
23. H McMahon vs Marshall 0-17 1897 Ch CityC43 Petrov, Modern Attack
24. Marshall vs H Helms 0-133 1897 Ch CityC44 King's Pawn Game
25. Marshall vs J Tatum 1-054 1897 Ch CityD53 Queen's Gambit Declined
 page 1 of 53; games 1-25 of 1,305  PGN Download
  REFINE SEARCH:   White wins (1-0) | Black wins (0-1) | Draws (1/2-1/2) | Marshall wins | Marshall loses  

Kibitzer's Corner
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Premium Chessgames Member
  Caissanist: Outstanding photo collection <SBC>, many thanks for putting that up.
Premium Chessgames Member
  Caissanist: Marshall's Wikipedia page makes the statement that <He won the U.S. Championship in 1904, but did not accept the title because the current U.S. champion, Harry Nelson Pillsbury, did not compete.> Is this in fact true? I have never heard this before.
Premium Chessgames Member
  Phony Benoni: <Caissanist> Marshall won the 7th American Chess Congress at St. Louis in 1904. Its organizer, Max Judd, had meant the tournament to provide a successor to the ailing Pillsbury, but this claim is not generally recognized.

7th American Chess Congress (1904)

Marshall's exact attitude toward the title is still a matter of dispute. It may be significant that when Showalter was proclaimed the championship in 1909 more or less by default, Marshall lost no time arranging a match with him.

Premium Chessgames Member
  Caissanist: <Phony Benoni>, thanks as always!
Premium Chessgames Member
  Nightsurfer: <Frank James Marshall> was <"... a fine all around player ...">, as <KingDeath> has put it in his posting of <Jul-04-12>, and <Frank James Marshall> had <" ... a sense of humor ...">, as we learn from the posting by <RookFile> on <Sep-14-12>.

And since <Frank James Marshall> had this <"sense of humor">, then it will most probably have made him smile - whilst sitting on his cloud up there in Heaven - that two kids from Germany, namely Julian Groetzbach and his brother <Daniel>, have quite generously conceded to <Frank James Marshall> that the latter had demonstrated <"... great understanding of chess ..."> whilst storming the castle of his opponent by executing the famous Bishop's Sacrifice on h7, just have a look at the clip ... and enjoy! ;-)

Premium Chessgames Member
  LIFE Master AJ:

An article - that mentions Marshall. (I did not see it in the last few pages of kibitzing.)

Premium Chessgames Member
  LIFE Master AJ: <<Jan-20-12 <visayanbraindoctor:> <"The Jänisch is becoming frightening. It’s a good job I’m not a 1.e4 player" (Giri). It is very difficult to break Radjabov's Jänisch. It might be the reason.>

Marshall was the great pre-WW2 exponent of the Ruy Lopez, Schliemann Defense (C63). <<<<>>>> >>

I recently posted a web page - that contains a "state of the art" analysis of this line ...

Premium Chessgames Member
  LIFE Master AJ:

My little web page on Marshall.

Jul-23-13  The Rocket: The originator of the marshall attack!

This guy plays chess they way it should be played. By far the most entertaining player. Let me know if you find a dull game of his!

Premium Chessgames Member
  Karpova: <The Rocket: The originator of the marshall attack!>

K Walbrodt vs Conill / Ostolaza / López / Herrer, 1893

Jul-23-13  The Rocket: <Karpova:>

You don't get credit by playing the first move, any moron could to do that. Their continuation is completely different, and does not constitute what is widely regarded to be the marshall attack.

Premium Chessgames Member
  perfidious: <Karpova>: In this instance, it is all to the good that Conill-Ostolaza-Lopez-Herrer Attack does not come trippingly to the tongue.

Some of the abortions which have been foisted upon us as nomenclature in the headings for variations are bad enough: this would about take the cake for absurdity and stupidity.

Premium Chessgames Member
  Karpova: <perfidious: <Karpova>: In this instance, it is all to the good that Conill-Ostolaza-Lopez-Herrer Attack does not come trippingly to the tongue.

Some of the abortions which have been foisted upon us as nomenclature in the headings for variations are bad enough: this would about take the cake for absurdity and stupidity.>

I agree with you as there is no doubt about Marshall deserving the variation to be named after him, though he was not the originator of 7...0-0 or 8...d5 - see for an interesting discussion, also of the Frere-Marshall game for which Marshall gives no date in 'Comparative Chess' (Philadelphia, 1932) while Soltis claims it to have been played in 1917 (without giving any source) when it would predate the Capablanca game.

Chess history has done Marshall justice, but overall this sadly has not always been the case in the history of the names of chess openings and opening variations.

Premium Chessgames Member
  playground player: Happy birthday, Marshal Marshall (an obscure reference to a very entertaining video produced by our esteemed colleague, <Jessicafischerqueen>). Your games are, for me, a gateway to a cleaner, greener age. An age when you could enjoy a good cigar over the chess board without the Bloomberg wannabes all going postal at the same time.
Premium Chessgames Member
  juan31: Super Maestro
Premium Chessgames Member
  offramp: Was he definitely christened Frank and not Francis?
Nov-24-13  RedShield: Frank(lin) James was a famous outlaw, so Marshall probably fashioned his <shoot from the hip> style on him.
Premium Chessgames Member
  Karpova: On October 23, 1911, Marshall played a consultation game in the Vienna Chess Club against Alois Seidl, A. Pink and M. Kirschen (the consultants had Black):

1.e4 e5 2.d4 d6 3.Nf3 Nd7 4.Bc4 c6 5.dxe5 dxe5 6.Ng5 Nh6 7.O-O Be7 8.Ne6 fxe6 9.Bxh6 Nf6 10.Bxg7 Qxd1 11.Rxd1 Rg8 12.Bxf6 Bxf6

click for larger view

Seidl had suggested 7...Be7 which has a bad reputation as a pawn is lost. Yet, after 9...Nf6, the Black bishop pair became so powerful, that Marshall not only went on to lose his extra pawn but drifted into a worse position. The game lasted several hours and as it had become late, a draw was agreed upon. The whole game score is not given.

Source: Page 14 of the January-February 1915'Wiener Schachzeitung'

Premium Chessgames Member
  Karpova: Simul in the Portland Chess and Checker Club on February 23, 1915: +77 -4 =11. The Simul lasted 6.5 hours.

Simul in San Francisco on March 1, 1915: +31 -8 =2.

Source: Page 107 of the May-June 1915 'Wiener Schachzeitung'

Premium Chessgames Member
  Karpova: 36-board Simul in the Vienna Amateur Chess Club in 1911: +21 -8 =7. He lost to Prof. Soyka, Onderka, Sara, Kondor, Dr. Blum, Leyer, Vranovits and Keschanski.

Source: Page 82 of the February-March 1912 'Wiener Schachzeitung'

Premium Chessgames Member
  Karpova: 23-board Simul in Györ on October 29, 1911: +21 -1 =1

On October 30, he played there (and won) two Blitz tournaments: against Zoltan von Balla, Chalupetzky, Dr. Ed. Farago and Eugen Szekely with 3 points (draws against von Balla and Chalupetzky).* Marshall was in brilliant form.

Source: Pages 335-336 of the November-December 1911 'Wiener Schachzeitung'

* The <3 Punkte> probably means +2 -0 =2, beating Farago and Szekely, drawing von Balla and Chalupetzky. As it is reported that he won two Blitz tournaments, maybe it were two 3-player tournaments with Marshall scoring 1.5/2 in each tournament?

Premium Chessgames Member
  Karpova: On October 23 and 24, 1911, Marshall was visiting the Vienna Chess Club.

On the first evening, he played a consultation game against Martin Kirschen, Alfred Pink and Alois Seidl. The game ended drawn after a very exciting struggle.

On the second evening, Marshall played a Simul against: Norbert Libano, Adam Ritter Zuk von Skarszewski, Dr. Karl Ritter von Lozinski, Dr. Siegmund Grünbaum, Eduard Hamlisch, Rudolf Galitzenstein, Albert Weil, Alfred Schifter, J Halumbirek, Wilhelm Ritter von Arlt, Dr. Siegmund Pollak, Alfred Neumann, Hans Feuerstein, Adalbert von Springer, Franz Balling, Erich Förster, Otto Sternberg, Siegmund Steiner, Alfred Pink, Artur Mandler and Theodor Gruber.

After 1 hour, Marshall had already won 8 games and he beat another 8 players in the next hour. The Simul lasted 2 1/4 hours overall and Marshall didn't suffer a single loss. 5 players managed draws: Libano, Hamlisch, Pollak, Pink and Gruber.

Source: Page 382 of the November-December 1911 'Wiener Schachzeitung'

Premium Chessgames Member
  offramp: Marshall had a fantastic way of getting 100% out of his attacking pieces. He truly left no stone unturned in trying to preserve his initiatives.
Apr-03-14  Conrad93: Alekhine did not play the first Alekhine Defense either.

It was played as early as 1893.

J M Hanham vs E Delmar, 1893

1. e4 Nf6 2. e5 first appeared in the game J M Hanham vs E Delmar, 1893.

And Vladimir Lenin pretty much invented the entire mainline to the Alekhine's Defense.

Who knew, right?

V I Lenin vs M Gorky, 1908

Apr-03-14  Conrad93: The Hanham Defense doesn't sound as inviting though...
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