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Frank James Marshall
Number of games in database: 1,309
Years covered: 1893 to 1944
Overall record: +519 -327 =412 (57.6%)*
   * Overall winning percentage = (wins+draws/2) / total games
      Based on games in the database; may be incomplete.
      51 exhibition games, odds games, etc. are excluded from this statistic.

With the White pieces:
 Orthodox Defense (130) 
    D53 D51 D63 D60 D61
 Queen's Pawn Game (71) 
    D00 A46 D02 A45 A40
 Tarrasch Defense (64) 
    D32 D33 D34
 Queen's Gambit Declined (41) 
    D31 D37 D30 D06 D38
 French Defense (29) 
    C01 C10 C12 C11 C13
 Center Game (23) 
    C21 C22
With the Black pieces:
 Petrov (91) 
    C42 C43
 Ruy Lopez (75) 
    C63 C62 C89 C77 C90
 Queen's Pawn Game (62) 
    D02 D00 D05 A46 E10
 Four Knights (51) 
    C49 C48 C47
 French Defense (44) 
    C12 C11 C00 C10 C01
 Queen's Gambit Declined (35) 
    D30 D38 D06 D37 D31
Repertoire Explorer

NOTABLE GAMES: [what is this?]
   S Levitsky vs Marshall, 1912 0-1
   Marshall vs G Marco, 1904 1-0
   Marshall vs Burn, 1900 1-0
   Janowski vs Marshall, 1912 0-1
   Marshall vs Stodie, 1920 1-0
   E M Jackson vs Marshall, 1899 0-1
   Marshall vs Von Scheve, 1904 1-0
   Marshall vs H Rogosin, 1940 1-0
   Marshall vs Capablanca, 1909 1-0
   Burn vs Marshall, 1906 0-1

WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS: [what is this?]
   Lasker - Marshall World Championship Match (1907)

NOTABLE TOURNAMENTS: [what is this?]
   7th American Chess Congress (1904)
   Scheveningen (1905)
   15th DSB Kongress (Nuremberg) (1906)
   New York Masters (1911)
   Vienna (1903)
   New York Masters (1915)
   Barmen Meisterturnier A (1905)
   Paris (1900)
   Moscow (1925)
   Karlsbad (1911)
   Monte Carlo (1902)
   Monte Carlo (1903)
   Vienna (1908)

GAME COLLECTIONS: [what is this?]
   My 50 Years of Chess - Marshall, Frank by TheFocus
   Janowski vs. Marshall Matches by Phony Benoni
   Marshall Martials by chocobonbon
   New York 1924 by Benzol
   99_Ostende A 1907 (Champion Tourn. to play Laske by whiteshark
   Monte Carlo 1904 by suenteus po 147

   Marshall vs Burn, 1900
   Marshall vs R Short, 1894
   Marshall vs D Gladstone, 1932
   Marshall vs P Gotay, 1936
   Kevitz vs Marshall, 1937

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(born Aug-10-1877, died Nov-09-1944) United States of America

[what is this?]
Frank James Marshall, born in New York City on August 10, 1877, was United States champion from 1909-1936 and a respected international competitor for the first quarter of the 20th century.

He began international play by winning the Minor tournament at London 1899. In his major tournament debut at Paris 1900, Marshall finished =3rd with Geza Maroczy, defeating World Champion Emanuel Lasker in their individual game.

Known for an aggressive style and an ability to get out of trouble that earned him the nickname "The Great Swindler", Marshall recorded both high finishes and disappointing results in elite tournaments. For example, his best result came at Cambridge Springs 1904 where he finished 2.0 points ahead of Lasker and David Janowski. On the other hand, he finished in mid-field at Ostend 1905. His other successes at this time, which included 1st at Schevenigen 1905, 3rd at Barmen 1905 (1/2-point behind Janowski and Maroczy), and first at Nuremberg 1906 helped him find backing for the Lasker-Marshall World Championship Match (1907). However, he lost this match heavily by a score of +0 -8 =7. He suffered another disaster in Capablanca - Marshall (1909) (+1 -8 =14), but continued to be a dangerous and respected opponent in international play for many years. One of his best results came when he won the Havana tournament of 1913, edging out Capablanca by half a point.

Marshall won the US Championship by defeating Jackson Whipps Showalter in a 1909 match (+7 -2 =3). He defended the title once, against Edward Lasker in 1923 (+5 -4 =9), finally relinquishing it voluntarily in 1936 to allow the championship to be decided by tournament play.

Several opening variations are named after him, notably Ruy Lopez, Marshall (C89). Though his original use of it in Capablanca vs Marshall, 1918 resulted in a loss, the gambit is still studied today and played occasionally at the highest levels.

notes: Frank played consultation chess on the teams of Lasker/Chigorin/Marshall/Teichmann & Marshall / Allies.

 page 1 of 53; games 1-25 of 1,309  PGN Download
Game  ResultMoves Year Event/LocaleOpening
1. Steinitz vs Marshall 1-026 1893 SimulC03 French, Tarrasch
2. Pillsbury vs Marshall 0-129 1894 BFX MontrealC31 King's Gambit Declined, Falkbeer Counter Gambit
3. Marshall vs R Short 1-018 1894 ch Montreal CCC51 Evans Gambit
4. Pillsbury vs Marshall 0-134 1894 blind-simulD06 Queen's Gambit Declined
5. R Short vs Marshall 0-122 1895 freeC51 Evans Gambit
6. W Napier vs Marshall ½-½75 1896 Napier - MarshallC02 French, Advance
7. W Napier vs Marshall 1-068 1896 Napier - MarshallC00 French Defense
8. Marshall vs W Napier 0-177 1896 Napier - MarshallC55 Two Knights Defense
9. V Sournin vs Marshall  0-134 1896 New YorkA80 Dutch
10. Marshall vs W Napier 0-134 1896 Napier - MarshallC45 Scotch Game
11. W Napier vs Marshall 1-047 1896 Napier - MarshallB01 Scandinavian
12. Marshall vs W Napier  0-138 1896 Napier - MarshallA84 Dutch
13. W Napier vs Marshall 1-035 1896 Napier - MarshallB06 Robatsch
14. Marshall vs W Napier 0-123 1896 Napier - MarshallC29 Vienna Gambit
15. W Napier vs Marshall ½-½75 1896 Napier - MarshallC00 French Defense
16. Marshall vs W Napier  ½-½72 1896 Napier - MarshallC50 Giuoco Piano
17. Marshall vs W Napier 1-027 1896 Napier - MarshallD31 Queen's Gambit Declined
18. Marshall vs J Tatum 1-054 1897 Ch CityD53 Queen's Gambit Declined
19. H Helms vs Marshall 1-019 1897 Ch CityA80 Dutch
20. Marshall vs H Hansen  0-135 1897 freeC44 King's Pawn Game
21. Marshall vs S G Ruth 0-136 1897 Ch CityD63 Queen's Gambit Declined, Orthodox Defense
22. H Helms vs Marshall 1-034 1897 SimulD00 Queen's Pawn Game
23. Marshall vs W Napier  1-054 1897 Ch CityD01 Richter-Veresov Attack
24. W Napier vs Marshall 1-065 1897 Ch CityC02 French, Advance
25. Marshall vs W Napier 1-046 1897 Ch CityA80 Dutch
 page 1 of 53; games 1-25 of 1,309  PGN Download
  REFINE SEARCH:   White wins (1-0) | Black wins (0-1) | Draws (1/2-1/2) | Marshall wins | Marshall loses  

Kibitzer's Corner
< Earlier Kibitzing  · PAGE 11 OF 11 ·  Later Kibitzing>
Nov-24-13  RedShield: Frank(lin) James was a famous outlaw, so Marshall probably fashioned his <shoot from the hip> style on him.
Premium Chessgames Member
  Karpova: On October 23, 1911, Marshall played a consultation game in the Vienna Chess Club against Alois Seidl, A. Pink and M. Kirschen (the consultants had Black):

1.e4 e5 2.d4 d6 3.Nf3 Nd7 4.Bc4 c6 5.dxe5 dxe5 6.Ng5 Nh6 7.O-O Be7 8.Ne6 fxe6 9.Bxh6 Nf6 10.Bxg7 Qxd1 11.Rxd1 Rg8 12.Bxf6 Bxf6

click for larger view

Seidl had suggested 7...Be7 which has a bad reputation as a pawn is lost. Yet, after 9...Nf6, the Black bishop pair became so powerful, that Marshall not only went on to lose his extra pawn but drifted into a worse position. The game lasted several hours and as it had become late, a draw was agreed upon. The whole game score is not given.

Source: Page 14 of the January-February 1915'Wiener Schachzeitung'

Premium Chessgames Member
  Karpova: Simul in the Portland Chess and Checker Club on February 23, 1915: +77 -4 =11. The Simul lasted 6.5 hours.

Simul in San Francisco on March 1, 1915: +31 -8 =2.

Source: Page 107 of the May-June 1915 'Wiener Schachzeitung'

Premium Chessgames Member
  Karpova: 36-board Simul in the Vienna Amateur Chess Club in 1911: +21 -8 =7. He lost to Prof. Soyka, Onderka, Sara, Kondor, Dr. Blum, Leyer, Vranovits and Keschanski.

Source: Page 82 of the February-March 1912 'Wiener Schachzeitung'

Premium Chessgames Member
  Karpova: 23-board Simul in Györ on October 29, 1911: +21 -1 =1

On October 30, he played there (and won) two Blitz tournaments: against Zoltan von Balla, Chalupetzky, Dr. Ed. Farago and Eugen Szekely with 3 points (draws against von Balla and Chalupetzky).* Marshall was in brilliant form.

Source: Pages 335-336 of the November-December 1911 'Wiener Schachzeitung'

* The <3 Punkte> probably means +2 -0 =2, beating Farago and Szekely, drawing von Balla and Chalupetzky. As it is reported that he won two Blitz tournaments, maybe it were two 3-player tournaments with Marshall scoring 1.5/2 in each tournament?

Premium Chessgames Member
  Karpova: On October 23 and 24, 1911, Marshall was visiting the Vienna Chess Club.

On the first evening, he played a consultation game against Martin Kirschen, Alfred Pink and Alois Seidl. The game ended drawn after a very exciting struggle.

On the second evening, Marshall played a Simul against: Norbert Libano, Adam Ritter Zuk von Skarszewski, Dr. Karl Ritter von Lozinski, Dr. Siegmund Grünbaum, Eduard Hamlisch, Rudolf Galitzenstein, Albert Weil, Alfred Schifter, J Halumbirek, Wilhelm Ritter von Arlt, Dr. Siegmund Pollak, Alfred Neumann, Hans Feuerstein, Adalbert von Springer, Franz Balling, Erich Förster, Otto Sternberg, Siegmund Steiner, Alfred Pink, Artur Mandler and Theodor Gruber.

After 1 hour, Marshall had already won 8 games and he beat another 8 players in the next hour. The Simul lasted 2 1/4 hours overall and Marshall didn't suffer a single loss. 5 players managed draws: Libano, Hamlisch, Pollak, Pink and Gruber.

Source: Page 382 of the November-December 1911 'Wiener Schachzeitung'

Premium Chessgames Member
  offramp: Marshall had a fantastic way of getting 100% out of his attacking pieces. He truly left no stone unturned in trying to preserve his initiatives.
Apr-03-14  Conrad93: Alekhine did not play the first Alekhine Defense either.

It was played as early as 1893.

J M Hanham vs E Delmar, 1893

1. e4 Nf6 2. e5 first appeared in the game J M Hanham vs E Delmar, 1893.

And Vladimir Lenin pretty much invented the entire mainline to the Alekhine's Defense.

Who knew, right?

V I Lenin vs M Gorky, 1908

Apr-03-14  Conrad93: The Hanham Defense doesn't sound as inviting though...
May-08-14  ljfyffe: Steinitz-Marshall 1e4 e6 2d4 d5 3Nd2 Ne7 4Bd3 Nbc6 was played at the Heather Chess Club on Nov. 17, 1893. Steinitz-Marshall 1e4 e6 2d4 d5 3Nd2 Ne7 4Ngf3 Ng6 was played at the Montreal Chess Club on Nov. 13, 1893. Both Montreal simul games against Marshall were won by Steinitz.
May-09-14  ljfyffe: See:Young Marshall by John Hilbert.
May-17-14  ljfyffe: At the Montreal simul , Steinitz played against 16 opponents at the Montreal chess club; against 18 at the Heather Chess Club. In his book, Marshall states that the game he played at the Heather Club was his first recorded game. That game appeared in the Le Monde Illustre, Dec. 2, 1893 in an article that gives the impression this was their first meeting. This might explain why Marshall confused the two games if he were using the newspaper as a reference?
May-17-14  ljfyffe: Marshall's first published game appeared in the Montreal Gazette of Nov.14, 1893, played at the Montreall Chess Club.
Jun-05-14  ljfyffe: Hilbert errs on the date of Marshall's second game on p. 10 of Writings in Chess History 2012.
Jun-09-14  ljfyffe: Oddly, Goeller does list Marshall's Canadian crosstables.
Jun-09-14  ljfyffe: That should read does NOT list ...
Jun-10-14  ljfyffe: In the first Montreal chess club championship (1893), Marshall came third behind first place J.P. Cooke and second D.C. Robertson. He had 11 points out of a possible 18. In the 1894 Canadian Championship in Montreal, he came fifth behind 1st A.T. Davison, 2nd J.E. Narraway, 3rd /4th R.Short, D.C. Robertson. He had 7 points out of a possible 14.
Premium Chessgames Member
  offramp: One of the top 15 tournament players of all time!
(Not much of a match player, for some reason. Was it boredom?) He could beat anyone in the world when he was on form. Well done, Frankie!!
Premium Chessgames Member
  perfidious: By what reckoning is Marshall one of the top fifteen tournament players in history?
Jun-11-14  ljfyffe: As in sports, chessplayers are to be judged in context of the time they played. I don't know about 15, but he certainly is recognized as one of the chess greats. Like Fischer, he brought attention to the game.
Jun-27-14  ljfyffe: For Marshall-G.K. Powell (1916), see Simultanees de Marshall a Toronto by Larry Fyffe in Au Nom Au Roi p.92
Premium Chessgames Member
  wwall: But the Nov-Dec issue of American Chess Bulletin said that when they met after 23 years, at the Hotel Shelton in New York, neither one could remember whose move it was, so they did not finish the game started 23 years ago. Instead, they played three rapid transit games, Marshall winning two and drawing one.
Jul-12-14  IFNB: I'm curious what Marshall would rate if he were time warped into the present day.
Jul-12-14  RookFile: I think he's be about Nakamura's level. Just a notch below the top.
Jul-25-14  ljfyffe: Alas, time-wraping is science FICTION.
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