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Capablanca 
 
Jose Raul Capablanca
Number of games in database: 828
Years covered: 1893 to 1940
Overall record: +378 -47 =265 (74.0%)*
   * Overall winning percentage = (wins+draws/2) / total games
      Based on games in the database; may be incomplete.
      138 exhibition games, odds games, etc. are excluded from this statistic.

MOST PLAYED OPENINGS
With the White pieces:
 Ruy Lopez (72) 
    C66 C88 C83 C62 C64
 Orthodox Defense (58) 
    D63 D51 D52 D64 D61
 Queen's Gambit Declined (46) 
    D30 D31 D37 D38
 Queen's Pawn Game (32) 
    D02 D00 D04 D05 A50
 French Defense (28) 
    C12 C01 C11 C14 C00
 Four Knights (22) 
    C49 C48 C47
With the Black pieces:
 Orthodox Defense (52) 
    D67 D53 D64 D63 D51
 Ruy Lopez (45) 
    C66 C77 C73 C88 C72
 Queen's Pawn Game (37) 
    A46 D02 D00 D05 E10
 Nimzo Indian (18) 
    E24 E34 E23 E40 E37
 Queen's Indian (17) 
    E16 E12 E15 E18
 Slav (17) 
    D19 D17 D12 D15 D10
Repertoire Explorer

NOTABLE GAMES: [what is this?]
   Capablanca vs Tartakower, 1924 1-0
   Capablanca vs Marshall, 1918 1-0
   O Bernstein vs Capablanca, 1914 0-1
   Nimzowitsch vs Capablanca, 1927 0-1
   Lasker vs Capablanca, 1921 0-1
   Capablanca vs K Treybal, 1929 1-0
   Capablanca vs M Fonaroff, 1918 1-0
   Capablanca vs J Corzo, 1901 1-0
   Capablanca vs NN, 1918 1-0
   Janowski vs Capablanca, 1916 0-1

WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS: [what is this?]
   Lasker - Capablanca World Championship Match (1921)
   Capablanca - Alekhine World Championship Match (1927)

NOTABLE TOURNAMENTS: [what is this?]
   American National (1913)
   New York Masters (1915)
   Capablanca - Marshall (1909)
   New York (1918)
   Hastings (1919)
   Rice Memorial (1916)
   London (1922)
   Budapest (1929)
   New York (1927)
   New York Masters (1911)
   Havana (1913)
   St Petersburg (1914)
   New York (1924)
   Karlsbad (1929)
   Moscow (1925)

GAME COLLECTIONS: [what is this?]
   Capablanca! by chocobonbon
   Match Capablanca! by amadeus
   Jose Raul Capablanca's Best Games by KingG
   Delicatessen by Gottschalk
   "The Immortal Games of Capablanca" by Reinfeld by mjk
   capablanca best games by brager
   Capablanca´s Official Games (1901-1939) Part I by capablancakarpov
   Capablanca's Best Chess Endings by refutor
   Capablanca's Best Chess Endings (Irving Chernev) by nightgaunts
   Chess World Champion Nr. 3: Capablanca by Olanovich
   Capablanca vs the World Champions Decisive Games by visayanbraindoctor
   Guess-the-Move Chess: 1920-1939 (Part 2) by Anatoly21
   Ruylopez's favorite games by Ruylopez
   On the shoulders of giants by ughaibu

GAMES ANNOTATED BY CAPABLANCA: [what is this?]
   Lasker vs Capablanca, 1921
   Lasker vs Schlechter, 1910
   Capablanca vs Lasker, 1921
   Capablanca vs Lasker, 1921
   Nimzowitsch vs Capablanca, 1913
   >> 27 GAMES ANNOTATED BY CAPABLANCA

Search Sacrifice Explorer for Jose Raul Capablanca
Search Google for Jose Raul Capablanca


JOSE RAUL CAPABLANCA
(born Nov-19-1888, died Mar-08-1942, 53 years old) Cuba

[what is this?]
José Raúl Capablanca y Graupera was the third World Champion, reigning from 1921 until 1927. Renowned for the simplicity of his play, his legendary endgame prowess, accuracy, and the speed of his play, he earned the nickname of the "Human Chess Machine".

Background

Capablanca, the second son of a Spanish Army officer, was born in Havana. He learned to play at an early age by watching his father and defeated Cuban Champion Juan Corzo in an informal match in 1901 by 6.5-5.5 (+4 −3 =5), turning 13 years of age during the match. Despite this and despite taking 4th place in the first Cuban Championship in 1902, he did not focus on chess until 1908 when he left Columbia University where he had enrolled to study chemical engineering and play baseball. He did, however, join the Manhattan Chess Club in 1905, soon establishing his dominance in rapid chess. He won a rapid chess tournament in 1906 ahead of the World Champion Emanuel Lasker, and played many informal games against him. Within a year or two of dropping out of university and after playing simultaneous exhibitions in dozens of US cities, winning over 95% of his games, Capablanca had established himself as one of the top players in the world, especially after the Capablanca - Marshall (1909) New York match exhibition win 15-8 (+8 -1 =14).

Tournaments

Capablanca won the 1910 New York State Championship by defeating co-leader Charles Jaffe in a tiebreaker match. In 1911, he placed second in the National Tournament in New York, with 9½ out of 12, half a point behind Marshall, and half a point ahead of Jaffe and Oscar Chajes. There followed Capablanca’s ground breaking win at San Sebastian (1911) with 9.5/14 (+6 -1 =7), ahead of Akiba Rubinstein and Milan Vidmar on 9, Marshall on 8.5, and other luminaries such as Carl Schlechter , Siegbert Tarrasch and Ossip Bernstein. Before the tournament, Aron Nimzowitsch protested the unknown Capablanca’s involvement in the event, but the latter demonstrated his credentials by defeating Nimzowitsch in in their game. Winning at San Sebastian was only the second time a player had won a major tournament at his first attempt since Harry Nelson Pillsbury ’s triumph at Hastings in 1895, and it provided a powerful boost to his credibility to challenge for the world title. He did so, but the match did not take place for another 10 years.

In early 1913, Capablanca won a tournament in New York with 11/13 (+10 -1 =2), half a point ahead of Marshall. Capablanca then finished second with 10/14 (+8 -2 =4), a half point behind Marshall in Havana, losing one of their individual games, rumour having it that he asked the mayor to clear the room so that no-one would see him resign. Returning to New York, Capablanca won all thirteen games at the New York tournament of 1913, played at the Rice Chess Club. 1914 saw the <"tournament of champions"> played at St. Petersburg. Capablanca, with 13/18 (+10 -2 =6), came second behind Lasker and well ahead of Alexander Alekhine on 10, Tarrasch on 8.5 and Marshall on 8.

After the outbreak of World War I, Capablanca stayed in New York and won tournaments held there in 1915 (13/14 (+12 -0 =2)), 1916 (14/17 (+12 -1 =4)) and 1918 (10.5/12 (+9 =3)). During the New York 1918 tournament, Marshall played his prepared Marshall Attack of the Ruy Lopez* against Capablanca, but Capablanca worked his way through the complications and won. Soon after the war, Capablanca crossed the Atlantic to decisively win the Hastings Victory tournament 1919 with 10.5/11, a point ahead of Borislav Kostic.

Capablanca did not play another tournament until 1922, the year after he won the title from Lasker. During his reign, he won London 1922 with 13/15 (no losses), 1.5 points ahead of Alekhine; placed second behind Lasker at New York 1924 (suffering his first loss in eight years – to Richard Reti – since his 1916 lost to Oscar Chajes); placed 3rd at Moscow in 1925 behind Efim Bogoljubov and Lasker respectively with +9 =9 -2; won at Lake Hopatcong (New York) 1926 with 6/8 (+4 =4), a point ahead of Abraham Kupchik; and won at New York in 1927 with 14/20 (+10 -1 =9), 2.5 points clear of Alekhine, his last tournament before his title match with Alekhine. During the latter tournament, Capablanca, Alekhine, Rudolf Spielmann, Milan Vidmar, Nimzowitsch and Marshall played a quadruple round robin, wherein Capablanca finished undefeated, winning the mini-matches with each of his rivals, 2½ points ahead of second-placed Alekhine, and won the "best game" prize for a win over Spielmann. This result, plus the fact that Alekhine had never defeated him in a game, made him a strong favourite to retain his title in the upcoming match against Alekhine. However, Alekhine's superior preparation prevailed against Capablanca's native talent.

After losing the title, Capablanca settled in Paris and engaged in a flurry of tournament competition aimed at improving his chances for a rematch with Alekhine. However the latter dodged him, refusing to finalise negotiations for a rematch, boycotting events that included Capablanca, and insisting that Capablanca not be invited to tournaments in which he participated. In 1928, Capablanca won at Budapest with 7/9 (+5 =4), a point ahead of Marshall, and at Berlin with 8.5/12 (+5 =7), 1.5 points ahead of Nimzowitsch; he also came second at Bad Kissingen with 7/11 (+4 -1 =6), after Bogoljubov. In 1929, Capablanca won at Ramsgate with 5.5/7 (+4 =3) ahead of Vera Menchik and Rubinstein, at Budapest with 10.5/13 (+8 =5), and at Barcelona with 13.5/14, two points clear of Savielly Tartakower; he also came equal second with Spielmann and behind Nimzowitsch at Carlsbad with 14.5/21 (+10 -2 =9). He won at the 1929-30 Hastings tournament and came second at Hastings in 1930-31, behind Max Euwe, his only loss being to Mir Sultan Khan. Several months later he won New York for the last time, this time with a score of 10/11 (+9 =2) ahead of Isaac Kashdan.

Perhaps discouraged by his inability to secure a rematch with Alekhine, there followed a hiatus for over three years before he reentered the fray with a fourth placing at Hastings in 1934-35 with 5.5/9 (+4 -2 =3), behind Sir George Alan Thomas, Euwe and Salomon Flohr but ahead of Mikhail Botvinnik and Andre Lilienthal. In 1935, he secured 4th place in Moscow with 12/19 (+7 -2 =10), a point behind Botvinnik and Flohr, and a half point behind the evergreen Lasker. Also in 1935, he came second at Margate with 7/9 (+6 -1 =2), half a point behind Samuel Reshevsky. 1936 was a very successful year, coming 2nd at Margate with 7/9 (+5 =4), a half point behind Flohr, but then he moved up a gear to take Moscow with 13/18 (+8 =10), a point ahead of Botvinnik who in turn was 2.5 points ahead of Flohr, and then came =1st with Botvinnik at the famous Nottingham tournament, with 10/14 (+7 -1 =6) ahead of Euwe, Reuben Fine and Reshevsky on 9.5, and Flohr and Lasker on 8.5. These latter two results were the only tournaments in which he finished ahead of Lasker, which enhanced his chances of challenging for the title, but a challenge to World Champion Euwe was out of the question until after the Euwe - Alekhine World Championship Rematch (1937) , which was won by Alekhine. In 1937, Capablanca came =3rd with Reshevsky at Semmering with 7.5/14 (+2 -1 =11) behind Paul Keres and Fine and in 1938 he won the Paris tournament with 8/10 (+6 =4) ahead of Nicolas Rossolimo. The worst result of his career occurred at the AVRO tournament which was played in several cities in the Netherlands in 1938, placing 7th out of 8 players with 6/14 (+2 -4 =8), the only time he ever had a negative score in a tournament. His health in this tournament was fragile as he had suffered severe hypertension, which affected his concentration towards the end of his games; he may have also suffered a slight stroke halfway through the tournament. Traveling between the numerous cities in which the tournament was played was also hard on the ageing master. In 1939 he played his last tournament at Margate, placing =2nd with Flohr on 6.5/9 (+4 =5) a point behind Keres. Shortly afterwards, he finished his playing career – albeit unknowingly - in a blaze of glory by winning gold with +7 =9 on board one for Cuba at the 8th Olympiad in Buenos Aires.

Matches

In addition to the informal match against Corzo in 1901 and the exhibition match against Marshall in 1909 (see above), Capablanca played a three game match against Charles Jaffe in New York in 1912, winning two and drawing one, and won the first game of a match against Chajes before the latter withdrew from the match. In 1914, he defeated Ossip Bernstein 1.5-0.5, Tartakower by 1.5-0.5 and Andre Aurbach by 2-0. On his way to the 1914 tournament in St Petersburg, he played two-game matches against Richard Teichmann and Jacques Mieses in Berlin, winning all his games. Once he reached Saint Petersburg, he played similar matches against Alexander Alekhine, Eugene Aleksandrovich Znosko-Borovsky and Fyodor Ivanovich Dus Chotimirsky, losing one game to Znosko-Borovsky and winning the rest. In 1919, Capablanca accepted a challenge to a match from Borislav Kostić who had come second at New York in 1918 without dropping a game. The match was to go to the first player to win eight games, but Kostić resigned the match, played in Havana, after losing five straight games. In late 1931, just before his temporary retirement from top level chess, Capablanca also won a match (+2 −0 =8) against Euwe.

World Championship

Capablanca’s win at San Sebastian in 1911 provided the results and the impetus for Capablanca to negotiate with Lasker for a title match, but some of Lasker’s conditions were unacceptable to Capablanca, especially one requiring the challenger to win by two points to take the title, while the advent of World War I delayed the match. In 1920, Lasker and Capablanca agreed to play the title match in 1921, but a few months later, former was ready to surrender the title without a contest, saying, "You have earned the title not by the formality of a challenge, but by your brilliant mastery." A significant stake ($25,000, $13,000 guaranteed to Lasker) was raised that induced Lasker to play in Havana where Capablanca won the Lasker - Capablanca World Championship Match (1921) - without losing a game - after Lasker resigned from the match when trailing by 4 games, the first time a World Champion had lost his title without winning a game until the victory by Vladimir Kramnik in the Kasparov - Kramnik World Championship Match (2000). From 1921 to 1923, Alekhine, Rubinstein and Nimzowitsch all challenged Capablanca, but only Alekhine could raise the money stipulated in the so-called “London Rules”, which these players had signed in 1921. A group of Argentinean businessmen, backed by a guarantee from the president of Argentina, promised the funds for a World Championship match between Capablanca and Alekhine, and once the deadline for Nimzowitsch to lodge a deposit for a title match had passed, the title match was agreed to, beginning in September 1927. Capablanca lost the Capablanca - Alekhine World Championship Match (1927) at Buenos Aires in 1927 by +3 -6 =25 in the longest title match ever, until it was surpassed by the legendary Karpov - Kasparov World Championship Match (1984). The match lasted over ten weeks, taking place behind closed doors, thus precluding spectators and photographers. All but two of the 34 games opened with the Queen's Gambit Declined. Before Capablanca and Alekhine left Buenos Aires after the match, they agreed in principle to stage a rematch, with Alekhine essentially sticking with the conditions initially imposed by Capablanca. Despite on-again off-again negotiations over the next 13 years, the rematch never materialised, with Alekhine playing two title matches each against Bogolyubov and Euwe in the subsequent decade. While Capablanca and Alekhine were both representing their countries at the Buenos Aires Olympiad in 1939, an attempt was made by Augusto de Muro, the President of the Argentine Chess Federation, to arrange a World Championship match between the two. Alekhine declined, saying he was obliged to be available to defend his adopted homeland, France, as World War II had just broken out. A couple of days prior to this, Capablanca had declined to play when his Cuban team played France, headed by Alekhine, in the Olympiad.

Simultaneous exhibitions

Capablanca’s legendary speed of play lent itself to the rigours of simultaneous play, and he achieved great success in his exhibitions. From December 1908 through February 1909, Capablanca toured the USA and in 10 exhibitions he won 168 games in a row before losing a game in Minneapolis; his final tally for that tour was 734 games, winning 96.7% (+703 =19 -12). In March and April 1911, Capablanca toured Europe for the first time, giving exhibitions in France and Germany scoring +234=33-19. Once completed, he proceeded to San Sebastian and his historic victory before again touring Europe via its cities of Rotterdam, Liden, Middleburg, Hauge, Amsterdam, Copenhagen, Hamburg, Berlin, Breslau, Allenstein, Prague, Budapest, Vienna, Stuttgart, Mannheim, Frankfurt, Paris, London and Birmingham at the end of which his tally was +532=66-54. After he received his job as a roving ambassador-at-large from the Cuban Foreign Office, Capablanca played a series of simuls in London, Paris, Berlin, Warsaw, Riga, Moscow, Kiev, and Vienna on his way to St Petersburg in 1914, tallying +769=91-86. In 1922, Capablanca gave a simultaneous exhibition in Cleveland against 103 opponents, the largest in history up to that time, winning 102 and drawing one – setting a record for the best winning percentage ever – 99.5% - in a large simultaneous exhibition. In 1925 Capablanca gave a simultaneous exhibition in Leningrad and won every game but one, a loss against 12 year old Mikhail Botvinnik, whom he predicted would one day be champion. Capablanca still holds the record for the most games ever completed in simultaneous exhibitions, playing and completing 13545 games between 1901-1940.**

Legacy, testimonials and life

Soon after gaining the title, Capablanca married Gloria Simoni Betancourt in Havana. They had a son, José Raúl Jr., in 1923 and a daughter, Gloria, in 1925. His father died in 1923 and mother in 1926. In 1937 he divorced Gloria and in 1938 married Olga Chagodayev, a Russian princess.

Capablanca's famous “invincible” streak extended from February 10, 1916, when he lost to Oscar Chajes in the New York 1916 tournament, to March 21, 1924, when he lost to Richard Réti in the New York International tournament. During this time he played 63 games, winning 40 and drawing 23, including his successful title match against Lasker. Between 1914 and his World Championship match against Alekhine, Capablanca had only lost four games of the 158 match and tournament games he had played. In match, team match, and tournament play from 1909 to 1939 he scored +318=249-34. Only Spielmann held his own (+2 −2 =8) against Capablanca, apart from Keres who had a narrow plus score against him (+1 −0 =5) due to his win at the AVRO 1938 tournament, during which the ailing Capablanca turned 50, while Keres was 22.

Capablanca played himself in Chess Fever http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0015673/, a short film shot by V. Pudovkin at the 1925 Moscow tournament. The film can be seen at http://video.google.com/videoplay?d....

On 7 March 1942, Capablanca collapsed at the Manhattan Chess Club and he was taken to Mount Sinai Hospital, where he died the next morning from "a cerebral haemorrhage provoked by hypertension". Emanuel Lasker had died in the same hospital the year before. Capablanca's body was given a public funeral in Havana's Colón Cemetery a week later, with President Batista taking personal charge of the funeral arrangements.

Capablanca proposed a new chess variant, played on a 10x10 board or a 10x8 board. He introduced two new pieces. The chancellor had the combined moves of a rook and knight (the piece could move like a rook or a knight). The other piece was the archbishop that had the combined moves of a bishop and knight.

Capablanca‘s style also heavily influenced the styles of later World Champions Botvinnik, Robert James Fischer and Anatoly Karpov. Botvinnik observed that Alekhine had received much schooling from Capablanca in positional play, before their fight for the world title made them bitter enemies. While not a theoretician as such, he wrote several books including A Primer of Chess, Chess Fundamentals and My Chess Career.

Alekhine: <…Capablanca was snatched from the chess world much too soon. With his death, we have lost a very great chess genius whose like we shall never see again.>

Lasker: <I have known many chess players, but only one chess genius: Capablanca.>

Notes

Capablanca occasionally played consultation on the team consisting of Reti / Capablanca.

Sources:

Bill Wall's Chess Master Profiles - http://www.geocities.com/siliconval...; Edward Winter's article A Question of Credibiity: http://www.chesshistory.com/winter/...; Chess Corner's article on Capablanca: http://www.chesscorner.com/worldcha... and <kingcrusher>'s online article at http://www.gtryfon.demon.co.uk/bcc/.... A list of books about Capablanca can be found at http://www.chesshistory.com/winter/....

* Ruy Lopez, Marshall (C89) ** http://www.fide.com/component/conte...

Wikipedia article: José Raúl Capablanca


 page 1 of 34; games 1-25 of 829  PGN Download
Game  ResultMoves Year Event/LocaleOpening
1. R Iglesias vs Capablanca 0-138 1893 Odds game000 Chess variants
2. J Corzo vs Capablanca ½-½40 1901 Capablanca - CorzoC67 Ruy Lopez
3. Capablanca vs J Corzo 0-160 1901 Havana casualC45 Scotch Game
4. Capablanca vs E Corzo 0-130 1901 Havana casualC40 King's Knight Opening
5. J A Blanco vs Capablanca 0-177 1901 Habana (Cuba)C55 Two Knights Defense
6. Capablanca vs M Sterling  1-030 1901 HavanaC01 French, Exchange
7. J Corzo vs Capablanca ½-½20 1901 Capablanca - CorzoC25 Vienna
8. Capablanca vs J Corzo ½-½61 1901 Capablanca - CorzoA80 Dutch
9. A Fiol vs Capablanca 0-136 1901 Habana (Cuba)C55 Two Knights Defense
10. M Sterling vs Capablanca  ½-½50 1901 HavanaC77 Ruy Lopez
11. Capablanca vs J Corzo 1-059 1901 Capablanca - CorzoA83 Dutch, Staunton Gambit
12. Capablanca vs J Corzo ½-½49 1901 Capablanca - CorzoD00 Queen's Pawn Game
13. Capablanca vs E Corzo 1-042 1901 Havana casualC40 King's Knight Opening
14. J Corzo vs Capablanca 1-027 1901 Capablanca - CorzoC52 Evans Gambit
15. J Corzo vs Capablanca 0-168 1901 Capablanca - CorzoC49 Four Knights
16. Capablanca vs J Corzo ½-½28 1901 Capablanca - CorzoA83 Dutch, Staunton Gambit
17. J Corzo vs Capablanca ½-½41 1901 Capablanca - CorzoC42 Petrov Defense
18. Capablanca vs J Corzo 1-060 1901 Capablanca - CorzoD02 Queen's Pawn Game
19. A Ettlinger vs Capablanca 0-153 1901 Havana casualC45 Scotch Game
20. Capablanca vs J Corzo 0-146 1901 Capablanca - CorzoA80 Dutch
21. J Corzo vs Capablanca 0-126 1901 Capablanca - CorzoC25 Vienna
22. J Corzo vs Capablanca 1-041 1901 Havana casualB01 Scandinavian
23. Capablanca vs J Corzo 0-129 1901 Capablanca - CorzoC47 Four Knights
24. E Corzo vs Capablanca 0-137 1902 Havana,C39 King's Gambit Accepted
25. E Corzo vs Capablanca 0-136 1902 Havana casualC10 French
 page 1 of 34; games 1-25 of 829  PGN Download
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Kibitzer's Corner
< Earlier Kibitzing  · PAGE 239 OF 239 ·  Later Kibitzing>
Nov-19-14
Premium Chessgames Member
  visayanbraindoctor: <maxi: but my understanding and analysis of today's chess so superficial I really cannot say much about today's players..>

My impression of you is just the opposite.

It may sound peculiar but the player that IMO most closely resembles Capablanca is Fischer. Both were very good at exploiting the most minute of positional weaknesses, and at the same time rarely ever missed tactical shots in their prime. Both also seemed to like working according to some plan or purpose, and not just improving their positions. Unfortunately for Capa, he was the polar opposite of Fischer when it came to studying chess.

Nov-19-14  RookFile: The New York Times had an article, December 7, 1933. It said:

Capablanca First in Chess Tourney

Ex-World Champion Sweeps 9 matches in Rapid Transit Event at Marshall Club

Long Retirement Ends

Fine, Hanauer, Reshevsky Tie for Second Honors

---

The standings were:

Capablanca 9-0; Fine 7-2, Hanauer 7-2 and Reshevsky 7-2; Chernev 4-5; Hamermesh 4-5; Dunst 2-7, Hammer 2-7 and Simon 2-7; Sack 1-8.

Nov-19-14
Premium Chessgames Member
  visayanbraindoctor: <Sally Simpson: Hi visayanbraindoctor,

The sturdy clocks in wooden boxes you see in pre 1960 pictures....

Totally hopless for 5 minute. The inside mechanics could not stand it, no wonder, they were not designed for it.

The club has 10-15 of these in a cupboard all alas broken in the 70's when the club threw open it's doors to promising youngsters following the Fischer boom.

The club ban on 5 minute chess using the clubs clocks came in too late. The Sutton Coldfield clocks lasted much longer. I sent away for and eventually recieved a Russian clock that stood up to rigours of blitz chess very well.

The first tilting clocks were on a cast iron frame using gravity to stop the clock. Try playing a 5 minute with that thing.>

That's mighty interesting. Thanks for the info. Those old pictures sure fooled me.

Nov-19-14  RookFile: Is the term "blitz" chess a by-product of World War 2? We know that it was called "rapid transit" before (allowing for differences such as 10 seconds per move). In the war, Germany ran over Poland's defenses (blitzkrieg) in a matter of days. I think it was then that blitzkrieg became a well known word to English speakers. Was it then that we started hearing about "blitz" chess.

If I could talk to one of the older GMs today (Bisguier, etc.), I would ask him questions like this. They know the answers to these things off the top of their heads, but haven't taken the time to write this stuff down.

Nov-19-14  capafischer1: Bobby Fischer's exact quote was. Capablanca was possibly the greatest talent in the entire history of chess. He played simple openings. Sound principles, nothing too fancy. But in his best years,He was untouchable in the middlegame and endgame. I have seen so many amazing king hunts and tactical games of his that you think morphy or tal is playing it. What i love about him is that he had a life outside of chess. He WAS NOT a CHESS NERD. Handsome, articulate and always dressed sharp. A real playboy of those times. Chess did not consume him yet he was the world champion and only lost under 40 serious games in his lifetime against top opposition. I believe he has one of the highest and best win loss draw ratios in history. Studying his games esclusively in the beginning i was able to defeat 32 experts and 4 masters. Of course i have an IQ in the top 3 percent of the worlds population. So that helped greatly. My all time favorite chess players in no particular order are Capablanca,Fischer,The great Morphy, Anatoly Karpov,Tal,Stein,Alekhine,Kramnik,Kasparov,Carau- na and Carlsen.
Nov-19-14  unferth: I own one of these in working condition & can guarantee that it would never have stood up to anything approaching a modern blitz beating:

http://www.chessantiques.com/antiqu...

Nov-19-14
Premium Chessgames Member
  keypusher: <unferth> Beautiful. Of course, my avatar calls my objectivity into question.

<Sally Simpson> <You made your move and tilted the clock towards you. This action stopped your clock and started your opponents.>

Courtesy of lossmaster:

http://collections.banq.qc.ca/bitst...

Courtesy of Calli:

https://plus.google.com/photos/1089...

Nov-19-14  aliejin: I am a true fan of Alekhine ....
Alekhine games form a collection
unbeatably attractive .....
But there is no doubt ... Capablanca was the greatest chess player of history. The level of the Cuban in 1921, when he was fully concentrated on chess ..... was the highest point.
My only doubt is fischer period 1970 to 1972 ...
Nov-19-14  unferth: <RookFile: Is the term "blitz" chess a by-product of World War 2? We know that it was called "rapid transit" before (allowing for differences such as 10 seconds per move). In the war, Germany ran over Poland's defenses (blitzkrieg) in a matter of days. I think it was then that blitzkrieg became a well known word to English speakers. Was it then that we started hearing about "blitz" chess.>

the Oxford English Dictionary has the first use of "blitz" in printed English in 1939, so that seems plausible--but of course "blitz" is simply German for "lightning," so maybe in a chess context it was an earlier direct transference a la "luft" & "zugzwang." anyone know if blitz chess is "blitz" in German, or do they use another word?

Nov-19-14  ndg2: Yes, blitz chess is simply "Blitz" in German. Blitz tournment is "Blitzturnier" and playing blitz chess is "blitzen".
Nov-19-14  MissScarlett: <Photograph caption: ‘Isaac Kashdan and Samuel J. [sic] Reshevsky (right), co-holders of the US Chess Championship, give a blitz preview of their forthcoming title match as they meet in the third round of the Rapid Chess Tournament.’ Chess Review, June-July 1942, page 135.

‘They played skittles, tournament, rapid transit, blitz and simultaneous chess.’ Chess Review, August-September 1942, page 155.>

http://www.chesshistory.com/winter/...

Nov-19-14  ssez222: Greatest, cleanest, most precise chess player of all time
Nov-19-14
Premium Chessgames Member
  TheFocus: <ssez222> <Greatest, cleanest, most precise chess player of all time.>

Greatest and most precise I can agree with, but I refuse to judge him on his bathing habits and hygiene.

Nov-19-14  unferth: <MissScarlett> Interesting. Winter's note says, "The present list comprises, for the most part, the earliest citations given in the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), although some additional headwords and other complementary material are included. Regular additions will be made, and an end-note explains how readers can help improve the list." The "Chess Review" quote is not in the OED, though; I wonder where he found it. If someone actually pored over all the pre-1942 issues without turning up a "blitz" reference, it would argue strongly for RookFile's supposition that the term entered the English chess lexicon via general WWII usage.
Nov-19-14
Premium Chessgames Member
  visayanbraindoctor: <RookFile: Is the term "blitz" chess a by-product of World War 2? We know that it was called "rapid transit" before (allowing for differences such as 10 seconds per move). In the war, Germany ran over Poland's defenses (blitzkrieg) in a matter of days. I think it was then that blitzkrieg became a well known word to English speakers. Was it then that we started hearing about "blitz" chess.

If I could talk to one of the older GMs today (Bisguier, etc.), I would ask him questions like this. They know the answers to these things off the top of their heads, but haven't taken the time to write this stuff down.>

I sure woould appreciate it if you would eventually post what GM Bisguier has to say about it.

<MissScarlett: <Photograph caption: ‘Isaac Kashdan and Samuel J. [sic] Reshevsky (right), co-holders of the US Chess Championship, give a blitz preview of their forthcoming title match as they meet in the third round of the Rapid Chess Tournament.’ Chess Review, June-July 1942, page 135.

‘They played skittles, tournament, rapid transit, blitz and simultaneous chess.’ Chess Review, August-September 1942, page 155.>>

This is a 1942 publication and it uses the word 'blitz' matter of factly. Although it probably may have meant 10 seconds per move at that time.

Nov-19-14  RookFile: I won't be seeing Mr. Bisguier or anybody else soon. Haven't played tournament chess in some time.
Nov-20-14  The Rocket: <Greatest, cleanest, most precise chess player of all time> Capablanca had a tendency to blunder at times, after losing the crown in 1927...
Nov-20-14
Premium Chessgames Member
  visayanbraindoctor: <RookFile: The New York Times had an article, December 7, 1933. It said:

Capablanca First in Chess Tourney

Ex-World Champion Sweeps 9 matches in Rapid Transit Event at Marshall Club

Long Retirement Ends

Fine, Hanauer, Reshevsky Tie for Second Honors

---

The standings were:

Capablanca 9-0; Fine 7-2, Hanauer 7-2 and Reshevsky 7-2; Chernev 4-5; Hamermesh 4-5; Dunst 2-7, Hammer 2-7 and Simon 2-7; Sack 1-8.>

Was this played at blitz pace, 10 seconds per move?

Nov-20-14
Premium Chessgames Member
  Sally Simpson: Got this yesterday from a very experinced player.

It touches on when 5 minute chess became popular. It does seem (in the UK anyway) when the price of chess clocks came down 5 minute chess took off.

Also a rapid transit tournament was held in the Manhattan Club every friday.

----

"A popular form of chess used to be 'Lightning'. That is you had to move every 10 seconds on the buzzer, or when a gong was banged, or the 'arbiter' said move. That was because clocks were expensive.

The British team and individual Lightning started in 1954 and died in 1992.

As clocks became more common, so did five minute chess. We certainly played a lot of it in Islington in the 1960s. Conditions would have varied around the UK.

My memory is clearer about New York 1963-5. Every Friday Manhattan Club had a 'rapid transit' tournament. That is the same as 10 second chess. But a great deal of 5 minute chess was played for money elsewhere.

Playing blitz at the club was frowned upon because of the expected damage to the clocks. Nonetheless, I played some of my 5 minute games against Fischer at the club. "

----

And this link.

http://www.northcircularchess.co.uk...

Gives information about a 5 minute tournament started in the UK in the 60's.

--------

Hope this helps.

Nov-20-14
Premium Chessgames Member
  maxi: Good post, <Sally Simpson>. It confirms what many of the previous posts have said, but this is from a direct source.

In the web I have seen pics of English tournaments from the turn of the twentieth century and you can see the chess clocks. Of course that does not mean that they used the clocks for blitz.

Nov-20-14
Premium Chessgames Member
  maxi: However, Capa was quickly considered both in Cuba and the US a very special player. It could be that he was granted access to chess clocks for use in blitz.
Nov-20-14
Premium Chessgames Member
  maxi: Changing the subject, the NYTimes closed its Sunday chess column. Do they perceive chess as being out of fashion?
Nov-21-14
Premium Chessgames Member
  perfidious: The Times consider themselves, after all, supreme arbiter of what is fit to exist within their purview.
Nov-21-14
Premium Chessgames Member
  TheFocus: <maxi> <However, Capa was quickly considered both in Cuba and the US a very special player. It could be that he was granted access to chess clocks for use in blitz.>

Clocks in those days were not able to count down SECONDS like clocks today.

There were no special blitz clocks.

Nov-21-14  Petrosianic: <There were no special blitz clocks.>

Not even for really special players?

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